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The BurmaNet News, April 9, 1997

------------------------ BurmaNet ------------------------  
"Appropriate Information Technologies, Practical Strategies"  
The BurmaNet News: April 9, 1997  
Issue #689


April 8, 1997

RANGOON, Burma (Reuter) - A parcel bomb that exploded at the home of one of
Burma's top generals, killing his daughter, was sent by a Japan-based
anti-government group, the military government said Tuesday.

"Initial investigation revealed that the terrorist bomb that exploded at
Lieutenant-General Tin Oo's residence on the evening of 6 April 1997 was
airmailed from Japan," said a statement received by Reuters late Tuesday.

"There are reasons to believe that the bomb plot was masterminded by some
anti-Myanmar (Burma) government groups within Japan which have resorted to
acts of terrorism."

It gave no further details.

There are several groups of exiles living in Japan, as well as in other
Asian countries like Thailand and India.

Rangoon residents reacted with shock and fear Tuesday to news that the bomb
had exploded at Tin Oo's house, killing his 34-year-old daughter, Cho Lei Oo.

The funeral for Cho Lei Oo, a mother of two and Tin Oo's eldest daughter,
was held Tuesday afternoon.

"I never imagined that our country would be so unsafe," said one old man
after hearing about the attack.

Others said they were worried about their own safety.

The attack comes on the heels of nationwide religious unrest and 3 1/2
months after another deadly explosion at a Buddhist shrine in the outskirts
of Rangoon on December 25.

The military government blamed the Karen National Union (KNU) ethnic
guerrilla group for that attack, in which two bombs exploded, killing five
people and wounding 17.

Tin Oo, one of the four most powerful members of the ruling State Law and
Order Restoration Council (SLORC), was the last senior official to visit the
sacred Tooth Relic Pagoda before the explosion on Christmas Day.

He is one of the hardliners in the SLORC, and often gives speeches urging
troops and citizens to "annihilate" anyone who tries to disturb the
stability of the state.

Some diplomats said Tin Oo, who is army chief of staff and whose government
title is Secretary Two of the SLORC, might have been injured in the Sunday
night attack. Others said they had heard he was not hurt.

But many residents noticed he did not appear on television Monday night at
ceremonies he usually attended.


April 8, 1997

No. A-0032
date. 8-4-97

                Initial investigation revealed that the terrorist bomb that 
exploded  at  Lt.Gen Tin Oo?s residence on the evening of the 
6th of April 1997 was airmailed from Japan. According to the 
information received from the on going investigation there are 
reasons to believe that the bomb plot was masterminded by 
some anti-Myanmar government groups within Japan which have 
resorted to act of terrorism.


April 8, 1997

815 Fifteenth Street, NW, Suite 910 Washington, DC 20005 
Fax: (202)393-7343 Tel:(202)393-7342 (202)393-4312

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma has
learned of the April 6 bomb explosion at the residence of Lieutenant
General Tin Oo, which resulted in the death of a family member.  

The NCGUB, a firm believer in peaceful, nonviolent struggle for democracy
and human rights, does not condone or encourage any form of terrorism. It
has been a strong advocate and supporter of the call for dialogue for
national reconciliation by Nobel Peace Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and her
party, the National League for Democracy.  

The NCGUB condemns the bomb explosion on April 6, which follows the 
December bomb blast at Kaba-Aye Pagoda, the target of which apparently 
was also Lt. Gen. Tin Oo.  Both the bombs could only have been planted 
by persons with high-security clearance.  The explosions are quite 
obviously the result of a power struggle within the SLORC.  

The NCGUB wishes to remind SLORC military factions that the people of 
Burma have always been known for their tolerance and peaceful nature.  
Personal and political ambition should not be the basis to violate this 
time-honored tradition.  They should not forget that even though they 
may eliminate their military rivals, violence will not guarantee them 
power or resolve political problems that Burma faces today.  Only 
dialogue for national reconciliation can guarantee a peaceful 
transition toward progress, prosperity and long-lasting peace in the 

The military has only to blame itself for the latest bomb blast because 
it only understands the language of violence and brute force.  
Thousands of innocent people have lost their lives, personal freedom, 
homes, and property since 1962. Many still languish in "hell hole" 
detention centers 1963. and prisons today. Even though the April 6 
explosion may have been meant for a tyrant responsible for these 
injustices, the NCGUB strongly condemns the violence and regrets the 
loss of life it has brought about. 


April 9, 1997
[Unofficial translation received by BurmaNet from a reliable source]

1. Do not use the word ?refugee? with Karens who enter the country but use
?displaced person from fighting? or ?Myanman-Karen displaced person from

2. The status of a displaced person from fighting is that of an illegal
entrant, not that of a refugee.

3. Do not use the term ?refugee camp? to refer to areas in which
Myanmar-Karen displaced persons from fighting stay but use the terms
?shelter accomodating displaced person from fighting? or ?temporary shelter?.

4. Avoid using the term ?Karen forces supported by the Burmese troops?
instead use ?groups of Myanman-Karen forces?. 

5. Avoid categorizing the groups into a group of Buddhist Karens and a group
of Christian Karens; instead use group of Myanman-Karen or group of
Myanman-Karen forces by putting KNU or DKBA in parentheses.

6. Avoid using the terms ?block? or ?prevent?, as well as ?push?; instead
use the following:

a) When displaced persons from fighting cross the border into Thailand,
Thailand will provide assistance and temporary shelter in safe areas based
on humanitarian principles.

b) When they are to be deported, the following phrase should be used: to
provide assistance for a safe and dignified repatriation.


a) No support and cooperation shall be given to the groups rebelling against
the Burmese government or the minority forces of Burmese nationality.
Furthermore, officials of agencies responsible for the area along the border
and foreigners are to be strictly supervised not to be involved in lending
support to minority groups of Burmese nationality.

b) All Burmese soldiers and minority forces with Burmese nationality who are
armed and have sought refuge in Thailand are to be disarmed and procedures
in terms of news reporting are to be undertaken.  They are to be held in a
safe area and the same policy for sending them back and returning their
weapons should be used for both groups.  

c) In dealing with the heavy shelling that crosses the Thai border by the
Burmese troops, warning shots should be given before returning fire.  Also
continuous liaison with the Burmese troops should be conducted to create
understanding and to find appropriate solutions since negotiation is still a

d) Burmese citizens of the Karen tribe who are displaced from the fighting
shall be dealt with as follows:

(1) reduce the area of temporary shelter and move them away from the border
as deemed appropriate, taking into consideration the appropriateness and
efficiency in ensuring safety as well as the prevention of smuggling of
labour, destruction of natural resources and adverse effects on people in
that area.

(2) Seriously prevent illegal entry into the country and push them back
according to appropriate channels and time.

(3) In terms of Public relations, emphasis should be placed in continuously
persuading all displaced persons from fighting to return to Burma.

(4) Army units posted in the reas are specifically responsible for
monitoring the safety of the displaced persons from fighting, as well as
preventing them from taking over large areas and escaping from the area in
order to present a good image to the world population.

(5) Continuous search for weapons in all temporary shelters are to be
conducted in order to prevent unlawful activities and minimize the suspicion
Burma has toward Thailand.

(6) In terms of public relations to all target groups, it should be
confirmed that Thailand does not support the Myanman-Karen group.  There are
no refugees and refugee camps, only displaced persons from fighting and
temporary shelters.

(7) For Thais along the border, emphasis should be placed on creating


April 8, 1997
William Glaberson

ITHACA, N.Y. -- In a small apartment on a peaceful street here, on most
nights a father tucks his two children into bed. Then, as  he describes it,
he goes to war in the next room: he switches his computer on.

Htun Aung Gyaw, a former Burmese jungle fighter and student leader, dials up
the Internet. There, he joins other opponents of  his country's military
government in electronic debates, plans, and hopes.  For many pro-democracy
activists from Burma and for political dissidents from many other countries,
the Internet has become a headquarters for every type of political action
from plans for corporate boycotts to tactical deliberations.

"I came out of the jungle to get training and arms and go back and join with
the people and win the struggle," Htun said, sitting in his modest living
room near the Cornell University campus here. "But when our dreams did not
come true, we had to change our strategies. We are weak. That's why we need
high tech: they have an army; they have power; they have money. This is a
new kind of warfare we are fighting, Internet warfare."

If it is a new kind of warfare, Htun Aung Gyaw (pronounced ton ung jaw) is
an example of a new kind of foot soldier who can be found in American cities
and towns. At night, in the glow of their computer screens, they are part of
electronic communities that are concerned with faraway events in places like
East Timor, Tibet, and Taiwan.

But by day, they lead the difficult lives of political exiles. And to judge
from Htun's story, they may be subject to greater stresses than the
expatriate activists who came before because the computer transports their
cause into their living rooms. Htun, 44, said he is sometimes so convinced
that he is at home in Rangoon, after a night on the computer, that he wakes
up the next morning unaware that he is in Ithaca.

Then, during the day, he said, it is sometimes hard to concentrate on his
job reshelving books at Cornell's Olin Library or trying to complete his
thesis for a Cornell master's degree in Southeast Asian studies.

He finds himself thinking, he said, about how much work he and the
people who remained behind in Burma have to do. "I really feel close
to them all the time when I read on the Net," he said.

Or he will reflect on the news reports he read on the Internet from
electronic information services designed to keep activists up to date
about events back home.

He will think about the e-mail from other pro-democracy supporters he has to
answer. His mind will wander from the eight-hour-a-day job he took to
support his family in America. "Sometimes, I hate myself because I am doing
what I don't want to do," he said. "What I want to do is do things for my
country full time."

Some leaders of the pro-democracy movement say the Internet has become a
powerful tool because it binds together distant allies.

"Many of us are like orphans, we're away from home, we're away from our
family, and yet we have grown close to each other over the Internet," said
Zarni, founder of the Free Burma Coalition, which runs Internet sites for
the Burmese pro-democracy movement from the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

Zarni, who, like some other Burmese has a single name, said that people
across the country like Htun, including many American students, play a vital
part in the pro-democracy fight through their electronic participation.

Online, Htun and other supporters of the pro-democracy movement plot. They
talk. They gossip. They distribute information about the military's
maneuvers and they circulate news about their Nobel Peace Prize-winning
leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, who insists upon nonviolent methods. They plan
lobbying efforts. They discuss public-relations campaigns that are drawing
increasing American attention to their cause, like one push that led to a
March 3 hearing of the New York City Council on a proposed bill that would
bar the city from dealing with companies that do business with the junta.
The online fighters have also worked to keep up pressure on President
Clinton to impose U.S. government sanctions on Burma.

But in his off-line life here in Ithaca, Htun's blinking computer screen
can be an unwanted rival. Htun's wife, Swe Swe Myint, and their son
and daughter, who are 11 and 10 now, were separated from Htun for six years
until they joined him here in 1995. He arrived here in 1992 as a political
refugee after three years in Thailand.

His wife said she supports his political work but sometimes, when  he
turns on the computer, she finds herself growing outraged. "He should
do that," she said, "I agree with that. But I and my children were away from
him for six years. And when we arrived, he had no time for us."

At the library and in the master's program at Cornell, some people say they
admire Htun for his role in the pro-democracy movement. In the 1970s, he was
imprisoned for five years in Burma for fighting the government. Then, in
1989, he was sentenced to death in absentia for treason because he was the
first chairman of an influential armed students' group, the All Burma
Students' Democratic Front, which took to the jungle to fight the military.

Still, even some of those who say they are admirers say that Htun is
sometimes so distracted by his involvement in the movement as it passes
through his computer screen that he is unable to do what is expected of him.
"It goes in cycles," said Joel Copenhagen, Htun's supervisor at the library.
"Sometimes he gets enough sleep and things go well. Sometimes things don't."

Htun, a youthful man with a quick laugh, said Copenhagen recently told him
that he should find a grant or a sponsor so that he could dedicate himself
full time to the pro-democracy movement. Some of Htun's friends say that
time has passed him by for any leadership role. Some say he was once such a
skilled politician among the students that he could be a government minister
if the pro-democracy movement ever took power.

Htun said he would be ready to go home at a moment's notice if the
military government collapsed. He would not speculate about any position
that might interest him. But he said that he was anxious for the day he
could return to his homeland.

"Even under the regime in Rangoon, when I was in hiding, I was really
comfortable with my friends," he said. "Here it is always pressure,
stress, stress."

In Ithaca, he said, he is always worried about debt. Most of the $2,000 he
and his wife take home every month from full-time jobs is immediately spent.
There is the rent bill, the car-loan payment, the phone bill, and the heat bill.

And then, he said, there is the bill for that necessity of any pro-democracy
fighter in the 1990s. Htun must pay $200 every month on the loan he took out
to buy his computer.


April 8, 1997

Thai military along the border vicinity of Kanchanaburi to Hua Hin are now
allowing all refugees (who desire to do so), to enter Thailand.  Three camps
have now been permitted, Phu Muang, Huay Soot, and Baw Wee.  The refugees
are being fed and cared for by the Burma Border
Consortium (BBC)

SLORC soldiers are actively patrolling the Thai-Burma border, often
patrolling just inside  Thailand.  SLORC  troops have fired upon Karen
inside Thailand and have stolen money and livestock from villagers on the
Thai side.  On March 25 a Thai villager was shot and wounded by a SLORC
soldier inside Thailand after the SLORC soldiers refused to pay for a
chicken the SLORC soldiers had stolen.  This occurred in the Pu Muang area,
west of Kanchanaburi.  One week earlier, five Thai soldiers were captured by
SLORC  soldiers who were patrolling inside Thailand in the vicinity of Phu
Nam Rohn - Phu Muang.  The Thai soldiers were stripped to their underwear
and all their clothing, equipment, and
weapons were taken by the SLORC soldiers.  Ten days later, the SLORC
military returned the Thai soldiers' weapons but not their clothing or

Between March 10 and 20, SLORC soldiers, patrolling over kilometer inside
Thailand, stole B.2,000.00 from a Karen village.  The village is located in
a beetle-nut orchard, approximately 3 kilometers
south of the Thai village 'Bueng Klueng" west of Umphang.  (By foot this
village is 7-8 kilometers from Bueng Klueng.)  This robbery and violation of
Thai sovereignty was reported to the BPP unit at Bueng Klueng with no
discernible effect.

On March 19, four SLORC soldiers armed with AK (47 or 74's, unclear),
entered 500 meters in Thailand and searched a Karen hostel in Bueng Klueng.
On March 22, these soldiers returned and walked around the hostel and nearby
homes for approximately 30 minutes before walking back to Burma.  Again, the
BPP was notified, but to no effect.

As of March 27, SLORC  now in control of Hta Ma Pyo Hta, KNU forces
defending south of this location.  Thai soldiers at Tha Ko Bon village in
th.land, forced Karen refugees to give five sacks of rice to SLORC soldiers
in the area on March 26.  

Between April 1 and 3, a Karen man was fired upon by a SLORC  patrol in the
vicinity of Baw Wee (Suan Pung area).  Karen villagers in this area report
that SLORC soldiers patrol on the Thai side of the border with impunity,
penetrating over 1 kilometers into Thailand.

As of March 30, the Thai military along the border have been very helpful to
Karen refugees, reversing their earlier actions of forcing Karen refugees
back into Burma. There seems to be a very positive change in policy, with
refugees being accepted all along the border areas.


April 8, 1997
Supamart Kasem, Mae Sot, Tak

Local authorities here have asked their Burmese counterparts in Myawaddy to
investigate recent border incursions by armed men who attacked Karen
refugees in Thai territory.

Col Suwit Maenmeun, chairman of a local Thai-Burmese border committee,
yesterday signed a memorandum of understanding asking his Myawaddy
counterpart, Lt-Col Sai Phone, to take action against two groups of
heavily-armed men who slipped across the border into Mae Sot and Phop Phra
districts last Thursday, said a border source.

The first 80-strong group crossed the border at Ban Huay Nam Nak, Tambon
Chong Khaeb in Phop Phra, and attacked Karen refugees, killing one man and
seriously wounding a woman. The intruders also forced some 40 refugees to
return to Burma.

The other group of seven armed men sneaked across the Burmese border into
Rim Moei village, Tambon Tha Sai in Mae Sot, on the same day.

They clashed with Thai Border Patrol Police troops for about five minutes
before retreating to Myawaddy. No casualties were reported. (BP)


April 8, 1997
Marisa Chimprabha , The Nation 

NEW DELHI ­ Foreign ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(Asean) will meet informally in Kuala Lumpur this May to decide whether
Cambodia, Laos and Burma will be admitted to the grouping at a formal
meeting two months later, Thailand's foreign minister said yesterday. 

Prachuab Chaiyasan said the seven Asean members will put forward their
decisions and the reasons behind them at a meeting on May 31. 

Last July, Asean agreed to admit the three countries simultaneously, but if
one of the applicants is rejected, the other two will not be able to join. 

Asean foreign ministers met informally yesterday and agreed to discuss the
expansion of Asean on May 31. The ministers were with their counterparts
attending the 113-member Non-Aligned Movement being held in the Indian capital. 

''At the May meeting, we can tell Burma, Cambodia and Laos whether we will
accept their applications for membership. We will have reports from the
Asean Secretariat to help us consider their readiness to join," Prachuab said. 

The secretariat is preparing a final report on the readiness of the three
countries. Secretariat officials and member countries will make fact-finding
trips to the three countries to assess their preparation for joining. 

''During [yesterday's] discussions, the Asean Secretariat was asked to
conduct a more detailed survey so that the foreign ministers can make a
decision based on reality," he said. 

Asean Secretary-General Ajit Singh also attended the meeting. 

''The report from the Asean Secretariat will offer substantial facts for the
foreign ministers to consider. It is the ministers who will say yes or no,"
he said. 

Western countries have criticised Asean for wanting to reach their goal of
including all 10 Southeast Asian countries into the forum by ignoring the
volatile situation in Burma ­ which is controlled by a military junta. 

Some Western countries, including the United States, have imposed diplomatic
sanctions against Burma in opposition to the country's human rights
violations and its suppression of the pro-democracy movement. 

Prachuab said that the secretariat was also asked to prepare a report on how
to improve its own administration. One of the ideas put forward was to
introduce an additional deputy secretary-general, he said. 

Prachuab supported the proposal, saying that Asean was developing rapidly
and had increased its workload. 

''In the near future Asean will have 10 members, but the present number
overloads the secretariat. Therefore, it seems to me that the
secretary-general should have another assistant," Prachuab said. 

Another topic to be discussed in May is the preparation to commemorate
Asean's 30th anniversary, he added. (TN)


April 8, 1997

Fleeing a dry-season offensive by the Burmese Army, thousands of Karen have
crossed into Thailand  seeking food, water and a safe place to sleep. The
recent influx brings the number of refugees on the border to about 115,000 -
perhaps the largest single such assemblage in Asia.

Among those who have publicly called for the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to become involved is the Karen Refugee
Committee. A communique from the group outlined what it wants the Thai
government to do: "Permit the UNHCR to perform its mandated role in
protection of refugees rights and security."

While it is irrefutable that the Karen have suffered from the military
battering by Slorc and its allies, it is much les certain that UN
involvement would improve the situation. Indeed, the government in Rangoon
sees the UNHCR as a tool of the US. It is unlikely that the Burmese
government would recognise the UN group as an honest broker in mediating
between itself and the Karen refugees.

One lower profile organisation that has a better handle on the Karen
situation is the Burmese Border Consortium. The church-based group has done
a remarkable job of feeding, sheltering and educating the Karen along the
Burmese border in the Thai provinces of Tak and Kanchanaburi.

Certainly, the group could use international help with funding. But it
doesn't need to have its role usurped by the likes of the UNHCR.

A concerted push for meaningful dialogue, compelling both sides to reviews
more conciliatory strategies, could bring a quiet return of one of Asia's
largest refugee groups to their homeland. Unfortunately, UN intervention
would do little more than raise the noise level and encourage a
centuries-old ethnic feud to continue in its bitter, pointless way. (TN)


April 8, 1997

Hong Kong - Rival casino owners from Hong Kong and Taiwan have taken to
settling disputes with gun-battles in a wilderness area along the
China-Burma border, a newspaper reported yesterday.

Stiff competitions has forced many rival casino operators from Hong Kong and
Taiwan to battle for business on the Burmese side of Ruili at the
Sino-Burmese border, the Chinese-language Ming Pao daily said.

The report did not mention any casualties in such shooting incidents which
have become "a daily common occurrence", it said. (BP)


April 3, 1997
By Jon Schaffer

Washington -- U.S. unilateral economic sanctions have cost U.S.
businesses jobs, put at risk numerous U.S. investments and are rarely
effective, says the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM).

"Our economic sanctions are a massive patchwork of good intentions
with bad results," NAM President Jerry Jasinowski said in unveiling a
study commissioned by the U.S. business group. "Unilateral sanctions
are little more than postage stamps we use to send messages to other
countries at the cost of thousands of American jobs."

The report shows that "it is difficult to argue that any of the 61
measures authorized over the past four years have changed the behavior
of the 35 targeted governments," Jasinowski said.

The report, "A Catalog of New U.S. Unilateral Economic Sanctions for
Foreign Policy Purposes 1993-1996," was produced by Professor Barry
Carter of Georgetown University and released March 4.

The study comes amid considerable opposition by important U.S. allies
to the Helms-Burton law targeting foreign companies and individuals
for sanctions if they traffic in property confiscated from U.S.
citizens in Cuba. The European Union has filed a case in the World
Trade Organization challenging Helms-Burton.

The departments of State and Commerce declined to comment on the NAM report.

The study said that during the 1993-1996 period, 61 U.S. laws and
executive actions were enacted authorizing unilateral economic
sanctions for foreign policy purposes. Most of the actions did not
involve embargoes and some included directions to vote against loans
from international financial institutions.

Of the unilateral measures adopted over the four year period:

-- 22 were adopted to promote human rights and democratization and 13
countries were specifically targeted: Angola, Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Burma, Burundi, China, Croatia, Cuba, Gambia, Guatemala, Haiti,
Nicaragua, Nigeria and Yugoslavia. Sanctions were also imposed against
companies in Canada, Italy and Mexico due to prohibited activities in
Cuba under the Helms-Burton Act.

-- Anti-terrorism was the focus of 14 laws or executive actions, the
report said. These measures targeted eight countries, including Cuba,
Iran, Iraq, Libya, Nicaragua, North Korea, Sudan and Syria.

-- Nine measures were adopted to prevent nuclear proliferation, with
China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Pakistan specifically targeted.
Third-party countries who trade and invest with Iran and Libya were
also targeted.

-- Eight measures were adopted to promote political stability,
particularly in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Rwanda, the
New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (including Russia),
Yugoslavia and Zaire.

-- Eight anti-narcotics measures were targeted against Afghanistan,
Burma, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti and Nigeria and two measures were
targeted against any third-party country engaged in prohibited
dealings with Cuba.

-- Six unilateral sanctions measures were adopted to promote worker
rights or the prevention of prison labor, with China, the Maldives,
Mauritania, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
specifically targeted.

-- Three measures were adopted targeting Brazil, China and Taiwan over
environmental protection issues.

The report provides little aggregate data on the economic effects of
the sanctions, instead including a few case studies of jobs lost to
individual U.S. firms as a result of the sanctions. It said that
foreign manufacturers are eager to fill the void left when American
companies are denied the opportunity to export. Only in a handful of
the 35 countries covered in the report could an arguable claim be made
that the sanctions changed the behavior of the targeted government,
the report said. "They have yet to topple a targeted government. They
provide an external scapegoat for well-entrenched regimes to
compensate for domestic failings. Once launched, they are extremely
difficult to terminate."

The report also stressed that U.S. businesses are increasingly viewed
as unreliable. "Foreign companies and governments are understandably
reluctant to enter into any longer-term commercial relationship with
U.S. companies if the threat of sanctions looms."

The report makes the following specific recommendations:

-- Before considering economic sanctions, the United states should
pursue diplomatic, political and military isolation alternatives that
more effectively target a country's unique vulnerabilities. Except in
the most unusual and extreme circumstances, all sanctions should be

-- If unilateral sanctions are considered, they should meet specific
criteria relating to effectiveness, availability from foreign
suppliers and enforceability. Provision should also be made for such
measures to lapse absent reauthorization by Congress, or be waived if
the president determines that it is in the national interest.

-- The U.S. government should produce an annual report on all
unilateral sanctions, analyzing both the impact on the targeted
government and on U.S. companies.

Date: 24/2/97

Prospect Burma is again offering a Scholarship open to people of Burmese
origin who meet the following conditions:

They must be in one of the following 3 categories:

Category A:  Students who are already in the second or later year
of a first degree course or University.

Category B:  Postgraduate students who have already started or have a
confirmed offer of a place on a Master's degree course at a University in
the academic year starting in 1997.

Category C:  Postgraduate students who have already started on a doctorate
or who have a confirmed offer of a place to read for a doctorate in the
academic year starting in 1997.

In 1997, priority will be given to candidates -

1.  Who are resident in South East Asia or the Indian Sub-continent  AND
2.  whose subject of study is one of the following:

Agriculture; Community Nursing; Ecology/Conservation; Media Studies; Public
Administration; Teacher-training.

Those who fulfil the above conditions may obtain application forms and
further information by writing as follows (requests by E-mail, fax etc.
cannot be dealt with) :

For residents of South East Asia to:  Education Project Coordinator, 
PO Box 145, Chorakhebua PO, Bangkok10230, Thailand.

For residents of the Indian Sub-continent to:  Ms Sharada Nayak,
D-41 Sujan Singh Park, New Delhi 110003, India.

For those not resident as above to:  Prospect Burma, 143 Rivermead
Court, London SW6 3SE, England.



April 8, 1997

Sunday, May 18,1997, in Kyoto

Time: 3 PM
Cost:  8,000 yen 
(6000 yen for seniors over 60
 4000 yen for children under 12)

For Dinner Reservations contact:
Burmese Relief Center -- Japan
(vegetarian course available)

Refugee Bazaar --  Admission Free!
11AM - 3 PM
Many distinctive handmade gifts from Thailand, Burma, and refugee camps
along the border

Place:	Kyoto Co-op 
Shimogamo Center 2F
37 Takagi-cho, Shimogamo, 
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto
	This gala event will include a full-course dinner of authentic, delicious
Burmese dishes, classical Burmese music, traditional cultural performances,
and a lively auction of Burmese arts and other choice donated items.  All
proceeds will benefit Burmese students and refugees on Burma's borders.

	This is the seventh anniversary of the 1990 elections in Burma, won
overwhelmingly by the National League for Democracy, but nullified by the
military junta, SLORC.  Again this year, Burmese Relief Center -- Japan is
commemorating the elections with a call for the restoration of democracy in
the country, under the leadership of the winner of those elections, Nobel
Peace Prize Laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi.

	Just after New Year, SLORC staged attacks on a number of Karenni and Karen
refugee camps in Thailand, burning hundreds of houses, leaving thousands
homeless and terrorizing all.  This year's dry-season offensive has forced
more than 20,000 new arrivals to flee fierce fighting and SLORC reprisals.
That means there are over 120,000 Burmese students and refugees along the
Thai-Burma border alone with the situation liable to deteriorate even
further.  Most Burmese refugees suffer from malaria and relief groups face
acute shortages of food, clothing, blankets, shelter, and medicine.  Last
year BRC-J provided more than three million yen in relief supplies but this
year the needs are much greater.

Join us for a delicious dinner!
Contribute to a worthy cause!
Burmese Relief Center?Japan
266-27 Ozuku-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634
Tel: (07442) 2-8236 
Fax: (07442) 4-6254
e-mail: brelief@xxxxxxx