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KHRG #97-02: Far South


	An Independent Report by the Karen Human Rights Group
		 March 10, 1997     /     KHRG #97-02

This report concerns an area in southern Tenasserim Division, about 180 
km. (110 mi.) north of Burma's southernmost point which lies at 
Kawthaung (Victoria Point).  Apart from the Andaman Sea coastline, the 
area inland is hilly, forested, and not so heavily populated as most parts 
of the country.  The people are Burmans, Muslims, Mons, Karens and 
Thais - the Thais are not Tai Yai (Shan), they are of the same ethnicity as 
the Thais of southern Thailand.  In this area the Karen are a minority, 
having only a handful of villages, but they are often singled out for heavier

burdens of forced labour and other forms of persecution.  Part of the 
reason for this is the existence of Karen National Union (KNU) and Karen 
National Liberation Army (KNLA 12th Battalion) in the area, 
headquartered at Kaw Thay Lu adjacent to the Thai border.

In October 1996, SLORC ordered all the Karen villages in the area to 
move to SLORC-controlled relocation sites around the Burman village of 
Le Nya, where they were to be used as forced labour rebuilding the Boke 
Pyin-Le Nya motor road.  Then in mid-November 1996 troops from 
SLORC Light Infantry Battalion #358 went through the area and burned 
completely the Karen villages of Nan Ka Prao, Waw Pa Doh, Ler Pa Doh 
and Kyet Der.  In December or January they also burned part of Meh Naw 
Roh village.  All of these villages had been ordered to move.  The Karen 
villages of Ze Daeng and Kaw Bawt were also ordered to move.  In every 
case, SLORC told the villagers they would kill on sight anyone caught in 
the area after that, and some villagers have been executed as a result.  By 
23 November, Light Infantry Battalion #358 troops were already 
beginning to set up a base on the burned remains of Nan Ka Prao village.  
Part of the Battalion then began attacking the Mon Army to the north.

Some of the villagers moved to the relocation site as ordered and have 
subsequently been used as forced labour on the motor road.  SLORC has 
provided them with nothing.  Most of the villagers fled into the forests 
near their villages and are still there living in hiding.  Several hundred 
fled to Karen-controlled territory near Kaw Thay Lu, where they were 
given help by the KNU.  However, in February 1997 SLORC launched an 
offensive against KNLA 12th Battalion, and at the time these interviews 
were conducted 3 full SLORC Battalions (#262 and #342 based in 
Kawthaung and #432 from Boke Pyin) were poised to attack 12th 
Battalion headquarters at Kaw Thay Lu.  Several hundred refugees fled 
across the border into Thai territory, but the Thai Army stopped them and 
pushed all the men and boys over age 10 back to Kaw Thay Lu telling 
them to fight along with the soldiers.  Only 4 men (generally old men) per 
village were allowed to stay with the women and children, who were 
forced to stay just 1 km. from Kaw Thay Lu in a narrow, dark and 
malaria-infested gully, building tiny shelters in the middle of a streambed. 

The Thai soldiers then set up their positions behind the refugees, more 
with the idea of blocking the refugees from going further than protecting 
their border.  This has proven to be the normal Thai strategy at refugee 
sites; should the SLORC Army cross the border, it also allows the Thai 
soldiers time to flee while the refugees are being killed.  As of 18 February

there were 282 refugees in the gully, all but a few of them women and 
children.  The Thai authorities had promised them that should there be 
fighting in Kaw Thay Lu itself they would be allowed to move to a site a 
few kilometres further inside Thailand.  At the time of printing of this 
report, the situation has not changed and Kaw Thay Lu is still awaiting an 
expected attack.

The names of those interviewed in this report have been changed and 
some details omitted to protect them; false names are enclosed in quotes.

TOPIC SUMMARY:  Forced relocations (Interviews #1-6), burning of 
villages (#1-6), killings of villagers (#1), forced labour (#1-4), 
child forced labour (#1), extortion (#1,3), situation at relocation site
male refugees forced back by Thai authorities (#2), refugee fears (#2,4,5), 
Nan Ka Prao village (#1-4), Ler Pa Doh village (#5), Meh Naw Ro village (#6),

treatment of Burman and Thai villages in the area (#1-3).

NAME:    "Saw Hsah Muh Lah"   SEX: M   AGE: 54   Karen Christian hill farmer
FAMILY:  Married, 6 children aged 17-31
ADDRESS: Nan Ka Prao village                            INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

["Saw Hsah Muh Lah" was a village elder in Nan Ka Prao village, and 
was one of the few men allowed to cross the border by the Thai 

Q:  When you were in Nan Ka Prao village did the Burmese ever order you 
to work?
A:  Yes, they made problems about building the road from Le Nya to Boke 
Pyin.  So we couldn't stay there, and we had to come up here.  The road 
has all been built before, we build it, then when it's finished the rains
and ruin it, then we have to build it again.  So we have to go - if you can't

go you have to pay money, and if you can't pay money then you have to go.  
If we can't go we have to hire someone, sometimes it is 2 or 3 thousand 
[Kyats], sometimes 1 or 2 thousand.  We had to go one time every month, 
one person from every house.  There are over 40 houses in Nan Ka Prao 
village.  If the adults can't go then the children have to go, children
12 and 13 years old.  And old men over 50 or 60 years old often have to go 
on behalf of the young men.  Each time it is for about 14 or 15 days.  The 
Burmese don't give anything, they [the labourers] have to take care of 
themselves and survive on their own food.  Some of them get sick, and then 
we have to substitute another person for them.

Q:  Did they order Nan Ka Prao village to move?
A:  Yes, we already had to move over 2 months ago.  The Burmese came 
to the village and ordered all the villagers to move to Le Nya, which is in 
their area.  It is about 3 or 4 hours' walk away [from Nan Ka Prao].  So 
some of the villagers moved there because they were afraid, but some of the 
villagers didn't go there or come here, they just fled and stayed somewhere 
else.  As for us, we fled up here.  The Burmese killed 2 of the villagers who

didn't go to the relocation place, and they said they would kill all the 
villagers who disobeyed them and fled somewhere else if they saw them.

Q:  Where did they kill the 2 villagers?
A:  They killed the 2 villagers in the forest near Nan Ka Prao village.  It 
was about a month ago.  One was Kyi Lin, he was over 30 years old, he had a 
wife and 4 children.  He was a Nan Ka Prao villager.  The Burmese saw 
him when he was harvesting rice at his farm.  They didn't ask him anything, 
they just saw him and shot him dead.  Because they said they would kill any 
villagers they saw who disobeyed and didn't go to Le Nya.

Q:  What about the other villager who was killed?
A:  That happened the first time the Burmese came, over 2 months ago.  
Over 100 soldiers came from Battalion #358.  They gathered all the male 
villagers and took them along with them.  There was a young man among 
the villagers and the Burmese accused him of being a Kaw Thoo Lei 
[Karen army] soldier and then tortured him.  Later on they realised he was 
not a Kaw Thoo Lei soldier, but they killed him anyway.  They killed him 
along the way.  Even his parents didn't know, and no one dared to search 
for his body.  His name was Saw Peter, he was a Nan Ka Prao villager 
about 22 years old.

Q:  How many households moved to Le Nya [as ordered]?
A:  I would guess that maybe over 40 households moved there [from other 
villages as well as Nan Ka Prao].  I don't know how they stay there.  
Maybe they have to build the road.  As for us, we didn't go there, instead 
we came to the Karen area among Karen people.  Many people are staying 
in the jungle.  But we would starve if we stayed a long time in the jungle, 
that's why we came up here.  And up here is Karen revolution area, so I 
thought we'd have some hope of getting [or growing] some food.

Q:  I heard that the Burmese burned your village.
A:  Yes.  They burned all the houses, they ate all our livestock and they cut

down all the coconut trees and betelnut trees.  None of the villagers were 
there, everyone had run.

Q:  Why did they burn the village?
A:  They say we help Kaw Thoo Lei [KNU/KNLA], and Kaw Thoo Lei is 
their enemy.  They had ordered everyone to move, so they said if people 
didn't move they were going to destroy everything and everything we had.  
When we came here, I could only bring 2 or 3 pieces of clothing.  We came 
as a group of 2 or 3 families, 14 or 15 people altogether.  It took us 4 
nights along the way because of the children.  There were no Burmese along 
the way.

Q:  How many Karen villages are in Nan Ka Prao area?
A:  There are 4 villages - Nan Ka Prao, Ler Pa Doh, Waw Pa Doh, and 
Kyet Der.  All of them were burned by the Burmese, they did the same to 
all the villages.

Q:  What about the Thai and Burman villages?  Do the Burmese make 
problems for them?
A:  Yes, they make problems in every village.  They order them to move to 
Le Nya - the Burman villages which are far from their [Army] place.  Some 
of them have moved, some of them have fled.

Q:  When you got here how did you get food?
A:  When we first arrived we got rice from the Karen revolution, because 
we were staying with them.  Then when they didn't have any more food for 
us the gawlewah [westerners] helped us with food.  Now we've been in 
Thailand for 5 or 6 days, because we don't dare stay in Kaw Thay Lu 
anymore.  The Burmese are coming there to attack and destroy, so we fled 
here.  There are about 70 households here now.  Altogether over 200 
people [actually 282].  There are people from Nan Ka Prao, Waw Pa Doh 
and Ler Pa Doh, and from Kaw Thay Lu village.  As for the people from 
Ze Daeng, they couldn't come up here even if they wanted to, because the 
Burmese are making many problems for them and blocking them.

Q:  If the Burmese reach Kaw Thay Lu can you still stay here?
A:  No, we wouldn't dare stay here [only 1 km. away].  We'd have to flee 
again to another place.
NAME:    "Naw Lah Lah Htoo"   SEX: F    AGE: 30    Karen Animist hill farmer
FAMILY:  Married, 5 children aged 8 months to 11 years
ADDRESS: Nan Ka Prao village                            INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

Q:  How many houses are there in Nan Ka Prao village?
A:  There are about 40 or 50 houses in Nan Ka Prao village.

Q:  I heard that the Burmese ordered the village to move.
A:  Yes.  We got here over 2 months ago because the Burmese expelled us.  
They came up to Nan Ka Prao village, ordered the villagers to move and 
made problems.  They burned all the houses.  Some of the villagers came 
up here and some of them went down to the Burmese area.  We just came 
here quietly, so the Burmese didn't know it.  The people who went down 
where they ordered are staying in Kyaw Mote.  As for me, I would not move 
there.  I fled when all the other villagers were running into the jungle.  
We were in the bush for about 3 weeks.  Then I went and stayed at Boke 
Pyin for about a week, then I went back to my village again and it had 
already been burned by the Burmese.  Then I couldn't do anything, so I 
came to stay here in Kaw Thay Lu.  I couldn't bring along any sleeping-
mats, I just brought along some rice and one blanket.  Then we couldn't 
stay in Kaw Thay Lu because the [Karen] leaders were worried that there 
would be troubles for us when the Burmese came.  That's why we came 
here [1 km. into Thai territory].  I came here with all my children.  My 
husband is still staying on the mountaintop [the Thai authorities would not 
let him cross the border, even though he is just a villager and has never 
been a soldier].

Q:  How many Karen villages are in Nan Ka Prao area?
A:  There are many Karen villages, like Nan Ka Prao, Waw Pa Doh, Ler 
Pa Doh, Kyet Der, ...  Waw Pa Doh has 12 houses, Ler Pa Doh has 30 
houses.  All these villages had to move.  Now there are still some villagers 
living there, but they've run and are staying in the forest [around their 
villages].  They were ordered to move to Le Nya and Ma Kaw, which are 
among the Burmese and the Mon.  The Burmese said they will kill all the 
villagers who are living in the jungle, they said that these are bad people. 

They say all the people who stay in the jungle or come to Thailand are bad 
people, that we all help Kaw Thoo Lei [KNU/KNLA], and that only the 
people who go to their [relocation] place are good.

Q:  Are there Thai and Burman villages there too?
A:  There are also Thai and Burmese villages there.  The Burmese make 
difficulties for them too.  All the villagers [Karen and others] who stay 
around Le Nya or go down to the places among the Burmese have to build 
the road and carry heavy things [as porters].  They're building a road to 
Boke Pyin, and one to Le Nya Kee and Nan Ka Prao.  The Burmese said 
they'll build a camp in Nan Ka Prao.

Q:  Are Burman and Thai villagers also fleeing?
A:  Yes.  Only a few of the Thai villagers are still staying there now.  
Some of them are moving to Thailand.

Q:  Why hasn't your husband come here?
A:  He hasn't come because the Thais won't allow the men to come, so all 
the men have to stay in Kaw Thay Lu.  The Thais only allowed 4 men to 
come and stay here among us.  I don't know why the Thais said that.  My 
husband is not a soldier, he is just a villager.  I don't know how long I'll 
have to stay here, but I've been here a week now.

Q:  If the Burmese attack Kaw Thay Lu do you dare stay here?
A:  No, I wouldn't dare stay here.

Q:  What is your situation here?
A:  We just got rice and salt while we were fleeing [from the KNU].  
Yesterday we were given some sardines and noodles too.  My children are 
healthy but I am not well, I feel bad and have pain in my back.
NAME:    "Naw Htoo Paw"    SEX: F    AGE: 21     Karen Christian hill farmer
FAMILY:  Single, 7 brothers and sisters, lives with her parents
ADDRESS: Nan Ka Prao village                            INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

I'm a hill rice farmer, but our farm has been left behind because we had to 
flee.  The Burmese ordered us out starting in 1996, they ordered us to 
move to Le Nya.  Some people moved there but as for us, we didn't want to 
stay among the Burmese, so we came to the Karen revolution area.  Before 
we stayed on the hill, but the Karen leaders told us we better come here 
[into Thailand] because the military situation was getting worse.

Q:  Before they ordered you to move did you have to do any work for the 
A:  Yes, people had to work building the road and carrying heavy things, 
and some people had to pay money when they couldn't go there.  The road 
goes from Boke Pyin to Le Nya, among the Burmese.  In our village we 
just collected money and sent it to the Burmese.

There are over 40 houses in Nan Ka Prao village.  Our village has been 
burned by the Burmese 2 times. They have already burned 3 of my houses.  
The first time was about 20 years ago, and the second time was in 
[November] 1996 when we were there.  It was after they ordered us to 
move out.  They burned many houses - all they left was the church.  At that 
time, I was hiding in the jungle.  We were in the jungle, trying to build a 
small shelter like this one [she was being interviewed in a tiny 4-foot by 5-
foot shelter in the forest with a plastic sheet for the roof].  Later some 
Karen soldiers and villagers who had gone and seen it told us.  The 
Burmese burned every house except the church.

Q:  How did you get food in the jungle?
A:  Before, we had hidden some rice, salt and fishpaste in the jungle, so 
that when things like this happen we could get it.  Also, when these things 
happen we carry a little rice along with us, so we can survive for a short 
time.  Then we fled out to here.

Q:  Are there any other Karen villages in Nan Ka Prao area?
A:  Yes, there are 3 others - there are Nan Ka Prao, and Kyet Der, Waw Pa 
Doh and Ler Pa Doh - 4 villages altogether, close to each other.  They all 
have to move, and the Burmese burned all of them.  Some of the people 
went to the Burmese [relocation place] and half of us came to the 
revolution area.  Only a few households from Nan Ka Prao went to the 
Burmese place.  Some others are just staying along the way there but not 
going all the way to the Burmese area.  Those people are building small 
shelters and farming in the jungle.  It is only really old men and old women 
who can't walk, can't do things or can't see who are going to the Burmese 
place.  From other villages a few are here, a few are hiding in the forest
a few went to the Burmese place.

We were staying in the jungle for 1 or 2 months, and the Burmese attacked 
the Karen once when we were there.  We just kept moving around in the 
jungle and staying along the upper reaches of streams.  If the Burmese saw 
us during that time it wouldn't be easy - they would surely kill us.  Then we

came here.  We spent 4 nights on the way to get here.  We couldn't bring 
anything except 2 sets of clothing, all our other things were taken by the 
Burmese.  As for the food we brought, it was all finished on the way 
coming here.  Then when we got here they [the KNU] gave us some rice and 
salt.  At first they gave us 10 plates, 5 blankets and 1 pot because there 
are 10 people in our family.  We arrived in Kaw Thay Lu in November, 
after we had fled.

Q:  How many households from Nan Ka Prao village have arrived here?
A:  There are 22 households here from Nan Ka Prao village.  In the jungle 
there are more people than there are here.  They would come if the 
situation was better, but for now they just have to hide in the jungle in the

upper reaches of the streams.

Q:  Do the Burmese make problems for the Thai and Burman villages too?
A:  Yes, they also have to work.  As for the Thai villagers, many of them 
have fled to their motherland.
NAME:    "Naw Wah Mo"      SEX: F     AGE: 50     Karen Christian hill farmer
FAMILY:  Married, 4 children
ADDRESS: Nan Ka Prao village                             INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

When they came I was in the village, but we didn't dare face them so we 
fled into the jungle.  Later I saw the places they'd burned.  There were no 
more houses, nothing was left.  All the houses were burned except for the 

Q:  What about the Nan Ka Prao villagers who went to the relocation place, 
how are they staying?
A:  Some of them have made rafts and are living on the water [in shelters 
built on bamboo rafts in the river] and others are living on the sand bank 
[the sandy riverbank].  I wasn't there, but that was told to me by someone 
who saw it.  I heard that the people who moved there are now building the 
motor road.  The Burmese ordered all of the people to move there, but we 
didn't go.  I don't know why the Burmese do things like this.

I've been staying in Kaw Thay Lu for 2 months now.  Now we have come 
here [across the border to Thailand] because we are afraid of the 
Burmese.  I don't think we can go back to Nan Ka Prao.  If the situation 
was good we could go, but not if it is bad.  We're really afraid right now.
NAME:    "Saw Bleh"       SEX: M      AGE: 46       Karen Animist hill farmer
FAMILY:  Married, 4 children aged 1-19, wife is about 7 months pregnant
ADDRESS: Ler Pa Doh village                              INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

Q:  What problems did the Burmese make in your village?
A:  The Burmese came to the village and ordered us to move out, but we 
didn't and we fled.  It was about 3 months ago.  They said that they would 
kill us if they caught us after that.  There are about 30 houses in Ler Pa 
Doh village and 20 houses in Waw Pa Doh village.  Waw Pa Doh is right 
across the river from Nan Ka Prao.  Ler Pa Doh is 30 minutes' walk from 
Nan Ka Prao.

Q:  Were you there when the Burmese ordered the village to move?
A:  Yes, I was there in my village.  They came to the village and they 
burned all the houses.  I was hiding in the bushes.  I saw them burning the 
paddy in my rice barn, the paddy which I grew on my own hill farm.  There 
were a lot of them.  It was over 2 months ago, then they came again.  They 
came and burned the houses 3 times, because the first and second times not 
all the houses were burned completely.  After the third time all the houses 
were burnt.  All 30 houses.

Q:  What area did you flee to?
A:  We just went and hid in areas upstream.  Altogether 3 households from 
Ler Pa Doh arrived here.  More households went to the Burmese place than 
came here.  It took 3 days to come here.  All our children came on foot 
with us.  This one is 5 years old, and this one is 4.

Q:  Why did you come into Thailand?
A:  We dare not stay there [just across the border at Kaw Thay Lu] 
because the Burmese will attack, so we had to flee into Thailand.  If the 
Burmese arrive there we won't dare stay here either, we'll have to move to 
another place.

Q:  Could you go back and stay in your village again?
A:  We can't stay back in our village if the Burmese are there.  If the Karen

leaders tell us the Burmese are not there anymore then maybe we could go 
and stay there.
NAME:    "Naw Lah Ghay"     SEX: F    AGE: 28     Karen Christian hill farmer
FAMILY:  Married, 1 child aged 19 months
ADDRESS: Meh Naw Roh village                             INTERVIEWED: 18/2/97

I married a [Karen] soldier, and I stayed in Meh Naw Roh.  Meh Naw Roh is 
a Karen village.  It is a big village with about 100 houses.  I stayed in the

village, but my husband was living among the soldiers.  Then we couldn't 
stay in the village because the Burmese ordered us out, so I came to my 
husband [in Kaw Thay Lu].  Meh Naw Ro is about a week from here on 
foot, one day's walk from Nan Ka Prao.  Now there are no more villagers in 
the village because the Burmese wouldn't let them stay.  The Burmese said 
they would kill any villagers they saw.  It was about a month ago.  Some of 
the villagers went down to the place we were ordered to move at Le Nya, 
some fled upstream into the jungle, and some came to the Karen revolution 

The Burmese came to the village, but there were also Karen soldiers staying 
at the village.  There was fighting.  All the villagers ran away, and the 
soldiers stayed in the village.  Then after that the Burmese burned 7 of the 
biggest houses in the village.

My husband is a soldier so I was afraid [that SLORC would arrest her], 
and I fled the village and came up here.  I came along with our child.  We 
only brought a few things.

			    - [END OF REPORT] -

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