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History
On dates of publication: where documents have no date of publication, I have used the date, or approximate date, of creation of the document, if known. Where several documents are contained in an entry, the date of the most recent is used.

  • Historiography

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Ecology of Burman-Mon Warfare and the Premodern Agrarian State (1383-1425)1
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: "...The present study is broken into five sections as follows. First, it looks at conflicts over the middle Irrawaddy (1389-1411) from various perspectives with different sets of historical data, including changes in chronicle lists of settlements; the observations of a British colonial-era gazetteer, the narrative of Kalà’s Great Chronicle and the Rajadirat epic. Previous papers (Fernquest 2006a, 2006b) have discussed in detail the larger context of these conflicts in the Ava-Pegu War (1383-1426). Second, it then describes the historical geography of Lower Burma and the middle Irrawaddy River basin and draws out the implications for military power. Historically, the north-to-south orientation of the Irrawaddy River has broken the east-to-west orientation of settlements in Lower Burma. This fragmented geography together with the limited farming potential and difficult terrain of the Irrawaddy Delta, contributed to an underlying localism in Lower Burma’s geography. Viewed in this context, the middle Irrawaddy River region is a pivotal thoroughfare providing access to the delta region, Lower Burma, and food supply located along the river. Battles over this strategically important stretch of river are a crucial turning point in the Ava- Pegu War with food supply and adjustments in military logistics playing a crucial role in the course of the conflicts. Apparently, because of the difficult nature of Lower Burma’s geography, the Burmans never established a military outpost any further south than Tharrawaddy on the Irrawaddy River, before the delta even begins. Third, ecological patterns conditioned the long-term conduct of warfare. The regular yearly cycle of changing climate and agriculture conditioned the way wars were fought if manpower was to be optimally conserved. The subsistence crisis was used as an extension or weapon of war. Long-term climate patterns may have increased the potential for these subsistence crises. Fourth, from the underlying constraints of environment and ecology in warfare the paper passes to the dynamics of warfare. A cycle of expansionary warfare explains how military success fueled further military success through the accumulation of geopolitical resources such as land, food supply, and manpower. A marchland factor also was operative in which enemies on fewer fronts aided the expansionary warfare of a state. Eventually, imperial overstretch and logistical overload resulted in a reverse process of state contraction in which the resources accumulated during expansionary warfare were quickly lost. Scorched earth tactics in which local food supplies were destroyed were part of the offensive strategy of expansionary warfare, whereas flight to the hinterland was part of the defensive response. Finally, in the conclusion the paper re-examines the agrarian nature of the Burmese state suggesting that general cross-cultural models of premodern agrarian states lead to richer explanations than the regionspecific mandala or “galactic polity” models traditionally employed in Southeast Asian history. Cross-cultural models allow for more realistic multi-causal explanations of historical events. They also allow for the posing and testing of a wide variety of different hypotheses and the possibility that disparate, geographically unrelated cultures, have shared historical experiences and processes. A Bayesian approach that brings in and VOLUME 6 (2008) 7 5 integrates knowledge of other premodern agrarian states in the form of a priori probabilities is suggested as one approach to crafting such a multi-threaded history of what-might-have-happened. Taken together, the six sections of this paper demonstrate how various seemingly fictional elements typically found in Southeast Asian historical chronicles, fictional elements often conceived of as a historical deficit, rather provide rich details that should be conceived instead as a historical surfeit worthy of study in and of itself..."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 6, 2008
    Format/size: pdf (6.2MB, 1.4MB))
    Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


    Title: ROMANCE AND TRAGEDY IN BURMESE HISTORY: A READING OF G. E. HARVEY’S "THE HISTORY OF BURMA"
    Date of publication: 20 March 2005
    Description/subject: "In 1919 G. E. Harvey delivered a speech to staff and students of Rangoon College. Entitled “The Writing of Burmese History,” his lecture exhorted local students to look to the ‘glories’ and ‘shames’ of their past, for “in the beauty of old time you will find an ideal for the future.”2 Harvey encouraged the students to appreciate the “beauty” of their past, yet also to take guidance from their modern English education. In concluding his lecture he exhorted the students to write the history of their own people, stating: “It is for the younger generation with its superior mental training to justify its education, to help these men of an older generation and to take up the magnificent task of writing a fitting History of Burma.” Six years later a history in a form consistent with Harvey’s description was published under the title History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to March 1824 The Beginning of the English Conquest.4 The author of this history, however, was not a local student who was inspired by Harvey’s lecture, but rather Harvey himself. The History of Burma sets out to describe the histories, art and literature of the pre-colonial kingdoms in Burma. In this work Harvey combines the narratives of earlier European travellers to Burma with tales from the local chronicles, and evidence from the local inscriptions. Harvey’s text is an academic account of Burmese history, but it is also a highly literary and sometimes contradictory narrative. 5 Harvey, in his introduction to the book, describes it as “a little pioneer work,” as much of the written evidence of pre-colonial Burma remains “untranslated or unprinted.”6 Yet this book, which was originally published in London in 1925, was not just a “little pioneer work,” it became one of the standard Burmese history texts in the late colonial period..."
    Author/creator: Alyssa Phillips
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol.3, No. 1, Spring 2005,
    Format/size: pdf (106K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: Text and Context: Another Look at "Burmese Days"
    Date of publication: 20 March 2005
    Description/subject: "Students of colonial Burma inevitably turn to Burmese Days. The frequent pedagogical use of George Orwell’s (1903-1950) novel has meant that the text has become a part of the mythology of imperial experience not only for Burma, but for the British Empire as a whole...this paper will raise the possibility that repositioning Burmese Days within the stream of discourse about Burma shows that while it was an important work of social criticism, it also bore the biases which some scholars prefer to label as `orientalist.’ Having said as much, it remains beyond the boundaries of this discussion to decide whether Orwell’s novel warrants its mythological reputation...With its emphasis on the cunning of U Po Kyin and ultimate unknowable character of the Burmans Orwell’s novel repeats the constructions of stereotypes which scholars have come to associate with `orientalism.’ To be sure, Orwell did not write to create categories of difference or to promote racial hierarchies, but his novel has the effect of supporting some of these patterns of discourse. Burma, both the land and its peoples, remains as `the other’; the main emphasis is on the presentation of the generic evils associated with imperialism.
    Author/creator: Stephen L. Keck
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (63K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: THE FLIGHT OF LAO WAR CAPTIVES FROM BURMA BACK TO LAOS IN 1596: A COMPARISON OF HISTORICAL SOURCES
    Date of publication: 20 March 2005
    Description/subject: "In 1596, one thousand Lao war captives fled from Pegu, the capital of the kingdom of Burma, back to their native kingdom of Lan Sang. This incident is insignificant when compared to more cataclysmic changes like the founding or fall of dynasties, but it has attracted the attention of Western, Thai, and Burmese historians since the 17th century. The incident is noteworthy and exceptional in several ways. First, the flight was to a remote destination: Laos. Second, the incident involved two traditional enemies: Burmese and ethnic Tai's. "Tai" will be used to emphasize that this is an autonomous history of pre-modern states ranging from Ayutthya in the South, through Lan Sang, Lan Na, Kengtung, and Sipsong Panna in the North, to the Shan states of Burma in the far north. Third, the entries covering the incident in the Ayutthya, Chiang Mai, and Lan Sang chronicles are short, ambiguous, and beg to be explained. All of this gives the incident great dramatic potential and two historians of note have made use of these exceptional characteristics to further their literary and ideological goals: de Marini, a Jesuit priest, in a book published in 1663, and Prince Damrong, a Thai historian, in a book published in 1917. Sections 2 and 5 will analyze the works of these historians..."
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
    Format/size: pdf (115K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


  • Oral History

    Individual Documents

    Title: Learning to Listen: A Manual for Oral History Projects
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: "Learning to Listen" is a manual designed specifically for those who want to develop oral history and oral testimony projects with people in or from Burma. The manual, produced by OSI grantee The Green Centre for Non-Western Art, has been developed with the support of Panos Oral Testimony Programme, who permitted incorporation of training materials that have been developed by them worldwide for use in NGOs and community groups. The manual gives a basic introduction to the planning, implementation and assessment of oral projects, as well as guidelines on dissemination and preservation of oral and visual materials in settings where only basic technologies are available. The principles, however, are adaptable to a range of different contexts and examples are included in the text of a wide range of projects for those who want more detailed discussion of some of the issues raised. "Learning to Listen" will be a valuable tool for all those interested in pursuing oral research with communities from Burma, and the Burmese translation of the text will be of benefit both to local researchers and to those who want to develop their work collaboratively.
    Author/creator: Manday Sadan
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: The Green Centre for Non-Western Art
    Format/size: pdf (6.4MB - English; 4MB - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.soros.org/initiatives/bpsai/articles_publications/publications/learning_20080407/b_learn...
    Date of entry/update: 30 March 2009


  • General studies (covering various periods and themes)

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: History of Burma (Wikipedia)
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Early history (to 9th century CE) 1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Pyu city-states 1.3 Mon kingdoms 2 Pagan Dynasty (849–1298) 2.1 Early Pagan 2.2 Pagan Empire (1044–1287) 3 Small kingdoms 3.1 Ava (1364–1555) 3.2 Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287–1539) 3.3 Shan States (1287–1557) 3.4 Arakan (1287–1784) 4 Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752) 4.1 First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599) 4.2 Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752) 5 Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) 5.1 Reunification 5.2 Wars with Siam and China 5.3 Westward expansion and wars with British Empire 5.4 Administrative and economic reforms 5.5 Culture 6 British rule 6.1 World War II and Japan 6.2 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination 7 Independent Burma 7.1 1948–62 7.2 1962–88 7.3 Crisis and 1988 Uprising 7.4 1989–2006 7.5 2007 anti-government protests 7.6 Cyclone Nargis 7.7 2011–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


    Title: History of Myanmar (Burma)
    Description/subject: Articles etc
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History - ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသမိုင္း ၁၂၈၇ - ၂၀၁၁ - Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
    Subscribe: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


    Individual Documents

    Title: River of No Return - a review of Than Myint U's "The River of Lost Footsteps"
    Date of publication: July 2007
    Description/subject: The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma by Thant Myint-U, Faber and Faber: 2007, P361... Burma’s Famous Waterway Gives a New Biographical-History Book Its Title... "In his latest book, targeting a general readership, Thant Myint-U collages his memoirs, travelogue and genealogy against Burma’s historical background. In the late 1820s, the first Anglo-Burmese war dealt an initial major blow to the Konbaung dynasty. It was then that scholars and Buddhist monks at the court of Ava began to revise and update U Kala’s Chronicle of Burmese Kings. The result was The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, an endeavor Thant Myint-U finds “a fitting thing to do, when the future seemed unclear, the present had become so painful, and the lessons of the past needed a more proper accounting.” This could well have been Thant Myint-U’s own intention..."
    Author/creator: Ko Kpo Thett
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


    Title: Crucible of War: Burma and the Ming in the Tai Frontier Zone (1382-1454)
    Date of publication: September 2006
    Description/subject: Table of Contents: 1. Introduction: In search of “Mong Mao” a. State or chieftainship? b. Historical over-extrapolation: Unified states and Southern Advances c. Geography: Where was Mong Mao? d. A Tai Frontier? e. History of the Tai Frontier: Public or hidden? f. Goals, conventions, sources, and analytical frameworks 2. Tai raids and the founding of Ava (1301-1382) a. Tai raids, a period of crisis, and the founding of Ava (1359-1368) b. Mingyiswasawke builds the state of Ava (1368-1400) 3. The Ming conquest of the Tai Frontier (1382-1398) a. The initial Ming attempts to win Yunnan over (1369-1380) b. The Ming invasion and conquest of Yunnan (1380-1383) c. Si Lun-fa seizes power and submits to the Ming (1382) d. A Tai challenge to Ming rule in Yunnan (1382-1388) e. The Battle of Dingbian 1388: A Ming punitive expedition against the Tais f. The pursuit of Si Lun-fa and war reparations (1388) g. Tai attacks against Ava and a Ming mission to the region (1393-1396) h. Si Lun-fa deposed by a rival Tai leader (1397) i. The reinstatement of Si Lun-fa (1398) 4. The Ava-Pegu and Ming-Vietnam Wars (1401-1427) a. Ming frontier administration reorganized (1402-1406) b. The Ava-Pegu War: Irregular cavalry forces from the Tai frontier (1401-1406) c. Further inroads into the Tai Frontier by Ava under Minyekyawswa (1406-1414) 5. A crucible of war: The aftermath of the Ava-Pegu and Ming-Vietnam Wars (1426-1438) a. The North: Mong Mao expansionary warfare eastwards into Ming Yunnan (1427-1438) b. Political disorder and uncertainty in the Tai Frontier: A small case study c. The South: Tai involvement in Ava’s domestic politics (1426-1440) 6. Burma as Ming proxy in a Tai manhunt: The final Luchuan-Pingmian Campaigns (1442-1454) a. The Third Luchuan-Pingmian Campaign (1443-1444) b. The Fourth Luchuan-Pingmian Campaign (1448-1449) c. The Burmese capture Si Ji-fa (1449-1454) 7. Conclusion a. Who ultimately controlled Mong Yang? b. Historical cycles in the Tai frontier c. Long-run demographic forces behind warfare in the Tai Frontier: Further research d. A brief summary of the history e. Epilogue: Bibliographical notes on Tai history 27 77
    Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.2 (Autumn 2006)
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20071010121234/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/SBBR4.2/4.2Fernquest.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
    Date of publication: April 2006
    Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
    Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
    Format/size: pdf (272K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    Title: Der Traum vom buddhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat
    Date of publication: 29 December 2005
    Description/subject: Die hier vorgestellte These besagt, dass es im buddhistischen Birma ein von Menschen aus allen Schichten der Bevölkerung geteiltes geschichtlich überliefertes System von Vorstellungen und Erwartungen gibt, das mit unserem Begriff "Wohlfahrtsstaat" belegt werden kann. keywords: burmese way to socialism, social system, constitution, political culture, welfare state
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 15-21
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


    Title: Unfinished Struggle - An Interview with Gen Kyaw Zaw
    Date of publication: December 2003
    Description/subject: Gen Kyaw Zaw, 84, alias Thakin Shwe, is one of the founders of the Tatmadaw, or Burma’s armed forces. He is one of the Thirty Comrades who went to Japan for military training in 1941. He joined the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in 1944 and was elected to the Central Committee a year later. In 1956, he was accused of leaking news to the CPB and forced to leave the army. He served as Vice Chief of General Staff of the CPB until the 1989 mutiny. In written correspondence with The Irrawaddy, Kyaw Zaw discussed Burma’s past and the lessons it holds for the country’s future.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


    Title: Zum Verständnis ethnischer und politischer Konflikte in Burma / Myanmar
    Date of publication: May 2003
    Description/subject: Der Artikel beschreibt die historische Entstehung ethnischer Konflikte seit der Kolonialzeit sowie die Instrumentalisierung der ethnsichen Zugehörigkeit unter dem Militär; historical development of ethnic conflicts; instrumentalisation of ethnicity
    Author/creator: Hingst, René
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Heinrich Böll Stiftung
    Format/size: pdf (916.60 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/downloads/hingst_burma2003.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: "Burmese Heritage": Introduction
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: Introduction by the Guest Editor to "Burmese Heritage", a collection of articles published in the IIAS Newsletter Issue 25, October 2001. "The Union of Myanmar, more commonly known as Burma, has a very rich and culturally diverse heritage. The Burmese are the majority of the population while Kachin, Chin, Arakanese, Shan, and Karen form important minority groups cultivating their own traditions. Since the late eighteenth century, the area covered today by the Union of Myanmar was known to Westerners as Burma. The renaming of the country by the military government a few years ago is still a controversial issue for political opponents, though 'Myanmar' was the usual literary name for the country since the earliest days of Burmese epigraphy..."
    Author/creator: Stephan van Galen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Keeping Terror -- and Hope -- at Bay
    Date of publication: September 2001
    Description/subject: "On Sept 11, the world watched in horror as a wave of devastation swept the United States. The international response to the attacks on New York and Washington, while far from unanimous in its assessment of the underlying causes of this tragedy, was swift in its recognition that a new era of global conflict had been born. The first war of the new millennium had begun, and with it, a dawning sense of the dangers that lie ahead..."
    Author/creator: Editorial
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Introduction: Problems in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Author/creator: Kei Nemoto
    Language: Japanese
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rewriting History
    Date of publication: October 2000
    Description/subject: The wife of former dictator Ne Win was in Tokyo recently to conduct research for a project to "rewrite modern Burmese history," according to a report from Radio Free Asia's Burmese-language service. Ni Ni Myint, who is also the director of the Historical Research Center in Rangoon, was accompanied by several other historians on her trip to meet Japanese experts on Burmese history. This was her second visit to Japan in two years.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10 (Intelligence section)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: His Story, Not History - a review of of Maung Maung's "The 1988 Uprising in Burma"
    Date of publication: August 2000
    Description/subject: "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung (foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49, 1999, Yale Southeast Asia Studies, New Haven, Connecticut..."Despite its title, this is not an account of the dramatic events that engulfed Burma in 1988. It is an attempt to rewrite history, a whitewash of one of the most brutal massacres in modern Asian history. More precisely, it is a blind eulogy to Burma’s aging strongman Gen Ne Win. And the reverence for the "Old Man," as he is usually referred to in Burma, is extended even to his children and grandchildren. For these reasons alone, Dr. Maung Maung’s book is worth reading because it shows how far an academic sycophant is prepared to go to please his mentor..."
    Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rights, Justice and Good Governance in Burmese Tradition Burma -- Millennium Special - Part II
    Date of publication: March 2000
    Description/subject: Rights, Justice and Good Governance in Burmese Tradition. This is the second part of a three-part series on the past thousand years of Burmese history, by historian U Aung Kin. round A.D. 100 the Mon people of what is now lower Burma were said to have established contact with traders from India, from whom they imported astrology, political ideas, and above all, the art of writing. The Mon derived their alphabet from India and the Burmese words came from the Mon. The first mention of the word “Mirma” was found in a Mon inscription dated 1102. The word “Mranma” (now Myanmar) first appeared in an inscription of 1190. And the spelling later changed to “Mramma” around 1332...
    Author/creator: U Aung Kin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Millennium Special
    Date of publication: February 2000
    Description/subject: This is the first part of a three-part series on the past thousand years of Burmese history, by historian U Aung Khin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: An Invented History
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: "Thai histories have long celebrated the epic victory of King Phra Naresuan Maharat during a duel with the Burmese crown prince from elephant back and the subsequent restoration of Thai independence, but recently a new narrative has glorified Naresuan’s sister—Phra Suphankalaya—and her heroic devotion to brother and state which has transformed this figure from a footnote in history to a “magical” being and renewed the interest of Thais in their history with Burma..."
    Author/creator: Moe Gyo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Honoring Those Who Fought for Freedom" (Letter from Burma)
    Date of publication: 01 December 1998
    Description/subject: "The nature of time is incomprehensible. Days that crept and months that crawled telescope into years that seem to fly past. Burma is a land of soothsayers. Campaigning in the Irrawaddy division in 1989, I met a young doctor who told me anxiously that after careful astrological calculation, local Buddhist monks had come to the conclusion that nine years would pass before the movement for democracy was crowned with victory. "Nine years," he said with furrowed brow, "Can we bear it for so long?" "Why not?" I replied absently, wondering about the scientifically calculable probability rate of astrological predictions with one part of my mind while the other tried to work out the implications of a decade of struggle. At that time, a decade stretched out mistily into the unforseeable future; but now that almost the whole of it has been left behind, it has shrunk to negligible proportions..."
    Author/creator: Aung San Suu Kyi
    Language: English
    Subscribe: /bdspring99a.html#obit
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Remarks on the 50th Anniversary of Burma's Independence
    Date of publication: December 1998
    Description/subject: Remarks on the 50th Anniversary of Burma's Independence by Sr. Gen. Than Shwe, Daw Aung san Suu Kyi, Ludu Daw Ahmar and General Bo Mya.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. V, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma: Die Wiederkehr der Gleichen - Historische Reflexion zum 10. Jahrestag der Machtübernahme von SLORC
    Date of publication: October 1998
    Description/subject: Gedanken zur Geschichte Burmas, 10 Jahre nach der Machtübergabe an SLORC. Kurze Anmerkung zu deutsch-burmesischen Beziehungen, Kolonialzeit, König Thibaw. Reflections about Burma's history ten years after 1988. SLORC - SPDC, King Thibaw, Aung San, Aung San Suu Kyi, German-Burmese relations.
    Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg.14, Nr. 3 - Asienhaus
    Format/size: html (28,8K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


    Title: Who Killed Aung San? [Interview With Gen. Kyaw Zaw]
    Date of publication: August 1997
    Description/subject: "...Q: Who do you think really killed Bogyoke Aung San? A: Who really killed Bogyoke Aung San was the British government. It was their plot. Q: Why do you say that? A: I suppose there were three reasons why he was killed. Firstly, Bogyoke Aung San was the leader who could organise and unite the whole country so they were afraid of the whole of Burma uniting. This was the main reason. Secondly, Bogyoke Aung San could reunite with the Communist Party of Burma. They were worried about that too. And finally, they supposed that they could handle Burma more easily if they removed him. These were the reasons why he was killed..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
    Date of publication: 1960
    Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
    Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
    Format/size: read online, pdf (6.4MB) text (512K) etc.,
    Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Furnivall-Governance_of_Modern_Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


    Title: A Brief History of Burma
    Author/creator: Jane Carter 1995?
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: HISTORISCHE ENTWICKLUNG DER ETHNISCHEN KONFLIKTE IN MYANMAR / BURMA
    Description/subject: Vor der Ankunft der britischen Kolonialmacht waren die burmanischen Königreiche zwar die dominierende politische Kraft, ihre Herrschaft über die Minderheiten blieb aber beschränkt. Zu keinem Zeitpunkt in der vorkolonialen Geschichte bemühten sich die Monarchen darum, die Minderheiten unter Zwang zu assimilieren. Politisch relevant wurde die ethnische Zugehörigkeit erst unter der britischen Kolonialherrschaft, als das Land in das direkt verwaltete Burma proper (Burma an sich) und in die indirekt verwalteten frontier areas (Grenzgebiete), das vornehmliche Siedlungsgebiet der Minderheiten, geteilt wurde. Karen (KNU); Panglong-Abkommen; Waffenstillstandsabkommen; History of ethnic conflicts in Burma; Karen (KNU); Panglong-Agreement; Ceasefire Agreements;
    Author/creator: Heike Löschmann
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
    Format/size: html (25k)
    Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


  • Arakanese/Rakhine history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Scholars' Column
    Description/subject: "Collected Papers and Articles on Arakan written by various eminent scholars around the world". Several scholarly articles on Arakanese history (not to be confused with the political items which have been slipped into the same page. These have their own, different value.).
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Rakhapura.com (Arakanese nationalist site)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: History Behind Arakan State Conflict
    Date of publication: 12 July 2012
    Description/subject: "Arakan history expert Dr. Jacques P. Leider gives an exclusive interview to The Irrawaddy in light of the recent sectarian strife in western Burma. Leider has been conducting research as well as contributing articles to academic journals on Arakan State for more than two decades. He has worked with SEAMEO-CHAT, the regional center for history and tradition in Rangoon, and is currently head of the French School of Asian Studies in Chiang Mai, Thailand."
    Author/creator: Jacques Leider (interviewed by "The Irrawaddy")
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


    Title: Myanmar’s Rohingya Dilemma
    Date of publication: 09 July 2012
    Description/subject: "In the past, the people who called themselves “Rohingya” had to contend with successive military governments’ indifference to recognizing — or regularizing - their status as persons living on the territory of Myanmar. The latest incidence of anger against the Rohingyas, however, did not have immigration woes at its source. An unfortunate crime of rape and murder — committed by Muslim men against a Buddhist woman in a strongly nationalistic state — escalated into communal violence fraught with racial and religious undertones. The views, many of them inflammatory, on social media platforms indicate deep-seated prejudices that threaten the unconsolidated stability in Myanmar under President Thein Sein’s reform-minded administration. President Thein Sein made a statement on 10 June to calm seething sentiments on the present conflict. Myanmar also received the visit of United Nations (UN) Special Envoy Vijay Nambiar to the conflict areas. The measures have resulted in lessening tensions somewhat, and won praise from the European Union and the United States2. Responding to questions by media, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi highlighted the importance of handling the situation with “delicacy and sensitivity” while also underscoring the need for the rule of law as “essential [..] to put an end to all conflicts in the country”. However, the Rohingya issue is still far from reaching a lasting solution...".....THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND EVOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT...THE ROHINGYA AND THE CITIZENSHIP LAWS...CHALLENGES AHEAD
    Author/creator: Tin Maung Maung Than and Moe Thuzar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies ("Perspective")
    Format/size: pdf (510K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


    Title: Between India and Southeast Asia- Arakan, Burmas Forgotten Kingdom
    Date of publication: 28 December 2008
    Description/subject: "For more a millennium the policy we know as Arakan existed as a culturally strategic border state, the only state in Southeast Asia to be connected to India by both land and sea routes. The study of its culture is of particular interest as it reveals which elements of Indian cultural were adopted in Arakan and in the land to its east. We can then ask why some elements and not others were adopted, and attempted to relate this to the political, social and religious developments of the wider region..."
    Author/creator: Pamela Gutman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Rakhapura Arakan Information Website
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD
    Date of publication: 13 March 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The Arakanese kingdom (Rakhine state in modern Myanmar) grew from the fifteenth century AD from a small agrarian state with its nucleus in the hart of the Kaladan valley to a significant local power by the early seventeenth century. Arakan asserted its influence across the northern shores of the Bay of Bengal. In the first decades of the seventeenth century the Arakanese kings of Mrauk U received tribute from local rulers between Dhaka and Pegu, cities more than a thousand miles apart. The Mughal rulers of Bengal were even forced to build a string of forts to defend the areas around Dhaka and Hugli against Arakanese incursions. From the middle of the seventeenth century the Arakanese state was gripped by a seemingly sudden decline that would culminate in civil war at the end of the seventeenth century and the loss of control over south-eastern Bengal, followed by the conquest of Arakan by the Burmese in the eighteenth century. The rapid rise and decline of the Arakanese state between the early fifteenth and the end of the seventeenth century is the subject of this dissertation."... Keywords: Arakan, Bay of Bengal, Bengal, Burma, History, Mrauk U, Mughal, Rakhine, State formation, VOC.
    Author/creator: Stephan van Galen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: van Galen, S.E.A., 2008, Doctoral thesis, Leiden University
    Format/size: html, pdf (17 pdf files accessed frim an html page)
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2012


    Title: Towards Understanding Arakan History (Part I, II and III)
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: PREFACE: A mirror reflects exactly any object that stands before it. So does history reflect the past of a people or a nation? History gives us knowledge of past. But history can be a forgotten past, especially for literally less advanced people. After a few generations, history cannot be remembered unless it is written or recorded, and observation of illiterate tribes all over the world shows, that they are helplessly wrong with regard to the events of their history for more than a couple of generations back. Thus recording of history in various forms took place from the early stage of human society. Records of history are very important such as roots are for trees. Without proper records of history it is very difficult for a people to go ahead. For future planning we need the knowledge of past. Hence, I have been studying the history of Arakan in particular and of Myanmar in general and have been collecting some important facts and records related to them. Here some of my friends requested me to compile a brief but precise history of Arakan with special attention to the evaluation of Muslim society there and I complied with their request. Writing a history book needs knowledge and experience. It is a big job for me as it will consume time, mind and energy. At the same time I was not free enough because of my personal engagements. Non-availability of some reference books is another factor. Next most of the history books on Arakan, by Arakanese themselves are found to be irrelevant with the latest researches of scholars. Many facts there are illogical, imaginary and exaggerative in nature. So to bring historical nucleus in to light with authentic references and correct documentations become an essential part of my task here. Further, facts concerning Muslim’s role in Arakan, traditionally have been covered ‘up or distorted. In this treatise my attempt to bring them in to light may be subject to refutation from some circles. Especially three historical nucleuses here may be found deviated from our traditional concept though they are real and true. The main object of this treatise indeed is to shed light on these points.
    Author/creator: Abu Anin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: A Study on the Issue of Ethnicity in Arakan, Myanmar
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=866:towards-und... (Part II)
    http://www.kaladanpress.org/v3/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=900:towards-und... (Part III)
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: The Development of a Muslim Enclave in Arakan (Rakhine) State of Burma (Myanmar)
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: Conclusion: "After Burma gained independence, a concentration of nearly ninety percent of the area’s population, the distinguishing characteristics of their own culture and the Islamic faith formed an ethnic and religious minority group in the western fringe of the republic. For successive generations their ethnicity and Islam have been practically not distinguishable. At the beginning they adopted the slogan, “Pakistan Jindabad,” (Victory to Pakistan). This policy faded away when they could not gain support from the government of Pakistan. Later they began to call for the establishment of an autonomous region instead. Pakistan’s attitude toward the Muslims in Arakan was different from the Islamabad’s policy toward Kashmiris. During the Independence War in Bangladesh most of the Muslims in Arakan supported West Pakistan. After Bangladesh gained independence Dhaka followed the policy of disowning those Chittagonians. Consequently they had to insist firmly on their identity as Rohingyas. Their leaders began to complain that the term “Chittagonian Bengali” had arbitrarily been applied to them. But the majority of the ethnic group, being illiterate agriculturalists in the rural areas, still prefers their identity as Bengali Muslims. Although they have showed the collective political interest for more than five decades since Burma gained independence, their political and cultural rights have not so far been recognized and guaranteed. On the contrary the demand for the recognition of their rights sounds a direct challenge to the right of autonomy and the myth of survival for the Arakanese majority in their homeland. A symbiotic coexistence has so far been inconceivable because of the political climate of mistrust and fear between the two races and the policy of the military junta. The Muslims from the other parts of Arakan kept themselves aloof from the Rohingya cause as well. Thus the cause of Rohingyas finds a little support outside their own community, and their claims of an earlier historical tie to Burma are insupportable."
    Author/creator: Aye Chan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005, ISSN 1479-
    Format/size: pdf (246K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    Title: Interview with Guest Editor Stephan van Galen
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "By the time of his first visit to Arakan in 1999, Van Galen had already read about Southeast Asia and Arakan for several years. At a young age, he had read the children's book, De Scheepsjongens van Bontekoe, which was based on the seventeenth-century travel logs of an East India ship's captain named Bontekoe, who was shipwrecked in the Indian Ocean. 'The story had become a classic already during the seventeenth century. Of course, I never realized just to what extent the stories were true until I started doing my research on Arakan, and going through the archival material I came across his name again,' he recalls. But visiting the country one studies as a historian is felt by Van Galen to be a vital part in the process of understanding it..."
    Author/creator: Tanja Chute
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rediscovering Arakan: Studying cultural change on an Asian frontier
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "Covering the biggest part of Myanmar's northwestern sea coast, Arakan faces the Bay of Bengal and shares its northern border with Bangladesh and India. Called either Roshang (in Bengal), Rakhangapura (in Sri Lankan chronicles), Yakhai (in Ayutthayan chronicles), or Rakhine by its own inhabitants, the study of the history of Arakan has suffered from the area's peripheral situation, at least in the divisions of Asia familiar to us..."
    Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rise of a Mainland Trading State: Rahkaing Under the Early Mrauk-U Kings, c. 1430-1603
    Date of publication: 1998
    Description/subject: This study of the rise of the maritime kingdom of Rahkaing (Arakan) in the 15th and 16th centuries attempts to demonstrate how the kings of Danya-wati gradually drew other power centers in the Rahkaing littoral (including Mekha-wati, Dwara-wati, and Chittagong) into its political orbit. Vital to this political centralization were the collateral processes of increasing maritime trade, demographic growth spurred by resettled war captives, the suppression of rival lowland tribes, supplies of firearms, and the development of a multi-directional system of religious patronage. By the end of the 16th century, Mrauk-U rulers, as both Buddhist kings and Islamic sultans, controlled the entire Rahkaing littoral as one kingdom and had begun their expansion into neighboring regions as distant as Dacca in Bengal and Pegu in Burma.
    Author/creator: Michael W. Charney
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
    Format/size: pdf (2.19MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol3.html
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    Title: ARAKAN, MIN YAZAGYI, AND THE PORTUGUESE:
    Date of publication: June 1993
    Description/subject: "A thesis presented to the Faculty of The College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts Michael W. Charney (June 1993)..."Until Min Yazagyi’s reign, then, I think that the Arakanese were the dominant partner in the Arakanese-Portuguese relationship. When Min Yazagyi forgot the importance of the Arakanese king’s role in maintaining this dominance in their relationship, however, the Portuguese were given the opportunity to declare themselves independent. In response, Min Yazagyi, preoccupied with himself and his royal regalia, allowed his royal court to “fall prey” to factionalism and wasted the best of the Arakanese military forces in poorly-crafted campaigns under the command of local military leaders of doubtful abilities. This hurt Arakan’s credibility as a powerful empire and weakened the international alliance system, which had been carefully constructed by past Arakanese kings. Further, the repeated Arakanese military disasters presented a tremendous drain on Arakanese economic resources which Min Yazagyi was not able to remedy. The collapse of Arakanese dominance in the Arakanese-Portuguese relationship, however, was short-lived. Min Khamaung, Min Yazagyi’s son and successor, brought the Arakanese government back firmly under monarchical control through his careful selection of new, capable military and civilian leaders. Min Yazagyi, in the tradition of Min Bin, sought a new foreign model, the Dutch, to help him defeat the Portuguese. But Min Khamaung deserves full credit for crushing the rebellious Portuguese who served the pirate “king” Sebastião Gonsalves y Tibau and brought an end to the last of the Portuguese rebellions. In Pegu, however, Min Khamaung was too late to reassert Arakanese dominance, since the Avan king, Anaukpetlun, had already crushed De Brito at Syriam and had brought Pegu under firm Avan control. Thus, a combination of new Arakanese leaders, the selection of a new foreign model, the resurrection of the nearly-destroyed maritime-based Arakanese economy, and Min Khamaung’s military genius, saved Arakan at least partially from the damage it had suffered under Min Yazagyi and the attendant Portuguese revolts. I think it should also be mentioned that the Portuguese mercenaries captured in both Syriam and the Sundiva campaigns, by Ava and Arakan, were forced to continue their service to both kingdoms as slaves. Anaukpetlun turned his Portuguese captives into a hereditary class of artillerymen whose descendants served in the Avan army for several centuries.595 In the case of Arakan, Min Khamaung, once himself a prisoner of the Portuguese, placed his Portuguese captives into Arakanese military units which guarded the northwestern border of Arakan in Bengal. The Arakanese-Portuguese relationship thus can be seen as a continuum of Arakanese dominance, with the exception of the hiatus of the reign of Min Yazagyi..."
    Author/creator: Michael W. Charney
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Ohio University
    Format/size: pdf (800K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/ArakanMinYazagyiAndThePortuguese1993
    http://ia310814.us.archive.org/2/items/ArakanMinYazagyiAndThePortuguese1993/22Charney1993thesis.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: Ancient Arakan
    Date of publication: 1976
    Description/subject: Abstract: "The early history of Arakan has been generally considered to be that of a province of eastern India, and hence its study has been neglected by both Indian and Southeast Asian historians. This dissertation seeks to examine the dynamics of the history from the beginnings of urbanization until the rise of the Burmese empire which subsequently dominated Arakanese culture. The first chapter deals with the geographical and ethnolinguistic background to the development of the earliest cities. In the second, all the inscriptions of the period, in Sanskrit, Pali and Pyu are catalogued and edited. The inscriptions issued by the kings establish a chronology for the period and illustrate the nature of the cult surrounding the institution of kingship, while copper-plate and votive inscriptions elucidate the nature of state organisation and the popular religion. Chapter Three deals with the coinage which emerged following the development of a centralised economy, and discusses the impetus for this and the role of the king on whom the prosperity of the country depended. A comparison with similar coin types in Southeast Asia is made and the catalogue includes all the coins yet discovered. The sites of the most important monuments are discussed in Chapter Four, which catalogues all the architectural and sculptural remains. A comparative analysis of the Buddhist and Hindu images and of the minor arts reveals, to a greater extent that do the inscriptions, the nature of contact with India and the rest of Southeast Asia. The conclusion deals with the political and cultural history which thus emerges, examining in detail the rationale behind the development of the concept of divine kingship in Arakan."
    Author/creator: Pamela Gutman
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Australian National University
    Format/size: html page with links to pdf sections
    Alternate URLs: http://hdl.handle.net/1885/47122
    Date of entry/update: 25 November 2007


    Title: Rohingya as Burmese Ethnic in Army Tatmadaw Journal of 1961
    Date of publication: 18 July 1961
    Description/subject: Mujahideen surrender to Burma Army in 1961 at Buthi Daung township of Rakhine State, Robbi Hular lead to Mujahid group and General Aung Gyi accepted and welcome to surrender group.... ၁၉၆၁ ခုႏွစ္က ရခုိင္ျပည္နယ္ ဘူးသီးေတာင္ ၿမိဳ႔နယ္ တြင္ မူဂ်ာဟီဒင္ သူပုန္အုပ္စုကို ေရာ္ဘီဟူလာ ဦးေဆာင္၍ လက္နက္ ခ်၊ ဗုိလ္ မွဴးခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ႀကီးမွ လက္နက္ခ် သူမ်ားကို လက္ခံႀကိဳဆို။
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Burma Army
    Format/size: pdf (1.98MB)
    Date of entry/update: 30 September 2012


    Title: An Account of the Frontier Between Ava and the Part of Bengal Adjacent to the Karnaphuli River
    Date of publication: 1825
    Description/subject: Editor’s note: This article by Francis Hamilton, also known as Francis Buchanan, first appeared in The Edinburgh Journal of Science (vol. 3, April-October, 1825, pp. 32-44). Despite its relatively late dating, Hamilton’s understanding of the area and the people were not substantially different from those found in the his earlier diaries during his travels in the area in 1798. M.W. C. ... "...The river called Naaf by Europeans, which enters the sea in about 20º 50’ north, for a short way forms the boundary between Ava and Bengal; and across it is the only communication known between the kingdom of Arakan subject to Ava and Chatigang subject to Britain. North from the forks of this river, so far as I could learn in 1798, there was no district boundary; but there extends north, along the whole of the Chatigang district, a mountainous frontier occupied by several rude tribes. Through this region flow many rivers; some into the sea, either through Chatigang or Arakan, and some into the Erawadi; and the high land at the sources of such of these rivers as run through the district of Chatigang was commonly supposed to be the actual boundary. The rude tribes indeed, which occupy the hilly countries on both sides of the central eight, claim independence, and support it, so far as their slender means will admit..."
    Author/creator: Francis Buchanan (aka Francis Hamilton)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
    Format/size: pdf (51K)
    Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


    Title: The Classical Journal for September and December, 1811
    Date of publication: December 1811
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (576K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 September 2012


    Title: A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the languages spoken in the Burma Empire
    Date of publication: 1799
    Description/subject: Reprint: Original date of publication 1799... "Francis Buchanan published his “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the Languages Spoken in the Burma Empire” in 1799, in the fifth volume of Asiatic Researches. This piece provides one of the first major Western surveys of the languages of Burma. But the article goes beyond this and provides important data on the ethno-cultural identities and identifications of the various population groups in the first half of Bò-daw-hpayà’s reign (1782-1819). For these reasons, the article is republished here. The article is reproduced in its entirety, with slight modifications as follows... The original citation for the article is as follows: Francis Buchanan. “A Comparative Vocabulary of Some of the languages spoken in the Burma Empire.” Asiatic Researches 5 (1799): 219-240. M. W. C.
    Author/creator: Francis Buchanan (aka Francis Hamilton)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1 (March 2003)
    Format/size: pdf (117K)
    Alternate URLs: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/8050/
    Date of entry/update: 07 December 2010


  • Chin history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Chin people
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chin_State
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: Matupi & Chin History
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Matupi Students Union (Burma)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: Zo History
    Date of publication: 1986
    Description/subject: "This book contains the most comprehensive analysis of the people mostly known as Chin, Khyeng, Kuki, Lushai, and Plains Chin. It analyses the effect of imposing several names to these people. The author, Dr. Vumson chooses "Zo" as the common name because most of them call themselves by this name. The readers will find how the Zo people migrated from Western China—Tibet to the valley of the Chindwin and Irrawaddy and then to the Kale —Kabaw—Myittha Valleys and why they migrated to the rugged hill areas they occupy now. The proud and brave Zo people were colonialized, though they resisted with all their might. Then Japan invaded their country, exposing them to modern industrial warfare and dislocating their social and political behaviour. When the colonial rule ended they were divided into three countries hopelessly outnumbered by Indians and Burmans. The book analyses how they struggle to survive and retain their distinctive identity. It is most interesting to see how the same people develope themselves in two forms of societies, one under socialism and the other under free enterprise." [from the cover of the hard copy edition]...N.B. MANY (MOST?) OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENDNOTES ARE REPLACED BY ". SINCE THE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS ALPHABETICAL, ONE CAN LOOK UP ANY NAME FOLLOWED BY ". THESE ERRORS WILL BE CORRECTED IN A FUTURE VERSION, BUT IT MAY TAKE A LITTLE TIME. -- OBL LIBRARIAN.
    Author/creator: Vumson
    Source/publisher: Vumson via N.T. Thawnga, Aizawl, India
    Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
    Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


  • Kachin history

    Individual Documents

    Title: Kachin History
    Description/subject: Comprising six ethnic sub-groups (Jinghpaw, Lawngwaw, Lashi, Zaiwa, Rawang, Lisu) are called Kachin. These six groups are the same traditions, customs, dialects and practices live mainly in northern Burma, as well as parts of China and India. The Kachin in Burma are estimated to number between 1 - 1.5 million.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Kachin National Organization
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


  • Karen history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: History of the Karen and the KNU
    Language: English
    Alternate URLs: http://www.rainbowends.org/karen/history.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karen Culture
    Description/subject: Karen History ... Books & Literatures ...Karen Dress ...Karen Stories ...Karen Holidays ...Karen Music
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Website
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: History of the Karen
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Dynamics of Karen National Union Political and Military Development: Reflecting the Shifting Landscape
    Date of publication: 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "This thesis investigates the themes and society of displaced Karen identity on the border between Burma and Thailand. The impact of the authoritarian military rule in Burma cannot be underestimated. The government exercises tremendous power to shape the social and economic environment. They determine whether a civil-society is prosperous and functions in an appropriate manner. Governments are also responsible for societal support and protection of all its populace. The population of Burma is essentially isolated from the global society through regime censorship and restrictions. The inter-linking spiral of humanitarian emergencies and continued to escalate, these include refugee, internally displaced people, the spread of preventable diseases and the illicit narcotic production. Recently, the Western governments had solidified their position towards the military junta resulting in a stalemate of diplomatic interaction, with ultimately the people of Burma being the victims of such actions. Current realities in the global sphere present the powerful Western Nations an opportunity for a change in perspective. US policy recommendations include a greater dialogue with the junta and the outcome of the election is seen as crucial to fostering better relation. It is imperative that long-essential reforms are undertaken if Burma if is to achieve lasting peace. The international community must develop coherent and focused policies towards Burma and make conflict resolution a priority. Humanitarian aid and displaced refugee support will play a vital role, and in the 21st Century regional dimensions must be addressed. The challenges of nation-state building must be made in conjunction with political, humanitarian, and economic issues."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: University of Manchester (thesis submitted in 2010)
    Subscribe: Peter James Bjorklund
    Format/size: pdf (374K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2013


    Title: The Karens and their Struggle for Freedom
    Date of publication: August 2006
    Description/subject: Originally published as ‘The Karens and their Struggle For Freedom’ in 1991 by the Karen National Union Reprinted under the same title by the KNU in July 1992, 18 pages, and in 1997 to include Peace talks in 1996/7, 42 pages. This version reprinted and updated with a new foreword, Chronology, colour illustrations, and images in 2006 by the Karen History and Culture Preservation Society...PREFACE (To the original Edition): "We, the Karens of Burma, have been cornered into fighting against the ruling Burmese Governments for the past fifty years. Holding the reins of all organs of the state, and in full control of the press radio, and television, the successive ruling Burmese Governments from U Nu’s AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) to the present Military Junta headed by General Than Shwe and his State Peace and Development Council ( SPDC ), have always painted us as black as they can. They have branded us insurgents, war-mongers, a handful of border smugglers, black-and stooges of both the communists and the imperialists. Even so, to the extent of our ability we have always tried to refute the nefarious one-sided Burman propaganda of false accusations and make the true facts of our cause known to the world. In fighting against the ruling Burmese Government, we are not being motivate by narrow nationalism, nor by ill-will towards the Burmese Government or the Burman people. Our struggle was not instigated neither by the capitalist world nor by the communists, as some have falsely accused us. It has an originality completely of its own. Throughout history, the Burman have been practicing annihilation, absorption and assimilation ( 3 A’s) against the Karens and they are still doing so today. In short, they are waging a genocidal war against us. Thus we have been forced to fight for our very existence and survival. In this document we venture to present a concise outline of the Karens’ struggle for freedom; the Karen case, which we consider just, righteous and noble. We hope that through it, the world may come to know the true situation of the Karens, a forgotten people who continue to fight for our freedom intensively, single handedly and without aid of any kind from anyone..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen History and Culture Preservation Society (KHCPS)
    Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 August 2006


    Title: THE KAREN PEOPLE OF BURMA AND THE KAREN NATIONAL UNION
    Date of publication: November 2003
    Description/subject: CONTENTS: 1. Karen social and political aspirations 2. Karen history and culture 3. Karen political organization
    Author/creator: David Tharckabaw, Roland Watson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Dictator Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: Karen History: in Their Own Words
    Date of publication: October 2000
    Description/subject: Most Burmese are familiar with aspects of Karen culture, but few are aware of its deeper significance as an expression of their unique values and historical experience.
    Author/creator: Min Zin
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Kawthoolei and Teak: Karen Forest Management on the Thai-Burmese Border
    Date of publication: October 1997
    Description/subject: "The Karen State of Kawthoolei has been heavily dependent on teak extraction to fund the Karen National Union struggle against the Burmese military junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Raymond Bryant explores the social and economic structure of Kawthoolei, and the way in which resource extraction was more than simply a source of revenue � it was also an integral part of the assertion of Karen sovereignty..."
    Author/creator: Raymond Bryant
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Watershed" Vol.3 No.1 July - October 1997
    Format/size: pdf (59K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma and the Karens
    Date of publication: 1928
    Description/subject: "THE object of this book is to present and to explain to the reading public, and to those who are in authority, the condition of the Karens, the position they occupy, and their aspirations as a nation second in importance of the indigenous races of the province of Burma. It is their desire to have a country of their own, where they may progress as a race and find the contentment they seek. It is this contentment which gives a man or a nation that satisfaction and good-will and creates that patriotic feeling so essential to the well-being of the nation. Self-respect in a nation begets respect from other nations and races. What a grand thing the achievement of their ambition will be for the Karens, and what praises and blessing will be showered upon those who shall have made it possible. The Karens will then be in a position to show sincere respect to other races, especially to the Burmese, with whom they have been at variance, and in turn the Burmese will find them worthy of respect and esteem..."
    Author/creator: Dr. San C. Po C.B.E.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Elliott Stock (Publisher)
    Format/size: html (188K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


    Title: Karen people
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: The Karen
    Description/subject: Most people know of the Karen people from television documentaries, magazines and encyclopedias as the "long-neck" or "giraffe" tribe. But the women who wear these brass rings on their neck belong to a sub-group of the Karen known as the Padaung. There are other sub-groups who do not and never have practiced this custom. A further myth is that these rings act to elongate the wearer's neck. Any chiropractor or orthopedic surgeon will tell you that this would lead to paralysis or death. In fact the appearance of a longer neck is a visual illusion. The weight of the rings pushes down the collar bone, as well as the upper ribs, to such an angle that the collar bone actually appears to be a part of the neck!
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Peoples of the World Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


  • Karenni history

    Individual Documents

    Title: Highlights in Karenni History to 1948
    Date of publication: 14 November 2010
    Description/subject: Karenni State is believed to have been established in BC 739. From 739 BC until the 17th century AD communities within Karenni States were ruled over by elected leaders. In the 18th century, troops from one of the feudal states in Yun intruded into Karenni State, but the Karenni people united to repel these invaders. In the 18th century Poe Bya Da was elected as chief of the whole Karenni. Buok Poe Du (Pah Paw Gyi) established Sao Lon City on the east of the Pon River and ruled East Karenni. At that time, Karenni was divided into five sub-states, namely Eastern Karenni Kantarawadi, and Western Karenni, made up of Kyebogyi, Bawlake, Nanmakhon, and Naung Pale. Each state was ruled by its own chief after Poe Bya Da passed away.
    Author/creator: Khu Oo Reh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karenni Homeland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


  • Mon history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Mon History
    Description/subject: Pre-Colonial ... Colonial ... Post-Colonial ... Dvaravati ... Mon Kingdom ... Haripunjaya ...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Euro- Mon Community
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.eumon.org/learn.php
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: The Early History of the Mons
    Description/subject: The Mons were one of the earliest peoples settled in Southeast Asia. According to the Brumese chronicles, they were the first people settled in Burma as well, immigrated from some where in central Asia several centuries before the Christian Era. Linguistically, the Mon language belong to the Mon-Khmer family.
    Author/creator: Sudara Suchaxaya
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Monland Restoration Council
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mrc-usa.org/
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


  • Naga history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Naga people
    Description/subject: Contents: * 1 Geography * 2 Organization * 3 History o 3.1 Contact with the outside world o 3.2 The advent of Christianity o 3.3 Resistance and struggle for identity o 3.4 Statehood, factions and ceasefires * 4 Society o 4.1 The village o 4.2 The family o 4.3 Status of women o 4.4 The Morung system o 4.5 Headhunting o 4.6 Transformation and challenges * 5 Culture o 5.1 Art and craft o 5.2 Folk song and dance * 6 List of Naga tribes * 7 Notes and references * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Title: Nagaland
    Description/subject: Contents: * 1 History o 1.1 Road to statehood o 1.2 Latter day unrest o 1.3 Obstacles to reconciliation o 1.4 Peace efforts * 2 Geography and climate * 3 Culture and religion * 4 Languages * 5 Demography * 6 Administration * 7 Urban centres o 7.1 Greater cities and towns o 7.2 Urban agglomerations * 8 Greater (non-district headquarter) towns * 9 Economy o 9.1 Macro-economic trend * 10 Transportation o 10.1 Railways o 10.2 Highways and towns served * 11 Newspapers * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: History of Naga Anthropology (1832-1947), A Review
    Date of publication: 2007
    Description/subject: A Review of Abraham Lotha’s History of Naga Anthropology (1832-1947)..... History of Naga Anthropology (1832-1947) is a short monograph on writings about Nagas by British colonial administrators and ethnographers from 1832, the year Nagas first came in contact with the British, to 1947, the year the Raj dissolved and the British officially left the Naga Hills. The book is based on research Abraham Lotha did for the master’s degree in Cultural Anthropology at Columbia University in New York. He is currently working on his PhD dissertation at CUNY’s Graduate Center.Although knowledge about the Nagas is reserved mostly for area specialists, History of Naga Anthropology is a valuable contribution to the broad field of postcolonial studies, a progressive cluster of multidisciplinary scholarship that took the Anglophone academic world by storm in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Colonial and postcolonial studies had a huge impact especially in the humanities and social sciences including Cultural Anthropology. Postcolonial Studies’ chief achievement was the unraveling of colonialism’s ideology and its Euro-centered worldview that gave birth to such romantic notions as the “manifest destiny” and the “white man’s burden” of bringing western civilization and Christianity to the rest of the supposedly benighted and heathen world. The belief in the civilizing mission — more accurately the propaganda of it — geared European colonialism for over five hundred years, starting in 1492, ushering in an era of material exploitation and political domination by competing European powers of the colonized societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Naga Blog
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Title: Naga Struggle Against Tyranny
    Date of publication: June 2004
    Description/subject: "The Naga, sandwiched between Burma and India, have had a tough lot. If geo-politics and geo-strategy can be labeled academically as “frontiers”, then the military and political histories and realities of South Asia’s oldest insurgency—by the fiercely independent Naga of India and Burma—definitely have a long way to go. The Naga ethnic minority of almost four million people inhabit a 48,000 square mile contiguous frontier area of Burma, China and India..."
    Author/creator: Kekhrie Yhome
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


    Title: Naga
    Description/subject: Geography... People ... Agriculture ... Society ... Head-Hunting ... Retaliation ... Dedication for God ... Personal Glory ... Tattoos ... Tattoo ... Textiles ... Hunting ... Songs ... Festivals ...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Explore
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


  • Shan history

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Shan
    Description/subject: Contents: * 1 Ethnicity * 2 Culture * 3 History * 4 Politics o 4.1 Independence and exiled government * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    Individual Documents

    Title: King Naresuan and Shan Saophas Connection
    Date of publication: 16 October 2009
    Description/subject: Content 1. King Naresuan and Shan Sao Pha Connection. -Hsenwi -Nanda Bayin Period (1581-1599) -Revolts during the reign of Nanda Bayin. -The Domain of Muang Gong in AD 1556. -Muang Mit (Maing Mit) and Nanda Bayin. -King Naresuan and Nanda Bayin. -Hongsawadi’s war with Ava, Shan and Siam. -King Nyaung Yan’s war on the Shans. -King Nyaung Yan and Muang Nai. -King Nyaung Yan and Kham Kai Noi. - Situation of King Naresuan. -The situation of the two routes to cross the Salween. -Conclusion ..... 2. Shan and Ava. -Pinya Dynasty (1312-1365). -Sagaing Dynasty (1315-1363). -The First Ava Dynasty. (1364-1421). -The Second Ava Dynasty. (1364-1421). -The Third and Last Ava Dynasty (1476-1544) ..... 3. Bayint Naung’s War on Ava, Shan and Siam. -Bayint Naung’s war on Ava. -Bayint Naung’s war on Shan and Siam ..... Reference: In Shan, In Burmese
    Author/creator: Khur Hsen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Conference on Shan Studies Maha Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand
    Format/size: pdf (2.44MB)
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Title: A Sweeping Survey of the Shan (Review of Sai Aung Tun' "History of the Shan State: From its Origins to 1962"
    Date of publication: February 2009
    Description/subject: "The story of Burma’s largest ethnic minority group is finally told—in voluminous detail... History of the Shan State: From its Origins to 1962, by Sai Aung Tun, Silkworm Press, 2009. P 684 IF ever there was a tiger in the room that hardly anyone was talking about, it would have to be the Shan. Burma’s second largest ethnic group—after the majority Burmans—has not had the same domestic or international attention given to their complex history as many smaller ethnic groups. Apart from a handful of Shan, Burmese and Western scholars, Shan State has rarely been studied since the great J.G. Scott wrote his encyclopedic Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States some 100 years ago..."
    Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII
    Date of publication: 24 January 2008
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: San Oo Aung’s Weblog
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
    Date of publication: 23 January 2008
    Description/subject: Tags: Anawrahta, Blogging, British, British Colony, Burma, Burma Digest, Burmese History, Colony, History, Mon, National day, Politics, Pyu, Pyu kingdom, Rakhine, Rule of Law, Shan, South East Asia, SPDC, SPDC Generals, Thailand, Than Shwe, Tibeto-Burman, To win the Hearts and Minds of the people, UK., UN, UNGA, UNHCR, UNSC, UNSG, War Crimes |
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
    Date of publication: 22 January 2008
    Description/subject: "...Shans around the world (Tai peoples) The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from_ * Hainan to eastern India * and from southern Sichuan to Laos, * Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai-Kadai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including Songkran or Thingyan water festival. * Despite never having a unified nation-state of their own, * the peoples also have historically shared a vague idea of a Shan or Tai or “Siam” nation, corrupted to Shan in Burma or Assam in India, and most of them self-identified themselves as “Tai”. ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
    Date of publication: 21 January 2008
    Description/subject: "...The date 7th February 1947 is a defining moment in the record of the Shan history as a modern nation. On that day, Shan princes and the people’s representatives of the Shan States demonstrated their newfound unity to declare it a “national day” which were followed by the resolutions of “Shan National Anthem”, “Shan National Flag” and the formation of “Shan State Council” on the 11th and 15th of February, 1947 respectively. The people of Shan States and leaders decided in this very year later at Panglong, on the 12th of February, to join with U Aung San and the AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) and leaders of other nationalities, to live together under one flag as co-independent and equal nations. This marks the birth of a nation-state now known as “Union of Burma”..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
    Date of publication: 17 January 2008
    Description/subject: "... Like many other ethnic peoples of Burma, the Shans or Tai once had their homeland in China. Some historians believe that the Tai people originally were from the north of the Yellow River (Huang Ho), occupying the region known as Hebei and Shanxi round about 2515 B.C. The Chinese annals also mention Tai settlements in the middle basin of the Yellow River in 850 B.C. They made their homeland there for a long time, establishing small feudal kingdoms and spreading their “Na” culture to neighboring regions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 November 2010


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
    Date of publication: 17 January 2008
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire I
    Date of publication: 15 January 2008
    Description/subject: "...Shan is a Burmese rendering of Siam. The Thai call our Shans as Thai-yai or Elder Thai – and Tai or Thai is only a dialectical rendering. The Tai Speaking Peoples stretch from North East India, through Burma, the Kachin and Shan States, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and south and southwest China. Chinese Prime Minister Chou-en-lai of PRC [Communist Mainland China] said in 1957 to Soa Shwe Thaike, who was the first President of the Independent Burma, that in China there were then 100million Tai/Dai Speaking Peoples in China..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 January 2011


    Title: Sao Weng - A Shan Patriot of Lawksawk
    Date of publication: 2000
    Description/subject: The Sao Hpa (or) Sawbwa of the State of LAWKSAWK was without doubt the first Shan leader of SHAN STATE to clash with the advancing British Column. It was January 1887. The annexation of Upper Burma was accomplished in 1885. The Sao Hpas of Southern Shan States formed a confederacy and installed the Limbin Prince as Sovereign. First, in the Shan States, and their aim was Burma itself. With unity and solidarity they firmly believed they could drive the British back to the sea. The final aim was to establish a country with Limbin Prince as King of Burma. During that period the whole of Shan States, South as well as North was in turmoil and discontent existed.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan State Magazine
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Founding of the Union of Burma Through the Hill Peoples Efforts
    Date of publication: 01 March 1993
    Description/subject: The Memoirs of Khun Kya Bu of Hsipaw, signatory to the Panglong Agreement
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shanland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Shan Case: Rooting Out the Myth of the Golden Triangle
    Date of publication: 01 December 1992
    Description/subject: "This is one of the few attempts made by the Shans to introduce themselves to the world at large. I sincerely hope that this brochure helps clear up at least some of the gravest misconceptions about the Shans and our homeland"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation, 1994
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


    Title: Tea Production On the Periphery of the British Empire
    Date of publication: September 1991
    Description/subject: The political economy of Shan tea under British colonial rule. "...Tawngpeng State, the major tea-producing area in the Federated Shan States, contained an area of 938 square miles. As of 1939 the population of Tawngpeng was 59,398 and it had a revenue of Rs. 645,634. The State was divided into 16 circles which corresponded as closely as possible to clan-divisions. Geographic features were characterised by hills ranging from five to seven thousand feet in height interspersed with valleys that averaged approximately ten miles in length and from a few hundred yards to a few miles in width. Maurice Collis, a former Burma civil servant, noted that upon approaching Namhsan, the capital of Tawngpeng which lies at the centre of the State at a height of six thousand feet, 'there is a vale and in the midst, ten miles away, is a ridge, on one end of which stands the town of Nam Hsan with the palace over it on a circular hill....The vale is one vast tea garden'. On the lower levels of the hillsides, Palaungs and Shans grow tea whilst higher up Kachins and Lisus practice shifting agriculture. Shans predominate in the valleys where rice is the staple crop..."
    Author/creator: Robert Maule Department of History, University of Toronto
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter No. 14, September 1991
    Alternate URLs: ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/thai-yunnan-nwsltr-14.txt">ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/thai...
    The directory of the Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletters is on ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Shan Federal Proposal, 1961
    Date of publication: 25 February 1962
    Description/subject: Document containing proposals For the REVISION of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BURMA submitted by THE SHAN STATE, translated by Sao Singha. This document was ratified by the Convention, attended by delegates from the entire Shan State, which was held in Taunggyi on Saturday, 25th of February, 1961.
    Language: English
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 08 December 2010


    Title: Report of the Government Advisory Committee on the Amendment of the Constitution as Proposed by the Shan State Government and its People, 1962
    Date of publication: 08 January 1962
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shanland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


    Title: The Shan State Secession Issue by Htoon Myint of Taunggyi 1957
    Date of publication: 23 January 1957
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Htoon Myint of Taunggyi
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


    Title: The Tai Ethnic Migration and Settlement in Myanmar
    Description/subject: Introduction ... Activities along the National Border ... Ethnic Groups in Yunnan and Myanmar ... Migration and Settlement of Tai Ethnic Groups ... Merging of the Shans with Myanmar ... Appendix IV ... Bibliography
    Author/creator: SAI AUNG TUNYangon University
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Shan Goverment Information
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://coe.asafas.kyoto-u.ac.jp/research/sea/social/hayashi/Hayashi_Unnan_2SAI.htm
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


  • Historical periods

    • General studies of Burmese history - multiple periods

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: History of Burma (Wikipedia)
      Description/subject: Contents: 1 Early history (to 9th century CE) 1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Pyu city-states 1.3 Mon kingdoms 2 Pagan Dynasty (849–1298) 2.1 Early Pagan 2.2 Pagan Empire (1044–1287) 3 Small kingdoms 3.1 Ava (1364–1555) 3.2 Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287–1539) 3.3 Shan States (1287–1557) 3.4 Arakan (1287–1784) 4 Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752) 4.1 First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599) 4.2 Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752) 5 Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) 5.1 Reunification 5.2 Wars with Siam and China 5.3 Westward expansion and wars with British Empire 5.4 Administrative and economic reforms 5.5 Culture 6 British rule 6.1 World War II and Japan 6.2 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination 7 Independent Burma 7.1 1948–62 7.2 1962–88 7.3 Crisis and 1988 Uprising 7.4 1989–2006 7.5 2007 anti-government protests 7.6 Cyclone Nargis 7.7 2011–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
      Date of publication: April 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
      Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
      Format/size: pdf (272K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


      Title: Myanmar and Historical Writing/ မြန်မာတို့ နှင့် ရာဇဝင် ရေးသားမှု
      Date of publication: May 1957
      Description/subject: Annotation: This article was written under the pen-name San Aung. Many texts of great value to historians were written during the Myanmar monarchies. After independence the Myanmar Historical Commission was formed and assigned the duty of writing Myanmar's history. The author eulogized Sithu U Kaung, the first chairman of the Burma Historical Commission. His death in a plane crash in 1957 was a great loss for Myanmar's scholars and educators..... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History ..... 2. Myanmar Historical Commission ..... Key Words: 1. Burma Historical Commission 2. Historical Writing 3. U Kaung
      Author/creator: /ဗိုလ်မှူး ဘရှင်
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: University Libraries / University of Washington
      Format/size: pdf (1.28 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0003.pdf
      http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/list/author/BA%20SHIN/
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: History of Burma : including Burma proper, Pegu, Taungu, Tenasserim, and Arakan : From the earliest time to the end of the first war with British India (1883)
      Date of publication: 1883
      Description/subject: "History of Burma. This was the first comprehensive history of Burma, and has become regarded as a classic reference. The author draws upon Burmese written records and the narratives of European travellers and residents before him. The book is accompanied by several maps and two Appendices which provide comprehensive lists of the 'Kings of Burma' and the 'Kings who Reigned in Pegu'."
      Author/creator: Phayre, Arthur Purves, Sir, 1812-1885
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Truebner & Co. (London)
      Format/size: pdf (8.6MB) + various other formats; (7.9MB - OBL version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Phayre-History_of_Burma.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010


      Title: Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma)
      Description/subject: "GENERAL INFORMATION" Burmese Personal Names ... Background to Burmese Political History ... Burman Prehistory ... History of the Burmans ... The Life of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... After the Death of Aung San ... The Life of Suu Kyi ... National Accounts and Other Statistics for Myanmar ... Regional Population Distribution
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: San Jose' State University
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


    • Mon kingdom [9th - 11th, 13th - 16, 18th]

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Ecology of Burman-Mon Warfare and the Premodern Agrarian State (1383-1425)1
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "...The present study is broken into five sections as follows. First, it looks at conflicts over the middle Irrawaddy (1389-1411) from various perspectives with different sets of historical data, including changes in chronicle lists of settlements; the observations of a British colonial-era gazetteer, the narrative of Kalà’s Great Chronicle and the Rajadirat epic. Previous papers (Fernquest 2006a, 2006b) have discussed in detail the larger context of these conflicts in the Ava-Pegu War (1383-1426). Second, it then describes the historical geography of Lower Burma and the middle Irrawaddy River basin and draws out the implications for military power. Historically, the north-to-south orientation of the Irrawaddy River has broken the east-to-west orientation of settlements in Lower Burma. This fragmented geography together with the limited farming potential and difficult terrain of the Irrawaddy Delta, contributed to an underlying localism in Lower Burma’s geography. Viewed in this context, the middle Irrawaddy River region is a pivotal thoroughfare providing access to the delta region, Lower Burma, and food supply located along the river. Battles over this strategically important stretch of river are a crucial turning point in the Ava- Pegu War with food supply and adjustments in military logistics playing a crucial role in the course of the conflicts. Apparently, because of the difficult nature of Lower Burma’s geography, the Burmans never established a military outpost any further south than Tharrawaddy on the Irrawaddy River, before the delta even begins. Third, ecological patterns conditioned the long-term conduct of warfare. The regular yearly cycle of changing climate and agriculture conditioned the way wars were fought if manpower was to be optimally conserved. The subsistence crisis was used as an extension or weapon of war. Long-term climate patterns may have increased the potential for these subsistence crises. Fourth, from the underlying constraints of environment and ecology in warfare the paper passes to the dynamics of warfare. A cycle of expansionary warfare explains how military success fueled further military success through the accumulation of geopolitical resources such as land, food supply, and manpower. A marchland factor also was operative in which enemies on fewer fronts aided the expansionary warfare of a state. Eventually, imperial overstretch and logistical overload resulted in a reverse process of state contraction in which the resources accumulated during expansionary warfare were quickly lost. Scorched earth tactics in which local food supplies were destroyed were part of the offensive strategy of expansionary warfare, whereas flight to the hinterland was part of the defensive response. Finally, in the conclusion the paper re-examines the agrarian nature of the Burmese state suggesting that general cross-cultural models of premodern agrarian states lead to richer explanations than the regionspecific mandala or “galactic polity” models traditionally employed in Southeast Asian history. Cross-cultural models allow for more realistic multi-causal explanations of historical events. They also allow for the posing and testing of a wide variety of different hypotheses and the possibility that disparate, geographically unrelated cultures, have shared historical experiences and processes. A Bayesian approach that brings in and VOLUME 6 (2008) 7 5 integrates knowledge of other premodern agrarian states in the form of a priori probabilities is suggested as one approach to crafting such a multi-threaded history of what-might-have-happened. Taken together, the six sections of this paper demonstrate how various seemingly fictional elements typically found in Southeast Asian historical chronicles, fictional elements often conceived of as a historical deficit, rather provide rich details that should be conceived instead as a historical surfeit worthy of study in and of itself..."
      Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 6, 2008
      Format/size: pdf (6.2MB, 1.4MB))
      Date of entry/update: 27 January 2009


      Title: RAJADHIRAT’S MASK OF COMMAND: MILITARY LEADERSHIP IN BURMA (C. 1348-1421)
      Date of publication: March 2006
      Description/subject: "The reign of the Mon king Rajadhirat (r. 1383-1421) was an exceptional period in Burma’s history. Rarely has one person exerted so much influence over the events of an era. Lower and Upper Burma were locked in endemic warfare for almost forty years during his reign. Unlike his father and predecessor, Rajadhirat was forced to wage war to obtain power. Once in power, he had to continue fighting to maintain power. During the critical first seven years of his rule, Rajadhirat consolidated power in a series of conflicts with other members of the ruling elite..."
      Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
      Format/size: pdf (275K - reduced; 1.97MB - original)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1fernquest.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


      Title: THE BUDDHIST KINGS OF CHIENGMAI AND PEGU, THE PURIFICATION OF THE SANGHA, AND THE MAHABODHI REPLICAS IN THE LATE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
      Date of publication: December 1996
      Description/subject: "In the late fifteenth century two similar and interesting events took place. Two Southeast Asian kings, both claiming to be Buddhist world rulers, built replicas of the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodhgaya, India. The first king was Dhammacetti (1462-1492) of Pegu, who built the Shwegugyi Temple in Pegu in 1479. The other king was Tilokaraja (1441-1487), of Chiengmai, who began building the Wat Cet Yot in 1455 (although the building went on for over a decade). Both the Shwegugyi and the Wat Cet Yot are replicas of the Mahabodhi temple at Bodhgaya, India, in their general architectural design, their use of the seven stations in their layout, and their association with the bodhi tree. The Mahabodhi temple is important to Buddhism, because it was built next to the bodhi tree under which the Buddha sat when he was enlightened. The seven stations at that temple refer to the seven different sites where the Buddha spent each of the seven weeks after enlightenment. This means that the Mahabodhi temple, the bodhi tree, and the seven stations there are directly tied to the foundation of the sasana and to the purity of the sasana. The construction of the two Mahabodhi replicas is even more interesting because only two other replicas of the Mahabodhi were built in Southeast Asia, one in Pagan built in 1215 by Nadaunmya (Htilominlo), and a minor one at Chiengrai, which cannot be dated or attributed. It is difficult to find out, however, why two kings in neighboring areas built Mahabodhi replicas at about the same time and why such replicas were not built in Southeast Asia for the 250 years before this time or at anytime afterwards.6 The chronicles and inscriptions explain that Tiloka and Dhammacetti were performing meritorious acts by building the Mahabodhi replicas. The chronicles and inscriptions also claim that these two kings were trying to unify and purify the sangha in their lands. However, the chronicles and inscriptions do not say why Mahabodhi replicas were built by Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja around the same time and not by every king before and after who tried to gain merit or be a dhammaraja by purifying and uniting the sangha. I think it is important to find the underlying reasons for the similar event occurring in Chiengmai and Pegu in the late fifteenth century. I will try, using the information that is available, and general information regarding the social, political, commercial, religious, agricultural, and demographic trends of that period, to provide the best possible answer to the questions (1) why the Mahabodhi replicas in Chiengmai and Pegu were built, (2) why they were built in these two places and not somewhere else, and (3) why they were built at this time. My argument, which I will develop and explain more fully below, is that the most significant factor in the adoption of Mahabodhi replicas and the repurification of the sangha in late fifteenth century Chiengmai and Pegu was international trade. During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, mainland Southeast Asia was politically (small and numerous states) and religiously (small and numerous sects) divided and not many kings had the resources or power to prove their claims of being dhammarajas by unifying or purifying the sangha or support the construction of temples on the same scale as Pagan. During the same period, however, trade grew as did agricultural cultivation and the population). By the late fifteenth century, central kings gained money for religious patronage of the sangha and for political patronage of (and more prestige in the eyes of) local rulers and probably better control of their kingdoms outside of the capital. The links that Chiengmai and Pegu had with international trade also brought ideas for rulers and monks. The religious reform and the building of Mahabodhi replicas of the late fifteenth century in Pegu and in Chiengmai came from ideas, brought along trade routes (maritime and within Southeast Asia), strengthening the prestige of Sri Lanka as a center of pure Buddhism. Also, Buddhist monks travelling along Southeast Asian trade routes seem to have spread beliefs in the royal capitals (as trade centers) that religious reform should also include a replica of the Mahabodhi temple. The monks who took advantage of these ideas won the support of the central ruler over rival sects since they had a better claim to religious purity. The central kings had more resources and control than their predecessors over their kingdoms and could make the selection of a particular sect and the religious repurification more significant throughout the kingdom. Finally, to reinforce their image as dhammarajas who unified and purified the sangha, and as cakravartins or world Buddhist rulers, Dhammacetti and Tilokaraja tried to replace Pagan with their own capitals as the chief center of Buddhism (which meant that their capitals also had to have Mahabodhi replicas)."
      Author/creator: ATSUKO NAONO
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
      Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-low res; 2.3MB-medium res; 4.3MB - high res)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-mr.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Naono1996-ocr-hr.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 October 2010


    • Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü in Southern Yunnan
      Date of publication: March 2008
      Description/subject: "...Power struggles within ruling houses are a classic problem causing the weakening of dynasties and inviting foreign invasions. The Tai polities in pre-modern Asia were no exception. This recurrent problem is documented not only in contemporary Chinese sources, but also in the various versions of the Tai chronicles that the present writer has investigated. The present article focuses on the example of the Tai Lü polity, namely Moeng Lü (better known as Sipsòng Panna), which was founded in the twelfth century in present-day southern Yunnan along what Jon Fernquest has called the “Tai Frontier.”2 When waging fratricidal wars or committing fratricide to gain the throne was concerned, the traditional Tai polities in this frontier between China and the large lowland polities of mainland Southeast Asia were no better than the ruling houses of medieval Europe and China...The Chronicles of Moeng Lü (CML) is replete with killings and civil wars. Recorded above are seven major conflicts involving disputes related to succession to the throne of Saenwi Fa. The CML’s coverage of the successive reigns is not equal. The records of about one third of the reigns are very brief but that does not mean that there was no fighting during these reigns. Moeng Lü or Cheli was not a unified Tai kingdom. As recorded in the “Basic Annals” of the History of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuanshi), as early as around 1297/98 there were the Greater Cheli and Lessser Cheli. Moeng Lü was partitioned into two by the Mekong River long before Burmese expansion in the sixteenth century."
      Author/creator: Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Hamburg)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS BULLETIN OF BURMA RESEARCH VOL. 5, 2007
      Format/size: pdf (518K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


      Title: Pagan and Early Burma
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: "Pagan, today a small town of perhaps 2,000 inhabitants, was the capital of the first Burmese kingdom for about 250 years between the mid-eleventh and the end of the thirteenth centuries. During this period, more than 2,500 religious monuments, mostly Buddhist temples, stupas and monasteries, were constructed in and around the city. At the end of the thirteenth century, the city ceased to be a political center, having falled victim to demographic disruptions, economic exhaustion, and military pressure from the Mongols, though it kept its status as a sacred center and a place of learning until the end of the last Burmese kingdom..."
      Author/creator: Tilman Frasch
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Pwa Saws of Bagan/ ပုဂံခေတ် ဖွားစောများ
      Date of publication: 23 March 1996
      Description/subject: Title(Book/Serial): Burma Historical Research Department Silver Jublice publication; 1. Pwa Saw, 1st (Min Waing Pwa Saw) 1230 - 1287; 2. Pwa Saw, 2nd (Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw) 1262 - 1296; 3. Pwa Saw, 3rd (Thitmathi Pwa Saw) 1295 - 1334; 4. Myanmar - History - Bagan period, 1044 - 1287. Place/Publisher:Historical Research Department Ed. Date:1982 Pagination:p. 22 - 25 "Paper read at the first Union of Burma Literary and Social Sciences Conference held on 23rd March 1966. In the Bagan period three queens named Pwa Saw were well known. They were important advisors to the kings who ruled during their lives. The author observes that Bagan inscriptions document several queens named Saw; three Pwa Saws were described: (1) Min Waing Pwa Saw (2) Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw, and (3) Thitmathi Pwa Saw. They were clever and participated in the administration of the country.
      Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin/ ဗိုလ်မှူးဘရှင်
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Burma Historical Research Dept. via ANU Library
      Format/size: pdf (2.85MB) 35 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/article_title/The%20Pwa%20Saws%20of%20Bagan/?page=1&am...
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: Notice of Pugan, the Ancient Capital of the Burmese Empire.
      Date of publication: 04 July 1835
      Description/subject: "...The celebrated Venetian traveller, MARCO POLO, (see MARSDEN'S edition of his Travels, pages 441 to 451,) has given us an account of the war between the Tartars and the people of Mien (the Chinese name for Burmah), which occurred some time after 1272, and led the former to take possession of the then capital of the latter nation. SYMES and CRAWFORD, in the Journals of their Missions to Ava, as well as HAVELOCK and TRANT in their accounts of the late war, have described the extensive remains of Pagan, the former capital of the Burmese empire, lying between Prome and Ava, with its innumerable ruins of temples and columns. Perhaps the following account of the destruction of that city, translated from the 5th volume of the large edition of the Royal Chronicles of the Kings of Ava, (Maha Yazawen wen dan gyee,) may be deemed curious..."
      Author/creator: Lieut.-Col. Henry Burney, H. C.'s Resident In Ava
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 4 (vol. 4, July, 1835, pp. 400-404) via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
      Format/size: pdf (38K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


    • The Toungoo Dynasty [1486-1752]

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: The Toungoo Dynasty [1486-1752] (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Addendum: The Shan Realm in the Late Ava Period (1449-1503)
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: Note: The following addendum to Jon Fernquest, (2005) “Min-gyi-nyo, the Shan Invasions of Ava (1524-27), and the Beginnings of Expansionary Warfare in Toungoo Burma: 1486-1539,” SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 3.2 (Autumn 2005): 35-142, was submitted after the journal was off to press (so to speak). We have added it here at the end of the volume. It is hoped that readers of Jon’s article, earlier in this journal, will also take note of this additional and revised material. M.W.C...."Several factors conditioned the relation between the Shan Realm, China, and Burmese Ava before Min-gyi-nyo’s accession to power:...
      Author/creator: John Fernquest (Fernquist)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (152K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Min-gyi-nyo, the Shan Invasions of Ava (1524-27), and the Beginnings of Expansionary Warfare in Toungoo Burma: 1486-1539
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: Conclusion: "The main purpose of this paper has been to provide a narrative history charting the forces at work behind state expansion in the early Toungoo period. Both the reign of Min-gyi-nyo and the Shan invasions of Ava played important roles in this expansion. From the very beginning of Min-gyi-nyo’s reign, after seizing the throne of Toungoo in 1486, Min-gyi-nyo built an ever widening sphere of influence in Upper Burma. After conquering the Pyinmana area near Toungoo, during the 1490s Min-gyi-nyo attacked the rebellious vassal Yamethin on behalf of his overlord the king of Ava and made exploratory military probes along the frontier of Mon Ramanya to the south. In 1501-03, there was a succession struggle at Ava as well as an invasion and occupation of the northern part of the Mu River valley, an important part of Ava’s food supply. In the wake of these events, the new king of Ava attempted to draw Min-gyi-nyo closer to him through a marriage alliance and a gift of strategically important territory near Kyaukse, another important part of Ava’s food supply. Min-gyi-nyo entered into a state of rebellion for the first time, spurned Ava’s gift and depopulated the territory. Ava sent a military expedition against Toungoo in retaliation, but Min-gyi-nyo intercepted it ahead of time and defeated it. Shortly afterwards, in 1505, Toungoo joined with Prome and attacked towns in the Myingyan area near Pagan. Toungoo was defeated and humbled by a joint military expedition sent by Ava and Hsipaw. In 1505, three princes rebelled and seized the town of Pakan-gyi at the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers. Instead of making an immediate move to help the rebels, Toungoo and Prome bided their time with expeditions against settlements like Magwe to the south. Their caution was vindicated when the princes were defeated and executed. During his trips from Toungoo to and from these campaigns, Min-gyi-nyo attacked and raided settlements along the way, in some instances establishing marriage alliances. In 1510, the king of Ava built a new capital and palace and Min-gyi-nyo followed his example. After 1510, while Ava was burdened by Shan raids of increasing intensity, Toungoo settled back to a period of peace. Only in 1523 did Min-gyi-nyo venture out of Toungoo again in a military expedition. During the Shan invasions of Ava (1524-27), he gained many loyal vassals in the area south of Ava. Min-gyi-nyo died in 1531. The new Shan state at Ava invaded Prome in 1532 and in 1535 Toungoo under a new king Tabinshweihti started a series of attacks against Pegu, the capital of Mon Ramanya, that led to Toungoo’s conquest and control over the southern Ramanya region and its lucrative maritime trade. Several demographic factors that played a role in state formation together with a model of state formation have been assessed for their relevance to early Toungoo state expansion (1486-1539). Although many might regard the lack of primary sources for the First Toungoo Dynasty as limiting research possibilities, it is hoped that shining the light of disciplines such as historical demography, political anthropology, the anthropology of war, as well as economic theory (Schmid, 2004; Van Tuyll and Brauer, 2004) on the evidence combined with a continued search for new primary sources will allow new advances to be made in this important but understudied period of Burmese history. Perhaps archaeological evidence will also one day supplement the evidence that is now almost entirely textual."
      Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (800K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: THE FLIGHT OF LAO WAR CAPTIVES FROM BURMA BACK TO LAOS IN 1596: A COMPARISON OF HISTORICAL SOURCES
      Date of publication: 20 March 2005
      Description/subject: "In 1596, one thousand Lao war captives fled from Pegu, the capital of the kingdom of Burma, back to their native kingdom of Lan Sang. This incident is insignificant when compared to more cataclysmic changes like the founding or fall of dynasties, but it has attracted the attention of Western, Thai, and Burmese historians since the 17th century. The incident is noteworthy and exceptional in several ways. First, the flight was to a remote destination: Laos. Second, the incident involved two traditional enemies: Burmese and ethnic Tai's. "Tai" will be used to emphasize that this is an autonomous history of pre-modern states ranging from Ayutthya in the South, through Lan Sang, Lan Na, Kengtung, and Sipsong Panna in the North, to the Shan states of Burma in the far north. Third, the entries covering the incident in the Ayutthya, Chiang Mai, and Lan Sang chronicles are short, ambiguous, and beg to be explained. All of this gives the incident great dramatic potential and two historians of note have made use of these exceptional characteristics to further their literary and ideological goals: de Marini, a Jesuit priest, in a book published in 1663, and Prince Damrong, a Thai historian, in a book published in 1917. Sections 2 and 5 will analyze the works of these historians..."
      Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (115K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Ming China and Southeast Asia in the 15th Century: A Reappraisal
      Date of publication: July 2004
      Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "The 15th century was a period of intense interaction between Ming China and Southeast Asia. The period saw the Ming invade Ðại Việt, expand the scope of the Chinese polity by exploiting and then incorporating Tai polities of upland Southeast Asia, and launch a succession of hugely influential maritime armadas which travelled through Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean. It is argued that these three aspects of Ming policy can be seen as differing types of Ming colonialism greatly affecting Southeast Asia during the 15th century and beyond. A chronological study of the policies relating to Southeast Asia of the successive Ming rulers is followed by a thematic overview of how the Ming policies actually affected Southeast Asia in the 15th century. This includes reference to effects in the political, economic and cultural topography of Southeast Asia The beginnings of a non-state-sponsored maritime trade between China and Southeast Asia is also investigated."...Keywords: Ming, Southeast Asia, 15th century, Zheng He, Dai Viet, Tai, Malacca.....20 references to Burma
      Author/creator: Geoffrey Wade
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute National University of Singapore Working Paper 28
      Format/size: pdf (2.42MB)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


      Title: Accounts of King BayintNaung's life and Hanthawaday Hsinbyu-myashin Ayedawbon, a Record of his Campaings
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: About the king Bayintnaung, the king who united Myanmar and established second Myanmar kingdom, the Toungoo Dynasty and his campaigns...
      Author/creator: U Thaw Khaung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Chulalongkorn University (Faculty of Arts, Department of Comparative Literature)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 09 December 2004


      Title: Voyage to Pegu, and Observations There, Circa 1583
      Date of publication: 1626
      Description/subject: “Gaspero Balbi his Voyage to Pegu, and observations there, gathered out of his owne Italian Relation,” in Samuel Purchas (ed.), Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Lande Travells by Englishmen and Others", volume 10, (1626). "Gaspero Balbi, an Italian travelling to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century, has left for us a valuable account of Burma during the reign of Bayinnaung..."
      Author/creator: Gaspero Balbi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: “Gaspero Balbi his Voyage to Pegu..." via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
      Format/size: pdf (58K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    • The Konbaung Dynasty and the Anglo-Burmese Wars [1753-1885]

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Despot and the Diplomat
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: "The experiences of Capt Michael Symes, the first official British emissary to the Burmese court, offer lessons for diplomats dealing with the country’s current rulers... MILITARY-ruled Burma is surely one of the world’s least rewarding assignments for a United Nations diplomat. Visiting envoys are routinely refused contact with the country’s dictator, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, in his remote capital of Naypyidaw, the “Royal Abode.” Months or years may pass with no signs of progress before an envoy finally abandons his mission in frustration—and the regime claims another victory in its war of wills against the outside world. Much has been made of Than Shwe’s monarchical pretensions, and in his approach to diplomacy it is not difficult to see the influence of rulers of an earlier age, when Burmese kings believed they could keep the world at bay by treating foreign emissaries with studied disdain. Indeed, any diplomat who wishes to understand the mindset of Burma’s current rulers should probably go back at least as far as Bodawpaya, the king who perfected a brand of diplomacy still practiced in Burma today..."
      Author/creator: Neil Lawrence
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


      Title: Ruling the Rulers
      Date of publication: May 2008
      Description/subject: Efforts to limit the powers of Burma’s absolute monarchs failed. So did the monarchy... "THROUGHTOUT Asia, the middle of the 19th century was a period of political turmoil, as Western imperial powers pressed in upon countries that were subject to various forms of pre-modern rule. Burma was no exception, as it was forced to come to terms with a nation that was not only militarily superior, but also politically more advanced. Under the country’s last two monarchs, King Mindon (1853-78) and King Thibaw (1878-85), there were attempts to reform Burmese polity in the face of growing external challenges. At the center of these efforts was Yaw Atwinwun U Hpo Hlaing, the author of “Rajadhammasangaha,” a treatise which would have laid the basis for a constitutional monarchy in Burma, and which, in the words of respected scholar Maung Htin, “might have kept King Thibaw in the enjoyment of his throne..."”
      Author/creator: Min Lwin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 01 May 2008


      Title: Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins (Punna) of the Konbaung Kings (1752-1885)
      Date of publication: 2006
      Description/subject: Abstract: "Though they formed an essential part of Burmese court life, the Brahmins have hitherto attracted no scholarly interest outside Burma. Based on a study of royal orders and administrative compendia as well as recent Burmese research, this article gives for the first time an overview of the origins, the ritual and ceremonial functions and the organization of the punna. The main section is preceded by an overview of sources and research questions. Special emphasis is given in the last part to the noteworthy role played by punna in King Bodawphaya�s reform policies."
      Author/creator: Jacques P. Leider
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 10, 2005/06
      Format/size: pdf (804K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/index.shtml (JBS Vol. 10)
      Date of entry/update: 31 December 2008


      Title: Was “Yadza” Really Ro(d)gers?
      Date of publication: September 2005
      Description/subject: "Under the terms of the Treaty of Yandabo, which ended the first Anglo-Burmese war of 1824-26, the Government of India sent Henry Burney to Burma as Resident Minister to the Court of Ava. Arriving at post in April 1830 he kept a journal in which, a few months later, he recorded the following: August 12 I paid a visit this morning to an extraordinary character, an uncle of the King, named Mekkhra Mon tha or Prince of Mekkhra. He has been taught to read and understand English by the late Mr Rogers, and he evinces a very laudable desire of becoming acquainted with European science and literature. (Tarling, ed.1995:59) Burney goes on to say that he and his associates considered the Prince to be ‘certainly the most extraordinary man we have seen in this country’ in that he possessed an impressive English library, was already well informed in scientific matters, had translated extracts from Rees’s Cyclopaedia and – with the help of an American missionary – had well-nigh completed an English- Burmese dictionary. According to Burney, then, the tutor credited with enabling the Prince to do all this was ‘the late Mr Rogers.’ But how did this intriguing English-born character come to be there, and who exactly was he? I raise the question because, while most of the information we have about Rogers is based on his own accounts of his background, those accounts are not consistent. I shall therefore, working backwards from 1830, collate various pieces of information about him in an attempt to establish the truth about his past. We must first jump back four years..."
      Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (111K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: "Adoniram Judson and the Creation of a Missionary Discourse in Pre-Colonial Burma"
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: In the following paper I argue that Adoniram Judson, the first American Baptist Missionary to Burma, was strongly empathetic with his adopted country. His work as interpreter-translator during the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826 and his visits to Ava both immediately before and after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), although coached in the language of Christian mission, exhibited characteristics markedly different from the perspective of Ann Judson's memoir and from those of certain missionary narratives subsequent to his own. I propose to examine aspects of three texts: Ann Judson's An Account of the American Baptist Mission to the Burman Empire; Henry Gouger's Personal Narrative of Two Years Imprisonment in Burmah; and Adoniram Judson's deposition to John Crawfurd. I shall also refer to J. Snodgrass' Narrative of the Burmese War (1824-1826) and Henry Trant's Two Years in Ava for other perspectives of some events.
      Author/creator: Helen James
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 7 (2002)
      Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol7.html#
      Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


      Title: The Fall of Ayutthaya: A Reassessment
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: Conventional views of the 1760-1767 Burmese attacks on Ayutthaya contend that the Burmese were taking advantage of an opportunity to attack a politically and economically weak kingdom. This article adduces evidence from the Burmese chronicles, from accounts by contemporary foreign observers, and from economic history to argue that Burma's campaigns against Ayutthaya were part of an epic struggle between the two polities that began in the 1500s and continued until the Anglo-Burmese War of 1824-1826. Control of trade was one of the central factors motivating this centuries-long conflict. It was the very strength and wealth of the Siamese kingdom, not its alleged weakness, that motivated the Burmese invaders, who hoped to strike a blow that would knock Ayutthaya out of contention as the trading hub of mainland Southeast Asia.
      Author/creator: Helen James
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
      Format/size: pdf (2.19MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      Title: The Mandalay Palace
      Date of publication: 1963
      Description/subject: Mandalay Palace - Historical Sites; Mandalay - Description and Travel; Mandalay - History; Myanmar - History - Later Konbaung Period; Contents: (1) Foundation of the Palace and City p. 10-15; (2) The City's Defensive Walls p. 16-19; (3) Building outside the palace platform p. 22-24; (4) The Buildings within the palace platform p. 25-35; (5) Appendix - Kings of the Alaungpaya Dynasty p. 37; This book was published with the grant of 1962 Asia; Foundation. Text by Mon C. Durosielle former Superintendent of the Directorate of Archaeological Survey. Supplemented with thirty one plates of photographs, plans and measured drawings of the palace structures and architectural motifs as preserved in the Archaeological Department.
      Author/creator: Mon C. Durosielle
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Directorate of Archaeological Survey
      Format/size: PDF (3.84MB) 57pages
      Alternate URLs: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Zh_zzAF5zUgJ:https://www.myanmarisp.com/ABR/Ma...
      Date of entry/update: 10 July 2010


      Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
      Date of publication: 1892
      Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
      Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
      Format/size: pdf (139K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


      Title: Mandalay in 1885-1888: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892, Continued
      Date of publication: 1892
      Description/subject: Editor’s note: This is the second increment in the two-part series on the letters of James Alfred Colbeck. While the first part covered the years 1878-1879, the present letters include the years 1885-1888, when Colbeck returned to Upper Burma with British forces and served as both mission priest and as acting chaplain for British forces. M.W.C.
      Author/creator: James Alfred Colbeck
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
      Format/size: pdf (101K)
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: Mandalay in 1878-1879: The Letters of James Alfred Colbeck, Originally Selected and Edited by George H. Colbeck in 1892
      Date of publication: 16 July 1878
      Description/subject: Editor’s note: Present in 1878 and early 1879 and then returning again to Mandalay in 1885 with British forces, James Alfred Colbeck, mission priest for the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and latterly military chaplain, provides a unique look at the beginning and end of Thibaw’s reign (1878-1885). The letters included were originally selected and edited by George H. Colbeck, mission priest at Mandalay and were published under the title of Letters from Mandalay, A Series of Letters For the Most Part Written From the Royal City of Mandalay During the Troublous Years of 1878-79; Together with Letters Written During the Last Burmese Campaign of 1885-88 (Knavesborough: Alfred W. Lowe, 1892). The natural division and balance of the letters included warrants their division into two separate groupings, with the 1878-1879 letters included here and the 1885-1888 letters included in the forthcoming issue of SBBR. According to George H. Colbeck, the senior Colbeck died four days after his correspondence of 27th February 1888, the last letter in the published collection. Unfortunately, the original editor included few details on the circumstances of the correspondence, with some exceptions, beyond date and general point of origin (in most cases Mandalay). We are not told, for example, to whom the letters were written. Aside from these limitations, however, these letters offer valuable information not available in other source materials on Mandalay during the Kon-baung dynasty’s last, and arguably most troubled reign.
      Author/creator: JAMES ALFRED COLBECK
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
      Format/size: pdf (240.04 K)
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: Some Documents of Tharrawaddy’s Reign: 1837-1846, Part I
      Date of publication: October 1841
      Description/subject: Editor's note: "The following documents drawn from the reign of King Tharrawaddy are intended as one contribution of many forthcoming to the project of organizing and publishing the source accounts for one of the Kon-baung dynasty’s most obscure, yet critical reigns. Thus, documents included have not been selected on the basis of their high rate of interest relative to other documents of the period, but rather more with the view of making the documentary record complete."...“Letter of Mr. Simons, Dated Rangoon, June 20, 1838: Relations Between Burmah and British India—The “heir apparent” and others put to death” By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Letter of Mr. Simons, 23 June 1838] By Mr. Simons American Baptist Missionary Magazine 29.2 (February 1839)...[Events at Amarapura, December 1837] Maulmain Chronicle, 9 December 1837...[Letter from Maulmain, 6 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 9 April 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1. (January 1840)...“Amarapura, 23rd March 1839” American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.1 (January 1840)...[Letter from Maulmain, 3 July 1839] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.3 (March 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Letter From Maulmain, 20 January 1840] By Eugenio Kincaid American Baptist Missionary Magazine 20.11 (November, 1840)...[Report on the Kayens] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Tharrawaddy’s March to Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 22, 1841...[Preparations for Tharrawaddy’s Arrival at Rangoon] Maulmain Chronicle, September 29, 1841...[Suggestions for a Show of Force Against Tharrawaddy, 2 October 1841] by “Prevantative” Letter to the Editor Maulmain Chronicle, October 13 1841...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
      Format/size: pdf (63K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


      Title: NARRATIVE OF THE BURMESE WAR, DETAILING THE OPERATIONS OF MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL'S ARMY, FROM ITS LANDING AT RANGOON IN MAY 1824, TO THE.CONCLUSION OF A TREATY OF PEACE AT YANDABOO, IN FEBRUARY 1826.
      Date of publication: 1827
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: . CHAPTER I. Junction of the combined forces from Bengal and Madras, at Port Cornwallis—Capture of Rangoon, and release of the British and Americans, who were made prisoners by the enemy….. CHAPTER II. Description of Rangoon, and the situation of the Army after landing there ….. CHAPTER III. State and position of the Burmese forces at the period of our landing in Pegu, and exertions of the court of Ava in calling out the military resources of the country—First encounter with the Burmese troops….. CHAPTER IV. Arrival at Rangoon of two Deputies from the Burmese camp—Continuation of the military operations, and situation of the army up to the first of July….. CHAPTER V. Feeble attack of the enemy on the British lines—Attack and capture of his fortified camp at Kummeroot — Expedition sent against Mergui and Tavoy on the Coast of Tenasserim….. CHAPTER VI. The King's two brothers, the Princes of Tonghoo and Sarrawaddy, with Astrologers, and a corps of Invulnerables, join the army—Operations of the British Force up to the end of August….. CHAPTER VII. Recal of Maha Bandoola and the Burmese army from Arracan—Continuation of hostilities at Rangoon— Their effect upon the court of Ava….. CHAPTER VIII. Friendly assurances of the Siamese—Their preparations for war, and probable line of policy—Capture of Martaban and Yeh….. CHAPTER IX. State of the force at the conclusion of the rains— Reinforcements and equipment for taking the field sent from India—Approach of the grand army under Maha Bandoola….. CHAPTER X. Actions in front of Rangoon, from the first to the seventh of December….. CHAPTER XI. Attack on the enemy's fortified camp at Kokeen.on the 15th December, and his final retreat to Donoobew….. CHAPTER XII. Plan of operations—Force equipped for field service….. CHAPTER XIII. Journal of the march from Rangoon to Donoohew….. CHAPTER XIV. Operations before Donoohew—Its evacuation by the enemy—Journal of the march to Prome….. CHAPTER XV. March of a detachment towards Tonghoo, and close of the Campaign….. CHAPTER XVL Winter-quarters at Prome—State of the country— Conduct of the inhabitants; with some remarks on their character and government….. CHAPTER XVII. Renewed exertions of the Burmese, government, in preparations for the prosecution of the war—Meeting of the British and Burmese Commissioners at Neoun-ben zeik, and their ineffectual efforts to conclude a peace….. CHAPTER XVIII. Strength and position of the British and Burmese armies—Defeat of the enemy in front of Prome ….. CHAPTER XIX. Preparations for an advance'upon Ava—Plan of the campaign….. CHAPTER XX. Journal of the march from Prome to Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXI. Conclusion of a treaty of peace—Is not ratified by the king—And the Burmese army, in consequence, is again defeated, and driven from Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXII. Continuation of the march upon Ava—Renewal of negotiations—Battle of Fagahm-mew—Conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.... CHAPTER XXIII. Concluding Remarks.... APPENDIX......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR THE ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
      Author/creator: MAJOR JOHN JAMES SNODGRASS,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: JOHN MURRAY via Google Books
      Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=NYs2AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Burmese&as_brr=1#PPR3,M1 (pdf 10MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


      Title: Gleanings on Burma, December 1826
      Date of publication: December 1826
      Description/subject: "The following two entries appeared in The Gentleman’s Magazine in December 1826. They offer some useful information both on Burma’s looted textual heritage and on the confusion among the population after the war." M.W.C.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Gentleman’s Magazine via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (13K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: DIARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO BURMA IN 1760
      Date of publication: 1808
      Description/subject: "The following account is derived from Alexander Dalrymple, Oriental Repertory, 1808: I.351-393. Dalrymple has left us the following succinct introduction to the account below (M. W. C)...Capt. Alves was sent back to Burma in 1760; and on his return to Bengal, transmitted to Governor Pigot, at Madrass, the following Diary of his Proceedings.
      Author/creator: Captain Walter Alves
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (111K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: A CONCISE ACCOUNT OF THE KINGDOM OF PEGU
      Date of publication: 1785
      Description/subject: "The following account, written by the surgeon, William Hunter, relates his experiences in Pegu in 1782-1783. The observations were made on a voyage that had been ordered by the British East India Company. The account was originally printed at Calcutta in 1785 by John Hay under the title of A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu; Its Climate, Produce, Trade, and Government; The Manners and Customs of its Inhabitants. Interspersed with remarks Moral and Political. The additional appendices, one on “An Enquiry into the cause of the variety observable in the fleeces of sheep, in different climates,” and “A Description of the Caves at Elephanta, Ambola, and Canara” are unrelated to Burma and are thus not included in the text below." M. W. C.
      Author/creator: William Hunter
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (103K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm


      Title: PROCEEDINGS OF AN EMBASSY TO THE KING OF AVA, PEGU, &C. IN 1757
      Date of publication: August 1757
      Description/subject: "Ensign’s Robert Lester’s account of his embassy to Ava in 1757 was originally published in Alexander Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory. It provides one of the few first-hand accounts of Alaung-hpaya and thus remains a valuable source on the reign and the beginnings of the Kon-baung Dynasty. Dalrymple’s italicization has been removed and dates have been expanded to include the month and year in order to avoid confusion. M. W. C.... [Begins with an opening letter from Thomas Newton to Robert Lester dated 24 June 1757]
      Author/creator: Ensign Robert Lester
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (59K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    • British rule in India 1757-1947

      Individual Documents

      Title: British Ruled India 1757-1947
      Date of publication: 02 January 2008
      Description/subject: 1. Documentary Sources, Libraries and other Institutions...2. Bibliography of Books Articles and Dissertations... 3. Wikipedia Articles (main Category - British rule in India)...4. Other Links
      Author/creator: David Steinberg
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: House of David
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    • British Colonial Period [1824-1948]

      • British colonial period : Commentary (non-official books, academic papers, articles and reports)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: British Colonial Rule (Burmese)
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


        Title: British rule in Burma
        Description/subject: British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma as a province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a Chief Commissionership), British Burma, of British India in 1862.[1] After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a Lieutenant-Governorship) in 1897.[1] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948....Contents: 1 Divisions of British Burma... 2 Background: 2.1 Burma before British colonization... 3 Arrival of the British in Burma... 4 Early British rule: 4.1 Administration; 4.2 Colonial economy; 4.3 Daily life under British rule... 5 Nationalist movement... 6 Burma separated from India... 7 World War II and Japan... 8 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination... 9 See also... 10 Notes... 11 Further reading
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: Robert Gordon and the Rubies of Mogok: Industrial Capitalism, Imperialism and Technology in Conjunction
        Date of publication: January 2011
        Description/subject: Abstract: "Robert Gordon’s trip to the Mogok ruby mines in northern Burma, as reported in his testament to the Royal Geographical Society in 1888, represents one of the most blatant uses of travel as empire building in the Mekong Region. While European explorers and adventurers had been travelling to and along the region for centuries, most had been intent on mapping, surveying and categorizing its contents for purposes of their own profit, in one way or another. Gordon, while of course not unmindful of his own career, represents the traveller aiming to be of service to the greater power. He was strongly motivated by the desire to bring the ruby mines of Mogok into the reach of the British Empire through the building of a railway and the necessary infrastructure to pacify the countryside and its people, thereby enabling the enclosure of another type of commons."... Keywords: Capitalism, Imperialism, British Empire, Burma, Ruby mining
        Author/creator: John Walsh
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No.3
        Format/size: pdf (91K)
        Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


        Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
        Date of publication: January 2010
        Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
        Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
        Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
        Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
        Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012


        Title: Independence Lost
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: Sixty years after shedding the yoke of the British Empire, Burma is still colonized—by its own military generals. The fight for true independence is not over
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Robbie and the Poet
        Date of publication: March 2006
        Description/subject: "...I consider the various coincidences outlined above to be fairly convincing support of my theory that ‘the Poet’ was the future George Orwell, but there may well be a scholar somewhere who can prove me wrong..."
        Author/creator: Gerry Abbott
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
        Format/size: pdf (117K)
        Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4_1.htm
        Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


        Title: VACCINATION PROPAGANDA: THE POLITICS OF COMMUNICATING COLONIAL MEDICINE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY BURMA
        Date of publication: March 2006
        Description/subject: "...In examining the British government’s frequently half-hearted and sometimes even contradictory attempts to convince the indigenous population to accept vaccination, Burma does begin to appear in some ways as a neglected corner of British India. However, Burma may not really have been an exception as other literature has found similar problems in British India in general..."
        Author/creator: Atsuko Naono
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.1 (Spring 2006)
        Format/size: pdf (225K - reduced version; 458K- original)
        Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612023842/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4.1files/4.1naono.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 November 2008


        Title: Colonial Burma’s prison: continuity with its pre-colonial past?
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Description/subject: The practice of confining convicted criminals in prison for a stipulated period of time – to punish or reform – is a modern western innovation. Pentonville in north London, opened in 1842 and said to be the first modern prison, had four wings radiating from a central hub from which guards could observe every cell, each holding a single prisoner. The ‘modern’ prison then became one of many western innovations (including the railway, scientific medicine and the filing cabinet) transported to the colonial world from the mid-19th century.
        Author/creator: Thet Thet Wintin and Ian Brown
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Institute for Asian Studies (IIAS) (Newsletter 39)
        Format/size: pdf (302K)
        Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


        Title: The Coming of the 'Future King" -- Burmese Minlaung Expectations Before and During the Second World War
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: Throughout the history of Burma we come across rebellions often led by so-called 'future kings,' minlaungs. In western historiography, minlaung-movements are usually attributed to the pre-colonial past, whereas rebellions and movements occurring during the British colonial period are conceived of as proto-nationalist in character and thus an indication of the westernizing process. In this article, the notion of minlaung and concomitant ideas about rebellion and the magical-spiritual forces involved are explained against the backdrop of Burmese-Buddhist culture. It is further shown how these ideas persisted and gained momentum before and during World War II and how they affected the western educated nationalists, especially Aung San whose political actions fit into the cultural pattern of the career of a minlaung.
        Author/creator: Susanne Prager
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
        Format/size: pdf (601K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


        Title: The Self-Conscious Censor: Censorship in Burma under the British, 1900_1939
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: It is often assumed that censorship was not used to any great degree by British authorities in Burma. Yet, by looking at the way the British colonial government reacted to a variety of media including traditional Burmese drama, western blockbuster movies, and Burmese political pamphlets agitating against colonial rule, it is possible to see that censorship was very much a part of the British administration. British authorities censored pamphlets, books, dramas, and movies not only to contain political thought contrary to colonialism, but also to control the image of British officials as seen in the eyes of the Burmese.
        Author/creator: Emma Larkin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
        Format/size: pdf (627K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol8/Abstract2_ClymerOpt.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


        Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
        Date of publication: 1960
        Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
        Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
        Format/size: read online, pdf (6.4MB) text (512K) etc.,
        Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
        http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Furnivall-Governance_of_Modern_Burma.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


        Title: The Pacification of Burma
        Date of publication: 1912
        Description/subject: PREFACE: "Upper Burma was invaded and annexed in the year 1885. The work hardly occupied a month. In the following year the subjugation of the people by the destruction of all formidable armed resistance was effected; lastly, the pacification of the country, including the establishment of an orderly government with peace and security, occupied four years. As head of the civil administration, I was mainly concerned with this last phase. It would be a difficult task to give a continuous history of the military operations by which the country was subjugated. The resistance opposed to our troops was desultory, spasmodic, and without definite plan or purpose. The measures taken to overcome it necessarily were affected by these characteristics, although they were framed on definite principles. A history of them would resolve itself into a number of more or less unconnected narratives. A similar difficulty, but less in degree, meets the attempt to record the measures which I have included in the term “pacification.” Certain definite objects were always before us. The policy to be followed for their attainment was fixed, and the measures and instruments by which it was to be carried out were selected and prepared. But I have found it best not to attempt to follow any order, either chronological or other, in writing this narrative. My purpose in writing has been to give an intelligible narrative of the work done in Burma in the years following the annexation. It was certainly arduous work done under great difficulties of all kinds, and, from the nature of the case, with less chance of recognition or distinction than of disease or death. The work was, I believe, well done, and has proved itself to be good. My narrative may not attract many who have no connection with Burma. But for those who served in Burma during the period covered by it, whether soldiers or civilians, it may have an interest, and especially for those still in the Burma Commission and their successors. I hope that Field-Marshal Sir George White, V.C., to whom, and to all the officers and men of the Burma Field Force, I owe so much, may find my pages not without interest. I have endeavoured to show how the conduct of the soldiers of the Queen, British and Indian, helped the civil administration to establish peace. I believe, as I have said, that our work has been successful. The credit, let us remember, is due quite as much to India as to Britain. How long would it have taken to subjugate and pacify Burma if we had not been able to get the help of the fighting-men from India, and what would have been the cost in men and money? For the Burmans themselves I, in common with all who have been associated with them, have a sincere affection. Many of them assisted us from the first, and from the Upper Burmans many loyal and capable gentlemen are now helping to govern their country justly and efficiently. It has been brought home to me in making this rough record how many of those who took part in this campaign against disorder have laid down their lives. I hope I may have helped to do honour to their memories. I have to thank all the kind friends who have sent me photographs to illustrate this book, and especially Sir Harvey Adamson, the present Lieutenant-Governor, for his kindness in making my wants known." C. H. C. February, 1912......[A page or so is missing from the Index]
        Author/creator: Sir Charles Crosthwaite
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Edward Arnold
        Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/pacificationofbu00crosrich
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2012


      • British Colonial Period: texts (official and quasi-official documents)

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Digital South Asia Library
        Description/subject: The Burma holdings of this digital library cover the period when Burma was part of British India... Major texts (fully searchable) are the "Statistical abstract relating to British India" 1840-1920 in digital book and Excel spreadsheet form and "The Imperial Gazetteer of India" (1909 edition, 24 volumes, each of more than 400 pages)... Reference Resources: Scholarly reference books and a link to full text dictionaries at Digital Dictionaries of South Asia (DDSA)... Bibliographies and Union Lists: Electronic catalogs and finding aids for dispersed resources and collections... Images: Photographs are arranged in databases organized by the original collections... Indexes: Includes periodical indexes and document delivery mechanisms... Maps: Catalogs of maps and maps themselves, ranging from historical to topographic... Books and Journals: This section includes pedagogical books, general scholarly titles, journals and newspapers... Statistics: Statistical information from the colonial period through the present, available in a variety of formats... Other Internet Resources: A link to SARAI, South Asia Resource Access on the Internet.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: DSAL, (University of Chicago)
        Format/size: html, Excel
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2005


        Title: Statistical abstracts relating to British India. From 1840 to 1920
        Description/subject: 8 files in digital book and Excel spreadsheet formats... The last file, for example, has data on: * No. 1.-Area and Population of British India and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 2.-Variation in Population since 1891. * No. 3.-Density of the Population according to Natural and Administrative Divisions (Census of 1911). * No. 4.-Towns and Villages Classified by Population (Census of 1911). * No. 5.-Main Statistics for Cities (including Cantonments). * No. 6.-Population of Principal Towns (Census of 1911). (Names of Towns in Native States are in Italics.) * No. 7.-Distribution of Population according to Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 8.-Variation in Distribution of the Population by Religion (Census of 1911). * No. 9.-Distribution of Christians by Race and Denomination (Census of 1911). * No. 10.-Territorial Distribution of Christians according to Race (Census of 1911). * No. 11.-Distribution of Population by Main Provinces and States according to Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 12.-Distribution of Population according to Religion, Sex, and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 13.-Age, Sex and Civil Condition (Census of 1911). * No. 14.-Distribution of Population by main Provinces and States according to Residence, Age and Sex (Census of 1911). * No. 15.-Distribution of Population according to Religion and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 16.-Distribution of Population according to Residence and Education (Census of 1911). * No. 17.-Statistics of Chief Castes (Census of 1911). * No. 18.-Distribution of Population according to Occupation or Means of Livelihood (Census of 1911). * No. 19.-Classes, Sub-Classes, and Orders of Occupations of the Population. * No. 20.-Distribution of Population according to Language (Census of 1911). * No. 21.-Languages Chiefly Spoken in the British Provinces and Native States (Census of 1911). * No. 22.-Infirmities According to Residence (Census of 1911). * No. 23.-Infirmities According to Age (Census of 1911). * No. 24.-Number of Judicial Divisions, and Number of Officers Exercising Appellate or Original Jurisdiction, in British India on 31st December, 1919. * No. 25.-Number of Cases Decided in, and Receipts and Charges of, the Courts. * No. 26.-Number and Description of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 27.-Number and Value of Civil Suits Instituted. * No. 28.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Civil Suits. * No. 29.-General Results of Trial of Civil and Revenue Cases in Courts of Original Jurisdiction.--Miscellaneous Cases. * No. 30.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Appeals from Decrees. * No. 31.-Civil Appellate Courts.--Miscellaneous Appeals. * No. 32.-General Results of Trials of Criminal Cases. * No. 33.-General Results of Appeals and Revisions in Criminal Cases. * No. 34.-Punishments Inflicted in Criminal Cases. * No. 35.-Strength and Cost of Civil Police. * No. 36.-Principal Police Offences. * No. 37.-Number and Distribution of Prisoners. * No. 38.-Religion, Age, and State of Education of Convicts. * No. 39.-Sickness and Mortality among Prisoners. * No. 40.-Number of Convicts who had been Admitted Previously Convicted. * No. 41.-Expenditure incurred in Guarding and Maintaining Prisoners, exclusive of Cost of Building, Repairs, &c. * No. 42.-Convict Settlement of Port Blair. * No. 43.-Number and Description of Registered Documents, and Value of Property transferred. * No. 44.-General Statement of Gross Revenue and Expenditure, Charged against Revenue or Capital, with Annual Surplus or Deficit and Cash Balances (in India and England). * No. 45.-General Statement of the Gross Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 46.-General Statement of the Gross Expenditure charged against Revenue in India and England; in � (15 Rupees=�). * No. 47.-Net Revenue and Expenditure; in � (15 Rupees = �1). * No. 48.-Amount of Land Revenue* and Charges. * No. 49.-Details of Land Revenue and Charges. * No. 50.-Amount of Opium Revenue and Charges. * No. 51.-Number of Chests of Bengal Opium sold for Export and issued to Excise and Medical Departments, and Number of Chests paying Duty in Bombay. * No. 52.-Amount of Salt Revenue and Charges. * No. 53.-Statement showing Consumption of Salt in India. * No. 54.-Amount of Stamp Revenue and Charges. * No. 55.-Details of Stamp Revenue. * No. 56.-Amount of Excise Revenue and Charges. * No. 57.-Details of Excise Revenue. * No. 58.-Amount of Customs Revenue and Charges. * No. 59.-Amount of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 60.-Details of Forest Revenue and Charges. * No. 61.-Amount of Provincial Rates and Charges. * No. 62.-Details of Provincial Rates. * No. 63.-Amount of Income Tax and Charges. * No. 64.-Details of Income Tax. * No. 65.-Refunds and Drawbacks. * No. 66.-Assignments and Compensations. * No. 67.-Expenditure on Famine Relief (excluding Outlay on Protective Railways and Irrigation Works). * No. 68.-Distribution of Expenditure on Famine Relief. * No. 69.-Expenditure in India and England on Construction of Protective Railway and Irrigation Works (charged against Famine Relief and Insurance). * No. 70.-Military Expenditure in India and England. * No. 71.-Distribution of Expenditure (charged against Revenue) and Receipts of the Government of India in England, in Sterling. * No. 72.-Ways and Means of the Home Government, in Sterling. * No. 73.-Burden of Taxation. * No. 74.-Statement of Expenditure on Railways, Irrigation, and other Public Works (chargeable to Revenue), by Provinces. * No. 75.-Expenditure on State Railways and Irrigation Works in India chargeable against Capital.* * No. 76.-Amount of Debt and of Other Obligations (with Interest thereon) of the Government of India at the close of each of the undermentioned Years in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 77.-Return of all Loans bearing Interest raised in India and England, chargeable on the Revenues of India, and outstanding on 31st March, 1921, with the date of the Termination of each Loan. * No. 78.-Sinking Funds created and the application thereof. * No. 79.-Prices of Principal Kinds of Indian Government Stock. * No. 80.-Government Promissory Notes enfaced for payment of Interest in London; in Rupees. * No. 81.-Loans and Advances by Government; Balances on 31st March of each year and Amount of Interest received. * No. 82.-Bank of Bengal Rates of Interest for Demand Loans on Government Paper. * No. 83.-Gold Standard Reserve. * No. 84.-Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on India by the Secretary of State. * No. 84A.-Sterling Bills and Telegraphic Transfers drawn on London by the Government of India. * No. 85.-Cash Balances at the Treasuries and Agencies of the Government of India, at the close of each of the undermentioned Years; in Rupees and Sterling. * No. 86.-Value of Money Coined at the Calcutta and Bombay Mints. * No. 87.-Number and Value of Government Currency Notes of each Denomination in Circulation on 31st March in each Year. * No. 88.-Average Value of Government Currency Notes in Circulation throughout India; in thousands of Rupees. * No. 89.-Value of Note Circulation, and Amount of each Description of Reserve of the Paper Currency Department, and Net Receipts, on 31st March in each Year; in Rupees. * No. 90.-General Statistics of the Post Office of British India. * No. 91.-Estimated Number of Letters, Postcards, Newspapers, Parcels and Packets. * No. 92.-Total Number and Amount of Money Orders, with Annual Increase. * No. 93.-Receipts and Charges of the Post Office of British India. * No. 94.-Number of Post Office Savings Banks, Depositors and Amount (in rupees) of Deposits. * No. 95.-Progress of Banking Capital in India. * No. 96.-General Statistics of the Indo-European (Government of India) Telegraph Department. * No. 97.-General Statistics of Government Telegraphs in India. * No. 98.-Statistics of Messages by Government Telegraphs. * No. 99.-Population and Constitution of Municipalities, with Income and Expenditure. * No. 100.-Income of Municipalities.* * No. 101.-Expenditure of Municipalities.* * No. 102.-Income and Expenditure of District and Local Boards. * No. 103.-Number of Colleges and Schools in India* and Number of Male and Female Scholars. * No. 104.-Detailed Classification of Colleges and Schools in India,* and Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 105.-Number of Colleges and Schools, and of Scholars attending them during the Year 1919-20, by Provinces. * No. 106.-Number of Male and Female Scholars in Public and Private Institutions, by Provinces. * No. 107.-Number of University Graduates and Undergraduates in Art, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Oriental Learning. * No. 108.-Results of University, College, and School Examinations in Jndia,* showing the Number who obtained Each Degree or Passed the Prescribed Tests. * No. 109.-Number of Public Institutions under Public and Private Management and of Private Institutions with Number of Scholars attending them. * No. 110.-Number of Public Educational Institutions in India under management of Government and Local Bodies and maintained by Indian States and under Private Management, also of Private Institutions; and Number, Race, and Creed of Scholars. * No. 111.-Expenditure on Education in each Province. * No. 112.-Distribution of Expenditure on Education. * No. 113.-Expenditure on Education in India.* * No. 114.-Number of Printing Presses at Work, and Number of Newspapers, Periodicals, and Books Published. * No. 115.-Number, Membership and Financial Position of Co-operative Societies. * No. 116.-Normal and Actual Rainfall according to Chief Political Divisions. * No. 117.-Agricultural Statistics of British India--Summary. * No. 118.-Area, Cultivated and Uncultivated, in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 119.-Area under Irrigation in 1919-20; in Acres. * No. 120.-Area Surveyed and Assessed. * No. 121.-Crops under Cultivation in 1919-20: in Acres. * No. 122.-Number of Transfers of Land, and Area Transferred, in each Province in British India. * No. 123.-Area of Forest Lands, Outturn of Produce, and Revenue and Expenditure of Forest Department. * No. 124.-Railway Statistios.--Summary. * No. 125.-Mileage of Railway Lines in India open for Traffic at end of Year. * No. 126.-Number (in thousands) of Passengers (including Season Ticket-Holders) conveyed on the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 127.-Quantity of Goods and Minerals Conveyed by the several Railway Systems in India; in thousands of Tons. * No. 128.-Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 129.-Working Expenses of the several Railways in India. * No. 130.-Net Earnings of the several Railways in India. * No. 131.-Percentage of Working Expenses to Gross Earnings of the several Railway Systems in India. * No. 132.-Irrigation Works.--Principal * No. 133.-Value of the Total Trade. * No. 134.-Value of Imports of Private Merchandise into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported. * No. 135.-Value of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 136.-Quantity of Imports of Principal Articles of Private Merchandise into British India, by Sea, from Foreign Countries. * No. 137.-Value of Exports of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 138.-Value of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 139.-Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Indian Produce and Manufactures from British India, by Sea, to Foreign Countries. * No. 140.-Value of Exports of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports) from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported. * No. 141.-Value and Quantity of Exports of Principal Articles of Foreign Merchandise (Re-Exports). * No. 142.-Value of Principal Government Stores Imported into British India, by Sea. * No. 143.-Value of Principal Government Stores (Indian and Foreign) Exported from British India, by Sea. * No. 144.-Value of Treasure Imported into British India by Sea, distinguishing Countries whence Imported; together with Total Quantity in Ounces. * No. 145.-Value of Treasure Exported from British India, by Sea, distinguishing Countries to which Exported; together with Total Quantity, in Ounces. * No. 146.-Distribution of Trade in Private Merchandise among the Provinces and Principal Ports. * No. 147.-Imports and Exports of Cotton Goods and Exports of Indian Raw Cotton. * No. 148.-Imports of Raw Silk and Silk Goods. * No. 149.-Imports of Wool Manufactures. * No. 150.-Imports of Apparel (excluding Hosiery and Boots and Shoes). * No. 151.-Imports of Metals. * No. 152.-Imports of Metal Manufactures. * No. 153.-Imports of Sugar. * No. 154.-Imports of Provisions. * No. 155.-Imports of Mineral Oil. * No. 156.-Exports of Jute, Raw and Manufactured. * No. 157.-Exports of Raw Wool. * No. 158.-Exports of Rice. * No. 159.-Exports of Wheat. * No. 160.-Exports of Barley. * No. 161.-Exports of Lac. * No. 162.-Exports of Seeds. * No. 163.-Exports of Indian Tea. * No. 164.-Exports of Opium. * No. 165.-Exports of Hides and Skins. * No. 166.-Value of Registered Imports into British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., whence Imported, and Provinces into which Imported. * No. 167.-Value of Registered Exports from British India, by Land, distinguishing Countries, &c., to which Exported, and Provinces from which Exported. * No. 168.-Principal Imports and Exports of Merchandise across the Land Frontier. * No. 169.-Trade of Aden. * No. 170.-Vessels Entered and Cleared, distinguishing Steamers and Sailing Vessels with Cargoes and in Ballast. * No. 171.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Entered with Cargoes or in Ballast from Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 172.-Number and Tonnage of Steam and Sailing Vessels which Cleared with Cargoes or in Ballast to Foreign Countries, distinguishing Nationalities. * No. 173.-Coasting Trade; Value of the Total Trade. * No. 174.-Total. Value of Private Merchandise (Indian and Foreign) and Treasure Imported into and Exported from Indian Ports (British and Foreign) in the several Provinces. * No. 175.-Ships Built at Indian Ports. * No. 176.-Ships First Registered at Indian Ports. * No. 177.-Detentions under the Merchandise Marks Act. * No. 178.-Port Trusts; No. of Members, Income, Expenditcre, and Debt. * No. 179.-Troops conveyed to and from India. * No. 180.-Established Strength of the Standing Army in India. * No. 181.-Ages of British Non-Commissioned Officers* and Men of all Arms serving in India on 1st October of each year. * No. 182.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Embarked for Service in India. * No. 183.-Regiments and Detachments of all Arms Disembarked from Service in India. * No. 184.-Past Services of British Troops in India Enlisted for Short Service on 1st October of each Year. * No. 185.-Terms of Engagement of British Troops* in India (excluding Regiments on Passage Out and Home) on 1st of October of each Year. * No. 186.-Sickness, Mortality, and Invaliding in British Army (excluding Officers). * No. 187.-Sickness and Mortality in Indian Army (excluding Officers). * No. 188.-Number of Coolie Emigrants embarked from Indian Ports to various Colonies under the Laws regulating Emigration. * No. 189.-Ports of Shipment and Provinces from which the Emigrants were drawn. * No. 190.-Abstract Statement of Births and Deaths in British India, and Ratio of Deaths according to Sex, Town or Country, Class, Cause, and Season. * No. 191.-Number of Births with Ratio per Mille, and of Deaths, Male and Female, with Ratios per Mille of Males and Females, and in Rural and Urban Districts, according to Provinces. * No. 192.-Number of Registered Deaths, according to Cause, and Ratios per 1,000 among the General Population. * No. 193.-Plague Mortality, British Provinces and Indian States. * No. 194.-Number of Primary and Re-vaccinations and of Successful Cases. * No. 195.-No. of State Public, Local Fund, and Private-Aided Hospitals and Dispensaries; No. of Patients; and Income and Expenditure. * No. 196.-Number of Lunatics. * No. 197.-Monthly Wages of Postal Runners and Postmen. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 198.-Monthly Wages (January) in a Woollen Mill in Northern India. (In Rupees and decimals of a Rupee.) * No. 199.-Wholesale Prices of Staple Articles of Export and Import; in Rupees. * No. 200.-Variations in the Wholesale Prices of the Staple Articles of Export and Import, the Prices in 1873 being taken to represent 100. * No. 201.-Average Wholesale Prices of Staple Commodities in India. * No. 202.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Salt in Bpitish India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 203.-Average Annual Retail Prices Current of Food Grains in British India; in Rupees and decimals of a Rupee per Maund (one Maund = 82.286 lb.). * No. 204.-Index Numbers of Retail Prices of Food Grains in India (Prices of 1873=100). * No. 205.-Joint Stock Companies, Registered in British India: Class, Number, and Paid-up Capital. * No. 206.-Joint Stock Companies Registered in Each Province at the end of the Year. * No. 207.-Cotton and Jute Mills. * No. 208.-Factories and other Large Industries. * No. 209.-Factories inspected under the Factory Act. * No. 210.-Patents and Designs. * No. 211.-Production of Chief Minerals in British India and Indian States; Quantity and Value.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: HMSO via Digital South Asia Library
        Format/size: html, Excel
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


        Individual Documents

        Title: Delineating British Burma - British Confidential and Official Print, 1826-1949
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: Contents: Introduction 3 BIB-1 The British Conquest, 1827-1905; BIB-2 Gazetteers and handbooks, 1879-1944; BIB-3 Military Reports and Route Books, 1903-1945; BIB-4 Boundaries: Reports and Examinations, 1892-1937; BIB-5 Reports on Districts and States, 1868-1936; Index
        Author/creator: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: A.J. Farrington (ed.)
        Format/size: pdf (433K)
        Date of entry/update: 20 September 2010


        Title: History of Minbu District, Introduction, 1887 - 1897
        Date of publication: 1936
        Description/subject: 1. Minbu District - History; 2. Geography - Minbu District; 3. Mibu District - Gazetter; 4. Historical Sites - Minbu District. Issue and Volume: Ed. Date:1936 Pagination:p. 43 - 51. "The District of Minbu is bounded on the north by Pakokku District, on the south by Thayetmyo District and on the west by the Rakhine Yomas. The article describes the geography, narrative history, canals and water courses of Minbu district."
        Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Research Society Vol. 26 , Part 1 via ANU Library
        Format/size: pdf (795K) 10 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/author/BA%20SHIN/?page=6&fromlistpage=1
        Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


        Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1931 edition.
        Date of publication: 1931
        Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps, Maps of Towns.
        Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931. via South Asia Digital Library
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


        Title: REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF INDIA, 1931
        Date of publication: 1931
        Description/subject: "The area covered by the sixth general census of India is approximately identical with that covered by the census of 1921 and differs little from the area of previous occasions from 1881 onwards; 2,308 sq. miles containing some 34,000 inhabitants have been added in Burma and in the North of Assam, while on the other hand, six sq. miles have been lost to Nepal. The statistics therefore cover the whole empire of India with, Burma and the adjacent islands and islets (Exclusive of Ceylon and the Maldives) as well as Aden and Perim Island, but not the Kuria Muria Islands* and Sokotra, which is part of the Aden Protectorate, administered from Aden on behalf of the Colonial Office, and not part of British India. The statistics the tables do not of course cover those parts of the peninsula, which are not parts of the British Empire, that is to say, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan and the French and Portuguese possessions, the area and population of which, together with the rate of increase since 1921 where available, are shown in the marginal table. For the rest the scope of this census extended to the whole of the peninsula of India, forming what is commonly described as a sub continent between long. 61 o and 101 o E. and lat 6 o to 37 o N. Some information has also been included with regard to natives of India resident permanently or temporarily outside the Indian Empire or serving on the High Seas at the time the census was taken..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of India
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2011


        Title: PROPOSALS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION FOR BURMA.
        Date of publication: 1920
        Description/subject: 1. Letter from the Government of India to the Secretary of state for India, No. 1 (Reforms), dated 25th March, 1920: Enclosures in No. 1.: 1. Resolution by tbe Government of Burma, No. 1 L—7, dated 17th December, 1918, publishing for discussion and criticism a provisional scheme of reform ... Annexures to Enclosure No. 1. 1. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 2. (1) Board for Home Affairs; (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development ; (4) Board of Local Self-Government... 3. Summary of Recommendations..... 2. Government of Burma's first scheme.: Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 21—1—L—1. dated 2 June, 1919.... Annexures to Enclosure No. 2. 1. Speech by Sir Reginald Craddock, Lieutenant-Governor of Burma, 19th April, 1919, (Extract); 2. Proposed grouping of towns for purpose of representation on the Burma Legislative Council; 3. Budget Committee under the proposed scheme; 4. (1) Board for Home Affairs... (2) Board of Revenue and Finance; (3) Board of Development; (4) Board of Local Self-Govermnent ….. 3. Criticism by the Government of India of the first scheme of the Government of Burma. Letter from the Government of India to the Government of Burma, No. 2425, dated 18th November, 1919; 4. Second scheme of the Government of Burma; Letter from the Government of Burma to the Government of India, No. 59 T—1—L—8, dated 22nd January, 1920 .
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of India via His Majesty's Stationary Office
        Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
        Date of entry/update: 04 September 2012


        Title: Imperial gazetteer of India, Atlas. 1909 edition.
        Date of publication: 1909
        Description/subject: General Maps, Provincial Maps and Plans of Towns
        Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922, et al.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Oxford: Clarendon Press,
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


        Title: Imperial Gazeteer of India
        Date of publication: 1908
        Description/subject: This work is fully searchable by keyword... Apart from the first four, the 24 volumes (the index, named Vol. 25 has no content in this version) are arranged alphabetically. References to Burma can be found by browsing the volumes or using the search engine.... Volume 1 - The Indian Empire, Descriptive; Volume 2 - The Indian Empire, Historical; Volume 3 - The Indian Empire, Economic; and Volume 4 - The Indian Empire, Administrative, Volume 5 - Abazai-Arcot... Volume 6 - Argaon-Bardwan... Volume 7 - Bareilly-Berasia... Volume 8 - Berhampore-Bombay... Volume 9 - Bomjur-Central India... Volume 10 - Central Provinces-Coopta... Volume 11 - Coondapoor-Edwardesabad... Volume 12 - Einme-Gwalior... Volume 13 - Gyaraspur-Jais... Volume 14 - Jaisalmer-Kara... Volume 15 - Karachi-Kotayam... Volume 16 - Kotchandpur-Mahavinyaka... Volume 17 - Mahbubabad-Moradabad... Volume 18 - Moram-Nayagarh... Volume 19 - Nayakanthatti-Parbhani... Volume 20 - Pardi-Pusad... Volume 21 - Pushkar-Salween... Volume 22 - Samadhiala-Singhana... Volume 23 - Singhbhum-Trashi-Chod-Zong... Volume 24 - Travancore-Zira... Volume 25 - Index (no content)....Volumes 1, 2 and 4 are dated 1909. The rest are dated 1908.
        Author/creator: Meyer, William Stevenson, Sir, 1860-1922; Burn, Richard, Sir, 1871-1947; Cotton, James Sutherland, 1847-1918; Risley, Sir Herbert Hope, 1851-1911.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: His Majesty's secretary of state for India in council via Clarendon Press, Oxford, via Digital South Asia Library (University of Chicago)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


        Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol III)
        Date of publication: 1901
        Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Myingyan, Sagaing district, Myitkyina district, Shwegu, Sawbwa, Keng Tung, Myelat, Irrawaddy river, Chin Hills, Palaung, Yamethin, Amarapura, Pyinmana, Wuntho, Meiktila, Tang Yan, Chindwin river, Magwe, square miles, Northern subdivision
        Author/creator: James George Scott , John Percy Hardiman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (9.3MB); html (467 pages)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
        http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb05hardgoog
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


        Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. I)
        Date of publication: 1901
        Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: kengtung, paddy cultivation, hkam, revenue paid, shwebo, eight annas, myingyan, land revenue, chindwin, east longitude, bhamo, fifteen houses, hsen, revenue amounted, daung, mawk mai, hsam tao, hsop nam, francis gamier, ken pwi
        Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: html (573 pages)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb03hardgoog
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


        Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part II, Vol. II)
        Date of publication: 1901
        Description/subject: KEY WORDS AND PHRASES: Key words and phrases kengtung, paddy cultivation, myingyan, revenue paid, hkam, eight annas, shwebo, east longitude, mogaung, fifteen houses, palaung, population numbered, hsen, upper burma, chindwin, deputy commissioner, irrawaddy flotilla, arakan yoma, mount victoria, hok lap
        Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: html (833 pages)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb02hardgoog
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


        Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. 1)
        Date of publication: 1900
        Description/subject: KEYWORDS: hkam, upper burma, mogaung, lower burma, kachins, police posts, thibaw, military police, shans, hill tribes, hsen, six villages, bhamo, men five, shwebo, deputy commissioner, mindon min, ney elias, kanaung mintha, marco polo
        Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (15MB) html, 788 pages
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog
        http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerupperb01hardgoog#page/n780/mode/1up
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2009


        Title: Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (Part I, Vol. II)
        Date of publication: 1900
        Author/creator: Scott, James George, Sir; Hardiman, J. P. (John Percy)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: pdf (12MB)
        Date of entry/update: 10 September 2009


        Title: Burmese Buddhism in Colonial Burma
        Date of publication: 1895
        Description/subject: The following pieces found publication in 1895 and 1896: “Burmese Buddhists and Mission Work” (Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd August 1895): The following is the reply from the joint secretaries to the Babuthutta Society Rangoon, to Mr. H. Dharmapala, General Secretary to the Mahabodhi Society...[Buddhagaya Temple Controversy] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 2 May 1896...“The Buddha Gaya Temple” [I] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 9 May 1896...“The Buddhagaya Temple” [II] Rangoon Gazette and Weekly Budget 23rd May 1896, p. 9...An Examination of Mr. Tsaw Hla Phroo’s Reasons for Embracing Christianity1 by Maung Chan Htwan Oung (1896)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003,
        Format/size: pdf (36K)
        Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
        Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004


        Title: The British Burma gazetteer 1879 (Vol. II)
        Date of publication: 1879
        Description/subject: A-Z list of villages and other entities in (Lower?) Burma
        Author/creator: Horace Ralph Spearman
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Government of Burma
        Format/size: html, pdf etc.
        Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/britishburmagaze02spea
        http://openlibrary.org/books/OL13997258M/British_Burma_gazetteer
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


        Title: PAPERS RELATING TO HOSTILITIES WITH BURMAH
        Date of publication: 04 June 1852
        Description/subject: Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Her Majesty's Command. June 4, 1852......LIST OF PAPERS (enclosures not listed here): No. 1. Letter from the President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee of the Court of Directors of the East India Company (No. 8): Thirty-seven Inclosures: ...... The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 1): Twenty Inclosures..... 3. The President of the Council of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee .. .. .. .. .. (No. 2) Seventeen Inclosures...... 4. The Governor-General of India to the Secret Committee..... 5. The Governor-General of India in Council to the Secret Com- mittee (No.3.): Six Inclosures..... 6. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 4.) Thirty Inclosures..... 7. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee (No. 8): Nine Inclosures..... 8. The Governor-General in Council to the Secret Committee . (No. 14) Five Inclosures..... Treaty with the King of Ava, signed at Yandaboo, February 24, 1826 Commercial Treaty with Ava
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Parliamentary Papers, Vol. 36
        Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://books.google.co.th/books?id=TYwSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA103&dq=Burmah&hl=en&ei=-TOSTNP...
        Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


      • British colonial period - images

        Individual Documents

        Title: A Burmese Album 1824-1948
        Date of publication: 1948
        Description/subject: 96 bklack and white photos of Burma, 1824-1948
        Author/creator: P. Klier
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Colgate University digital library
        Format/size: jpeg
        Date of entry/update: 19 September 2010


      • British colonial period - novels

        Individual Documents

        Title: Burmese Days
        Date of publication: 1934
        Description/subject: "U Po Kyin, Sub-divisional Magistrate of Kyauktada, in Upper Burma, was sitting in his veranda. It was only half past eight, but the month was April, and there was a closeness in the air, a threat of the long, stifling midday hours. Occasional faint breaths of wind, seeming cool by contrast, stirred the newly drenched orchids that hung from the eaves. Beyond the orchids one could see the dusty, curved trunk of a palm tree, and then the blazing ultramarine sky. Up in the zenith, so high that it dazzled one to look at them, a few vultures circled without the quiver of a wing..."
        Author/creator: George Orwell
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Project Gutenberg, Australia
        Format/size: html (547K)
        Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


      • Pre-Independence - books, reports and articles

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
        Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


        Individual Documents

        Title: 'A Leader of Men'
        Date of publication: September 2007
        Description/subject: The Muslim schoolteacher who joined Burma's martyrs... "Being a Muslim in a country where 87 percent of the population is Buddhist, and where the military government regularly practices ultra-nationalism and uses religion as a political tool, means joining the underprivileged at the bottom of the pile. The fight for liberty is the fight for peace. And like peace, liberty is indivisible —U Razak, June 1947 Muslims in Burma regularly suffer social and religious discrimination. Burmese Buddhists commonly call them, Kala, a derogatory term for South Asians and also used insultingly to describe westerners. While some consider the term abusive and degrading, there's general acceptance that it takes on a sense of honor, respect and lovingkindness when it's used in the form Kalagyi (Big Kala), to describe independence hero Abdul Razak. U Razak rose from the position of headmaster of Mandalay Central National High School to become minister of education and national planning in Burma's pre-independence government. His career was brought to a brutal end at the age of 49, when he was gunned down by assassins on July 19, 1947, together with independence leader Gen Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. The nine murdered leaders are commemorated annually on the country's Martyr's Day. Mandalay, where U Razak taught, is a center of Burmese Buddhist faith and culture. Yet U Razak, of ethnic Indian-Burmese origin, was fully accepted by the community..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8463
        Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


        Title: U Razak of Burma: A Teacher, a Leader, a Martyr
        Date of publication: July 2007
        Description/subject: "As a primary school student, I read about Sayagyi (a great teacher or a principal) U Razak and fellow martyrs in school textbooks and in remembrance booklets of Martyrs' Day, (19th July, 1947), the day he was assassinated along with U Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. Later in my twenties and thirties, I read the few available writings by U Razak, and articles written about him by his former students, and talked with people who knew him well. From this exposure, I learned about U Razak's deep love for Burma, his courage to fight for our country's independence, his respect for diversity, his desire for unity and his far-sighted wisdom. As a leader, his vision carried beyond our country and highlighted the principles of humanity, integrity, knowledge, courage, freedom and peace. The points U Razak, as Burma's Minister for Education and National Planning, emphasized in his 1947 speech at the First South East Asian Regional Conference of International Student Service in Madras, India, are still valid if not more pronounced in 2007. In times of intolerance and divisiveness, such as today, his vision and gentle yet persistent approach sought to unite diverse groups through education for the common goal of freedom and development should be referenced and explored further as we seek practical actions for long-lasting peace, security and prosperity..." CONTENTS: I. Preface; II. A Tribute to Sayagyi U Razak By Dr. Nyi Nyi; III. Freedom Movements As Peace Movements By Honorable U Razak; IV. The Burman Muslim Organization By A. Razak, B.A.; V. Translator's Note... 1. Sayagyi U Razak And Mandalay University By M.A. Ma Ohn; 2. Our Selfless Sayagyi By Colonel Khin Nyo; 3. Sayagyi Didn't Care For High Offices By U Saw Hla; 4. Our Sayagyi U Razak; By Thakin Chan Tun; 5. Affection Just As One Has For One's Mother By Pinnie; 6. A Partial Profile Of Sayagyi U Razak By Aung Kyi; 7. Just Like A Father By Thuriya Than Maung; 8. Our Marvellous Sayagyi By Maung Maung Mya; 9. In Fond Memory Of Sayagyi U Razak By Colonel Wai Lin; 10. Sayagyi U Razak And I By Theikpan Hmu Tin.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Private publisher
        Format/size: pdf (895K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/19167977/Dr-Nyi-Nyi-U-Razak-of-Burma
        Date of entry/update: 18 July 2007


        Title: Gandhian Links to the Struggle in Burma - a review of "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement (1906-1948) and India,"
        Date of publication: April 2007
        Description/subject: "Myanmar’s Nationalist Movement" (1906-1948) and India, by Rajshekhar. South Asia Publishers, New Delhi, Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan 2006. P128... Gandhi and Indian Congress Party had influence over Burma’s nationalist movement.
        Author/creator: Yeshua Moser Puangsuwan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


        Title: Aung San’s lan-zin, the Blue Print and the Japanese occupation of Burma.
        Date of publication: 2007
        Description/subject: Chapter 8 in Kei Nemoto (Ed). 2007 Reconsidering the Japanese military occupation in Burma (1942-45). Tokyo: ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp 179-224. This includes an English-Burmese bibliograpy of Aung San’s communications (pp 213-224)...Opinions are divided on the impact the Japanese occupation on Burma and on Southeast Asia more widely. Harry Benda summed up the Japanese occupation as 'a distinct historical epoch in Southeast Asian history' (Benda 1972:148-49). He viewed it as introducing discontinuity from the past colonial order, and as facilitating important changes, including in particular the mobilization of youth and the disruption of traditional patterns of authority (Benda 1969:78). In his useful work, Yoon (1971a:293) summed up its significance specifically for Burma saying that ‘the Japanese occupation directly affected and greatly accelerated the realization of Burmese independence’. Guyot (1974: iv, 43, 55, 222) viewed the Japanese occupation of Burma as marking ‘an important threshold in Burma’s political evolution’, since it ‘created the political elite’; in particular, it empowered a young generation of students, Burmanized the army, and helped rally and unify Burmans against British rule..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Gustaaf Houtman
        Format/size: pdf (664K)
        Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


        Title: "The Concepts of Dobama ("Our Burma") and Thudo-bama ("Their Burma") in Burmese Nationalism, 1930-1948"
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: This article attempts to demonstrate the interdependent operation of the term dobama ("our Burma") and its opposite, thudo-bama ("their Burma"), in the minds of members of the Dobama-asiayoun ("Our Burma Party"). From the party's very beginning in 1930 to the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League's struggle against Japanese rule and subsequently for independence from the British from 1944 to 1947, Dobama party members, known as "thahkins", avoided being identified as thudo-bama, meaning "the Burmese of their (the British or Japanese) side" or "the Burmese people who collaborated with the colonial regime." Instead, they invariably identified themselves as dobama, or "our Burmese." The thahkins preferred to define themselves in negative rather than positive terms. In other words, they chose to identify themselves by describing what they were not rather than what they were, and by attacking their imagined enemies, the thudo-bama, rather than attempting a clear definition of dobama.
        Author/creator: Kei Nemoto
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
        Format/size: pdf (1.21MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol10/Abstract1_GreenOpt.pdf
        http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol5/index.shtml
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      • Pre-Independence documents

        Individual Documents

        Title: Our Fraternal Greetings to the Siamese people
        Date of publication: May 2002
        Description/subject: "This speech was delivered by Burmese independence hero Aung San at the Orient Club, Rangoon, on April 17, 1947�three months before his assassination. Aung San founded the Burma Independence Army in Bangkok on Dec 26, 1941."
        Author/creator: Aung San
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Provisional Government of Burma
        Date of publication: 17 October 1947
        Description/subject: "The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Provisional Government of Burma; Considering that it is the intention of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to invite Parliament to pass legislation at an early date providing that Burma shall become an independent State; Desiring to define their future relations as the Governments of independent States on the terms of complete freedom, equality and independence and to consolidate and perpetuate the cordial friendship and good understanding which subsist between them; and Desiring also to provide for certain matters arising from the forthcoming change in the relations between them, Have decided to conclude a treaty for this purpose and have appointed as their plenipotentiaries:- The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: The Right Hon. Clement Richard Attlee, C.H., M.P., Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. The Provisional Government of Burma: The Hon'ble Thakin Nu, Prime Minister Who have agreed as follows:- ..." Includes, as an annex, the Britain-Burma Defence Agreement of 29 August 1947 and other associated documents.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Public Records Office (London)
        Format/size: html (80K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: REPORT OF THE FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
        Date of publication: 24 April 1947
        Description/subject: "A Committee of Enquiry shall be set up forthwith as to the best method of associating the Frontier peoples with the working out of the new constitution for Burma. Such Committee will consist of equal numbers of persons from the Frontier Areas, nominated by the Governor after consultation with the leaders of those areas, with a neutral Chairman from outside Burma selected by agreement. Such Committee shall be asked to report to the Government of Burma and His Majesty's Government before the summoning of the Constituent Assembly." CHAPTER I. The Problem; CHAPTER II. The Work of the Committee; CHAPTER III. Recommendations and Observations: Part I- General; Part II- The Constituent Assembly; Part III- Observations. APPENDICES: App. I. Verbatim Record of Evidence heard by the Committee. App. II. Resolutions and Memorials communicated to the Committee. App. III. Notes by the Frontier Areas Administration, Government of Burma, on Economic Situation, Education, Health and Communications and Mineral Resources in the Frontier Areas Administration. App. IV. Administrative and Racial Maps of Burma... (Administrative map missing)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: FRONTIER AREAS COMMITTEE OF ENQUIRY, 1947
        Format/size: pdf (7.8M); text without appendices 171K),html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Frontier_Areas_Committee_of_Enquiry-text.pdf (without appendices)
        http://www.sialkal.com/home_doc_FACI.htm
        Date of entry/update: 30 November 2012


        Title: The Panglong Agreement, 1947
        Date of publication: 12 February 1947
        Description/subject: Text of the Agreement signed at Panglong on the 12th February, 1947 by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, and by representatives of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: India Office Records
        Format/size: html (5K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Japanese Occupation Period and World War II

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
      Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      Title: Burma Campaign
      Description/subject: "The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily between British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from British India. The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against the British forces....Contents: 1 Japanese conquest of Burma: 1.1 Japanese advance to the Indian frontier; 1.2 Thai army enters Burma... 2 Allied setbacks, 1942–1943... 3 The Balance Shifts 1943–1944: 3.1 Allied plans; 3.2 Japanese plans; 3.3 Northern and Yunnan front 1943/44; 3.4 Southern front 1943/44... 4 The Japanese Invasion of India 1944... 5 The Allied Reoccupation of Burma 1944–1945: 5.1 Southern Front 1944/45; 5.2 Northern Front 1944/45; 5.3 Central Front 1944/45; 5.4 Race for Rangoon; 5.5 Operation Dracula... 6 Final operations... 7 Results... 8 See also... 9 Notes... 10 References... 11 Further reading... 12 External links: 12.1 Associations; 12.2 Museums; 12.3 Media; 12.4 Primary sources; 12.5 History.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Title: Burma Railway
      Description/subject: "The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Thailand–Burma Railway and similar names, was a 415 kilometres (258 mi) railway between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign. Forced labour was used in its construction. About 180,000 Asian labourers and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, around 90,000 Asian labourers (mainly romusha) and 16,000 Allied POWs died as a direct result of the project. The dead POWs included 6,318 British personnel, 2,815 Australians, 2,490 Dutch, about 356 Americans and a smaller number of Canadians and New Zealanders..."...Contents: 1 History: 1.1 Hellfire Pass; 1.2 Post-war... 2 Workers: 2.1 Conditions during construction; 2.2 Cemeteries and memorials; 2.3 Prominent people who helped build the line... 3 Significant bridges along the line... 4 See also... 5 References... 6 Book references... 7 External links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Title: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA
      Description/subject: Remembering the Forgotten Theater of World War II 65 books and other articles
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: CHINA - BURMA - INDIA (CBI)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://cbi-theater.home.comcast.net/~cbi-theater/menu/cbi_home.html#NEW
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China_Burma_India_Theater_of_World_War_II
      Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


      Title: Digital South Asia Library - Photo collection
      Description/subject: This collection of photos contains several hundred of Burma, mostly from WWII. Search for "Burma" within the different collections... The Hensley Photo Library: "This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Glenn S. Hensley.(103 images of Burma); Government College of Arts and Crafts (Chennai) "The Museum of Contemporary Art, housed within the Government College of Arts and Crafts, has a photograph collection dated from the mid 1800s. The subjects of these photographs range from the hill tribes of Niligiris to pagodas and monuments of the Madras Presidency to guns and antiques from Fort St. George."(42 images of Burma); Keagle Photograph Library - "This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Robert Keagle."(42 images of Burma); Bond Photograph Library - This collection is comprised of photographs taken during World War II by an American serviceman, Frank Bond (142 images of Burma).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Digital South Asia Library
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Title: Japanese occupation of Burma
      Description/subject: "The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent. In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded Burma and nominally declared Burma independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943. A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. Aung San, father of the opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation (later renamed Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League), which asked Great Britain to form a coalition with other Allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence..."...Contents: 1 Background... 2 Occupation... 3 Massacre during the Occupation... 4 End of the Occupation... 5 See also... 6 References... 7 Further reading.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


      Title: The Burma Railway (video)
      Description/subject: Archive footage on the construction of the Bridge over the River Kwai... in 6 parts..."The Burma Railway is a 415 km line between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during World War II, to support its forces in the Burma campaign. Forced labour was used in its construction. About 180,000 Asian labourers and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the railway. Of these, around 90,000 Asian labourers and 16,000 Allied POWs died as a direct result of the project. The dead POWs included 6,318 British personnel, 2,815 Australians, 2,490 Dutch, about 356 Americans and a smaller number of Canadians. A railway route between Thailand and Burma had been surveyed at the beginning of the 20th century, by the British government of Burma, but the proposed course of the line — through hilly jungle terrain divided by many rivers — was considered too difficult to complete. In 1942, Japanese forces invaded Burma from Thailand and seized it from British control. To maintain their forces in Burma, the Japanese had to bring supplies and troops to Burma by sea, through the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea. This route was vulnerable to attack by Allied submarines, and a different means of transport was needed. The obvious alternative was a railway. The Japanese started the project in June 1942. They intended to connect Ban Pong with Thanbyuzayat, through the Three Pagodas Pass. Construction started at the Thai end on 22 June 1942 and in Burma at roughly the same time. Most of the construction materials for the line, including tracks and sleepers, were brought from dismantled branches of the Federated Malay States Railway network and from the Netherlands East Indies. On 17 October 1943, the two sections of the line met about 18 km (11 miles) south of the Three Pagodas Pass at Konkuita (Kaeng Khoi Tha, Sangkhla Buri district, Kanchanaburi Province). Most of the POWs were then transferred to Japan. Those left to maintain the line still suffered from the appalling living conditions as well as Allied air raids. The most famous portion of the railway is probably Bridge 277 over the Khwae Yai River (Thai แควใหญ่, English "big tributary"). (The river was originally known as the Mae Klong and was renamed Khwae Yai in 1960.) It was immortalized by Pierre Boulle in his book and the film based on it: The Bridge on the River Kwai. However, there are many who say that the movie is utterly unrealistic and does not show what the conditions and treatment of prisoners was really like.[2] The first wooden bridge over the Khwae Yai was finished in February 1943, followed by a concrete and steel bridge in June 1943. According to Hellfire Tours in Thailand, "The two bridges were successfully bombed on 13 February 1945 by the Royal Air Force. Repairs were carried out by POW labor and by April the wooden trestle bridge was back in operation. On 3 April a second raid by Liberator bombers of the U.S. Army Air Forces damaged the wooden bridge once again. Repair work continued and both bridges were operational again by the end of May. A second raid by the R.A.F. on 24 June put the railway out of commission for the rest of the war. After the Japanese surrender the British Army removed 3.9 Kilometers of track on the Thai-Burma border. A survey of the track had shown that its poor construction would not support commercial traffic. The track was sold to Thai Railways and the 130-km Ban Pong--Namtok section relaid and is in use today.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Documentary Channel via Youtube
      Format/size: Adobe Flash
      Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


      Individual Documents

      Title: The Burma Boy (video)
      Date of publication: 29 August 2011
      Description/subject: Barnaby Phillips follows the life of one of the forgotten heroes of World War II..."In December 1941, the Japanese invasion of Burma (now Myanmar) opened what would be the longest land campaign fought by the British in the Second World War. It began with defeat and retreat for Britain, as Rangoon fell to the Japanese in March 1942. But the fighting went on, over a varied terrain of jungles, mountains, plains and wide rivers, until the Japanese forces surrendered in August 1945. Some 100,000 African soldiers were taken from British colonies to fight in the jungles of Burma against the Japanese. They performed heroically in one of the most brutal theatres of war, yet their contribution has been largely ignored, both in Britain and their now independent home countries. In the villages of Nigeria and Ghana, these veterans are known as 'the Burma Boys'. They brought back terrifying tales from faraway lands. Few survived, even fewer are alive today. Al Jazeera's Barnaby Phillips travels to Nigeria, Burma and Japan to find a Nigerian veteran of the war and to talk to those who fought alongside him as well as against him. He even finds the family that saved the life of the wounded veteran in the jungles of Myanmar..."
      Author/creator: Barnaby Phillips
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
      Format/size: Adobe Flash (48 minutes)
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2011


      Title: The Yunnan-Burma Highway and Yunnan Economy during the Periods of Anti-Japanese War
      Date of publication: July 2010
      Description/subject: Foundation Item: The Key Project of Scientific and Research Foundation in Office of Education in Yunnan Province “Study on Map of Japanese Aggression in Yunnan and the Second Battle Line of Japanese Attack on China” (09Z0085)... Abstract: The Yunnan-Burma Highway is an important line of transportation explored for need of the war situation. This highway has not only played a positive role in the Anti-Japanese War of China and in the victory of Anti-Fascist war throughout the world, but has made significant contributions to alleviation of the economic pressure during the war, boost of local economic development in Yunnan, reinforcement of development of ethnic regions in the border area and intensification of the close relations between Yunnan and Burma as well as Southeast Asian countries." Keywords: The Yunnan-Burma highway, Anti-Japanese War, Yunnan, Economy during the periods of Anti-Japanese War
      Author/creator: Li Cheng
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE) ("Asian Culture and History" Vol. 2, No. 2
      Format/size: pdf (86K)
      Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


      Title: Aung San’s Winning Ways
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Description/subject: How Burma’s national hero charmed the British general... "As the war in Burma swung the way of the Allies, the British commander, field-marshal William Slim, was faced with the problem of how to handle the Burma National Army led by Aung San. In the final months of the war the BNA forces changed sides, deserting Japan and opting to fight alongside the Allies. “I had all along believed they could be a nuisance to the enemy but, unless their activities were closely tied in with ours, they promised to be almost as big a nuisance to us,” recalled Slim, in his memoirs, Defeat Into Victory. “It seemed to me that the only way satisfactorily to control them was to get hold of their Commander-in-Chief, Aung San, and to make him accept my orders. This, from what I knew of him and of the extreme Burmese nationalists, I thought might be difficult, but worth trying.”..."
      Author/creator: Jim Andrews
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: How World War II Shaped Burma’s Future
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Description/subject: Colonial powers beat the Japanese but lost their empires... "...while the Pacific War marked the beginning of the end of colonialism, it had another, more severe impact on Burma. In the beginning, Aung San and his Burman nationalists had sided with the Japanese. His Burma Independence Army was armed and trained by the Japanese, while the Allied powers armed and equipped hill peoples such as the Karen and Kachin to fight the occupiers. Centuries of mistrust between the Burmans and the hill peoples resurfaced, and those wounds have not yet been healed. Even today, many Karen talk with bitterness about atrocities carried out against them by the BIA during the Japanese occupation, and the Kachin are proud to point out that they already had celebrated their victory manau in Myitkyina by the time the Burman nationalists in March 1945 turned their guns against the Japanese. The arming of the hill peoples, and vast quantities of weapons left behind by the Japanese, meant that Burma’s ethnic conflicts from the very beginning turned violent..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: Matsumoto of Merrill’s Marauders
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Description/subject: From US internment to Burma battlefield glory... "His name was Matsumoto, but he wore an American uniform in Burma and served with soldiers fighting the empire of his ancestors..."
      Author/creator: Mick Elmore
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


      Title: The Burma Campaign and Beyond - review of Jon Latimer's "Burma, The Forgotten War"
      Date of publication: January 2005
      Description/subject: "...Jon Latimer’s study is worth reading, not because his heroes are “unsung”, as he puts it, but as an authoritative and comprehensive study of the Burma campaign. He chronicles the British defeat, the ensuing stalemate, and then the eventual victory over the Japanese in minute detail. It is also beautifully written. Latimer, who served for many years with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, then as a military intelligence officer, is the author of several other books about World War Two. For this book he drew from wartime records in Washington, London, Edinburgh, and the Gurkha Museum in Winchester, and interviews with survivors of the conflict..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 August 2005


    • Independence and Parliamentary Periods (1948-1958)

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)
      Description/subject: "The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (Burmese: ဖက်ဆစ်ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး ပြည်သူ့လွတ်လပ်ရေး အဖွဲ့ချုပ်, ... abbreviated AFPFL), or hpa hsa pa la (ဖဆပလ) by its Burmese acronym, was the main political party in Burma from 1945 until 1962. It was founded by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) led by Thakin Soe, the Burma National Army (BNA) led by Aung San, and the People's Revolutionary Party (PRP) (later evolved into the Socialist Party) led by U Nu, at a secret meeting in Pegu in August 1944 as the Anti-Fascist Organisation (AFO) to resist the Japanese occupation. The AFO was renamed the AFPFL after the defeat of Japan in order to resist the British colonial administration and achieve independence..."...Contents: 1 Fight for freedom... 2 Independence and civil war... 3 Parliamentary rule and AFPFL split... 4 Policies... 5 Demise... 6 See also... 7 References... 8 External links.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 12 August 2012


      • Studies of the Independence and Parliamentary periods

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: Pre-independence period (Burmese)
        Language: Burmese
        Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


        Individual Documents

        Title: Arming Nonalignment: Yugoslavia’s Relations with Burma and the Cold War in Asia (1950-1955)
        Date of publication: April 2010
        Description/subject: (New Evidence from Yugoslav, Chinese, Indian, and U.S. Archives)..."...This paper will show the events surrounding the initiation of Yugoslavia’s arms shipments to Burma in the early 1950s and how these actions shifted the power equation inside the Burmese society and in its immediate neighborhood. Using recently declassified documents from the major Yugoslav archives (President Tito’s personal archive, Foreign Ministry Archives of Serbia , the Defense Ministry Archives of Serbia, and the Archive of Yugoslavia, which retains the records of the Yugoslav state and communist party), Chinese archives (Chinese Foreign Ministry Archives), Indian archives (National Archives of India, Ministry of External Affairs), and U.S. archives (National Archives and Records Administration) as well as private collections such as the ones at the National Security Archive, this paper will look at the impact that these arms transfers had on the overall development of the bilateral strategic partnership between Belgrade and Rangoon and how these arrangements between two distant countries were perceived by the government circles in the U.S., China, and India. The paper will argue that Yugoslav-Burmese military cooperation substantially altered some of the strategic plans of the great powers with regards to this region..."
        Author/creator: Jovan Čavoški
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Cold War International History Project (Working Paper #61)
        Format/size: pdf (1.49MB)
        Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


        Title: The Split Story
        Date of publication: 23 March 1959
        Description/subject: "The Split Story, an account of the rise and fall of Burma’s strongest national Front, the Anti-Fascist Peoples Freedom League (AFPFL), was originally serialized in the Guardian Daily in January—February 1959; and it was not intended to be printed in a book form. But owing to popular demand by the Guardian readers, who insisted that the serial should be printed in a book form so that this historical account acquires a more permanent nature, the serial has been revised and presented in this book form. The whole work is an objective study of the post-independent political development in Burma, with special emphasis on the AFPFL in the country; and the account is based mainly on records and on personal observations of the writer after interviews on the subject with a number of leaders from both sides of the two political camps after the split in the AFPFL..."
        Author/creator: Sein Win
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Guardian" (Rangoon)
        Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
        Date of entry/update: 23 July 2012


    • Military (BSPP) Period, 1962-1988

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: "The Burma Press Summary" (1987 - 1996)
      Description/subject: NOW TRANSFERRED TO THE MAIN DATABASE "The Burma Press Summary" contains full texts of many of the laws and decrees pronounced between April 1987 and December 1996, speeches by the BSPP and SLORC leaders as well as other documents and summaries of reports from "The Working People's Daily", "The New Light of Myanmar" and "The Guardian".
      Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall, compiler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SLORC/SPDC publications
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Military Rule, 1962-2011 (Burmese)
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 December 2013


      Individual Documents

      Title: Civil-Military Relations in Ne Win’s Burma, 1962-1988
      Date of publication: March 2007
      Description/subject: Summary of the author's university disseration... "This dissertation aims to describe the transformation of civil-military relations from 1962 to 1988 in Burma, focusing on Gen. Ne Win’s leadership and the bureaucratic development of the military (tatmadaw). The author argues that wide-ranging distribution of state posts to the relatively small-sized officer corps is the most important factor for the military regime durability in Burma..."
      Author/creator: Yoshihiro Nakanishi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Kyoto University via SOASBulletin of Burma Research Vol. 5
      Format/size: pdf (87K)
      Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


      Title: The Disorder in Order: the Army-State in Burma since 1962
      Date of publication: 2002
      Description/subject: Book Announcement, Table of Contents and ordering information. "The Disorder in Order examines Burma’s history of “regime entropy” following the March 1962 coup d’etat that ended the country’s brief experiment with parliamentary government. Implementing socialist economic policies in central Burma and a hard line against ethnic minority and communist insurgents in the Border Areas, Ne Win’s Army-State presided over the country’s fall from prosperity to Least Developed Nation status by 1987. The following year, a new martial law regime, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), brutally suppressed a nationwide movement for democracy that drew on the country’s colonial-era traditions of revolutionary nationalism. Although SLORC promoted an open economy, including foreign private investment, the second Army-State operates on the same assumptions as its predecessor: that government is synonymous with pacification, unquestioned central control and cultural homogenization. The author argues that while the post-1988 junta, renamed the State Peace and Development Council in 1997, claims a unique mission in defending national unity and social order, its policies generate political disunity and socio-economic disorder. Tragically, genuine order, the key to Burma’s development, remains out of reach as the 21st century dawns..." Bangkok: White Lotus, 2002). 403 pp. US$25.00.
      Author/creator: Donald M. Seekins
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: White Lotus
      Format/size: html (10K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress, 23-25 July 1988
      Date of publication: 25 July 1988
      Description/subject: July 23: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress opened at 8:30 am at the Saya San Hall, presided over by Yebaw Aung Tha Ban. 1062 of the 1089 delegates were present, or 97.52%. It heard five addresses: one by Chairman U Ne Win (full text); one by General Secretary U Aye Ko on the convening of the Congress [excerpts]; one on by U Aye Ko changes in State economic policies (excerpts]; one by Joint General Secretary U Sein Lwin on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the guiding philosophy, "the System of Correlation of Man and His Environment"; and one by U Htwe Han on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the Party Constitution.
      Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall (compiler of BPS)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Working People's Daily (via Burma Press Summary)
      Format/size: html (66K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The System of Correlation of Man and his Environment
      Date of publication: 17 January 1963
      Description/subject: The Philosophy of the Burma Socialist Programme Party. Contents: I The Three Worlds; II Man and His Society; III The Laws of Process of the History of Society: - The System of Correlation of the Material and the Spiritual Life of the Human Society; IV The Determining Role of the Working People: - Man and His Material Environment; - Man and Socialist Planning; - The Leading Role of Socialists; V Our Attitude to Our Own Ideology.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Burma Socialist Programme Party
      Format/size: html (126K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Constitution of the Burma Socialist Programme Party
      Date of publication: 04 July 1962
      Description/subject: FOR THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD OF ITS CONSTRUCTION... ADOPTED BY THE REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL... CONTENTS: Origin and Purpose. CHAPTER 1: Party Organisation. CHAPTER II: Admission into and Membership of the Party. CHAPTER III: Code of Discipline for Party Members. CHAPTER IV: Rights. CHAPTER V: Resolves and Duties of the Party and Individual Members. CHAPTER VI: Amendment of the Constitution and Rule-making. APPENDIX A.-- Organisational Structure of the transitional Cadre Party. APPENDIX B. -- Roughcast of Future National Party. THE BURMA SOCIALIST PROGRAMME PARTY - Origin and Purpose: 1. "The Revolutionary Council of the Union of Burma, having rescued the Union, not a moment too soon, from utter disintegration, now strives to reconstruct the social and economic life of all citizens by the Burmese Way to Socialism...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: html (76K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Burmese Way to Socialism
      Date of publication: 28 April 1962
      Description/subject: TOP SECRET. THE BURMESE WAY TO SOCIALISM. REVOLUTIONARY COUNCIL. TOP SECRET. To be treated as Top Secret until officially announced. TOWARDS SOCIALISM IN OUR OWN BURMESE WAY. (Translated from the Burmese). Our Belief...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Revolutionary Council
      Format/size: html (29K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • SLORC-SPDC period 1988

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Endurance of Military Rule in Burma: Not Why, But Why Not?
      Date of publication: November 2010
      Description/subject: "...Although it is always possible that unforeseen events could dramatically recast the distribution of power inside Burma, the current military leadership is probably not one push short of capitulation to “pro-democracy” demands. The SPDC appears to have learned to manage the conflicts resulting from myriad pressures inside the country and from abroad.33 In this context, how would a “democratic opposition” (or more appropriately, “democratic oppositions”) bring about liberal political reform that advances the rights, protections, and interests of ordinary citizens and limits the arbitrary power of government? Short of an improbable capitulation to Aung San Suu Kyi and the NLD, I suggest five possibilities:..."
      Author/creator: Mary Callahan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
      Format/size: pdf (220K)
      Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


      Title: A Historical Overview of Political Transition in Myanmar Since 1988
      Date of publication: August 2007
      Description/subject: "The issue of political transition in Myanmar has generated scholarly interest and debate on the nature and outcomes of the whole process. Various questions have been raised about the on-going National Convention entrusted with the task of drafting a new constitution. Some scholars placed the political transition in the context of national reconciliation in Myanmar while others analyzed it within the conceptual framework of democratization. A recent article by Robert Taylor examined the domestic and international political environment in which the National Convention is being conducted to draft the third constitution for Myanmar. He neatly described the bumpy road that Myanmar had gone through so far and he offered a cautiously optimistic view about the further steps in the process.1 This paper provides a historical overview of the political transition process in Myanmar since 1988. It highlights the missed opportunities and argues that the Tatmadaw's (Myanmar armed forces) position on the political transition in Myanmar has changed from a bystander to a key player. This paper studies the political circumstances that led to the holding of the National Convention and drafting of a new constitution in Myanmar. It will look at the nature of political executive that the new constitution will produce for Myanmar in future..."...Keywords: Myanmar; Burma; Tatmadaw; elections; SPDC; Southeast Asian politics
      Author/creator: Maung Aung Myoe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 95
      Format/size: pdf (215K)
      Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


    • SLORC period (1988-1997)

      • The Burma Press Summary 1987-1996

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: "The Burma Press Summary" (1987 - 1996)
        Description/subject: NOW TRANSFERRED TO THE MAIN DATABASE "The Burma Press Summary" contains full texts of many of the laws and decrees pronounced between April 1987 and December 1996, speeches by the BSPP and SLORC leaders as well as other documents and summaries of reports from "The Working People's Daily", "The New Light of Myanmar" and "The Guardian".
        Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall, compiler
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: SLORC/SPDC publications
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Events of 1988

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
        Description/subject: Background Biographies; Bomb Blasts in Burma—A Chronology; Burma Diplomatic Missions; Burma's Regional Commanders; CCB forms Investigation Body to investigate money laundering offenses; Cabinet of Burma; Chronology of Burma's Laws Restricting Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Chronology of Chinese-Burmese Relations; Chronology of the Press in Burma; Committee Representing the People's Parliament [CRPP]; Dialogue between Military Government and NLD; Diplomatic Trips; Foreign Companies Withdrawn from Burma; Foreign Embassies to Burma; Foreign Investment in Burma; Full List of the Prisoners - Page1; List of Cease-fire Agreements with the Junta; List of Journalists, Authors and Poets Who Received Sentences After 1988; List of the Prisoners (Authors); List of the Prisoners (Death in Custody).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Individual Documents

        Title: The role of students in the 8888 People's Uprising in Burma
        Date of publication: 08 August 2011
        Description/subject: "...Twenty three years ago today, on 8 August 1988, hundreds of thousands of people flooded the streets of Burma demanding an end to the suffocating military rule which had isolated and bankrupted the country since 1962. Their united cries for a transition to democracy shook the core of the country, bringing Burma to a crippling halt. Hope radiated throughout the country. Teashop owners replaced their store signs with signs of protest, dock workers left behind jobs to join the swelling crowds, and even some soldiers were reported to have been so moved by the demonstrations to lay down their arms and join the protestors. There was so much promise...The leaders of the 88 generation have a particularly important role to play in the future of Burma. Not only are they widely admired but they have repeatedly shown their ability to unite ordinary people from all walks of life under a common cause: equality; self-determination; and democratization. This struggle for a unified Burma has been ongoing since independence and cannot be achieved unless there is an inclusive dialogue between the ruling “civilian” regime, the National League for Democracy, and representatives of all ethnic nationality groups to discuss the future of a unified Burma. Until these issues are resolved, Burma will not transition into a peaceful, democratic, and developing country..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
        Format/size: pdf (661K)
        Date of entry/update: 08 September 2011


        Title: The repression of the August 8-12 1988 (8-8-88) uprising in Burma/Myanmar
        Date of publication: 25 February 2009
        Description/subject: Table of Contents: * A. Context; * B. Decision-Maker, Organizers and Actors; * C. Victims,; * D. Witnesses; * E. Memories; * F. General and Legal Interpretations of the facts; * G. Bibliography
        Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Sciences-Po (Encyclopedia of Mass Violence)
        Format/size: pdf (175K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.massviolence.org/Article?id_article=303
        Date of entry/update: 20 April 2010


        Title: Memories of 8.8.88
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: A journalist recalls clandestine visits to Burma to report the country’s story to the world, in an historic period of upheaval... "WORD reached Bangkok in late August 1987 that the Burmese economy was grinding to a standstill, and that the rice harvest could be compromised by weak rainfalls in some areas. As a reporter who liked to operate alone, I was assigned by Asiaweek, the Hong Kong-based newsweekly, to slip into the country. I would get no byline, no credit, not much pay, but a lot of satisfaction..."
        Author/creator: Dominic FAulder
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


        Title: Secrets of Commune 4828
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: How communists played a shadowy role in Burma’s 1988 pro-democracy uprising
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


        Title: The Price of Disunity
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: Burma’s democracy movement needs some serious soul-searching if it wants to secure its aims... "IN this 20th year of Burma’s democracy movement it’s time to ask what it has achieved in those two decades. Is it any nearer now to its goal?..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


        Title: Twenty Years of Marking Time
        Date of publication: August 2008
        Description/subject: After 20 years at a political standstill, the iconic images of Burma’s 1988 pro-democracy uprising have lost none of their immediacy..."BURMA imploded on August 8, 1988. Students and monks governed the country for months as millions marched through the streets, demanding democracy and an end to one-party rule. Economic mismanagement and the demonetization of the Burmese currency in 1987 finally forced many to come out in protest. The regime that had ruled the country for 26 years wasn’t wise enough to negotiate with the protesters but countered with brutal force, at a cost of many lives. Politicians, a new generation of student leaders and the general public joined forces in a movement for change that became known as the “four eights” uprising. Its foundation coincided with the 50th anniversary of the “1300 Movement,” the Burmese resistance against British colonial rule. This time, Ne Win was the public enemy No 1, inflaming popular anger still more with a speech in which he warned: “If the army shoots, it has no tradition of shooting into the air. It will shoot straight to hit.” ..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 17 August 2008


        Title: Making Revolution Happen: An Interview with Christopher Gunness
        Date of publication: September 2003
        Description/subject: "BBC reporter Christopher Gunness was in Burma during the nationwide 8.8.88 democracy uprising. He conducted clandestine radio interviews with several Burmese students and activists that were broadcast to millions of Burmese. The military government accused the reports of triggering the August 1988 uprising. Fifteen years later, Gunness remains blacklisted from entering Burma and is still considered a top enemy of the junta. The Irrawaddy reminisced with him via email about his reporting experiences from 1988... Question: When you worked in Burma as a reporter in 1988, did you get the sense that the sporadic student protests early in the year would flare up into a nationwide uprising?..."
        Author/creator: Christopher Gunness
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/interview_show.php?art_id=3085
        Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


        Title: "Conqueror of Kings: Burma's Student Leader"
        Date of publication: 2003
        Description/subject: During the democracy uprising in 1988, Paw Oo Htun, whose nom de guerre, Min Ko Naing, means Conqueror of Kings, emerged as one of the movement's most prominent student leaders. Together with other student leaders, he revived the umbrella students' organization the All Burma Federation of Student Unions. Today, while serving out a twenty year prison sentence, Min Ko Naing remains a symbol of the Burmese student movement. In this essay, interviews with close friends and student colleagues help document his story.
        Author/creator: Megan Clymer and Min Ko Naing
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Studies" Vol. 8, 2003
        Format/size: pdf (804K)
        Date of entry/update: 01 January 2009


        Title: Another Black August
        Date of publication: August 2000
        Description/subject: For every person who experienced Burma's democracy summer of 1988, August will always be remembered as a month of bloodshed and crushed hopes. For it was in August 1988 that literally millions of Burmese from every walk of life joined to demand an end to more than a quarter-century of unenlightened despotism, onlyto be gunned down in untold numbers throughout the country.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: His Story, Not History - a review of of Maung Maung's "The 1988 Uprising in Burma"
        Date of publication: August 2000
        Description/subject: "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung (foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49, 1999, Yale Southeast Asia Studies, New Haven, Connecticut..."Despite its title, this is not an account of the dramatic events that engulfed Burma in 1988. It is an attempt to rewrite history, a whitewash of one of the most brutal massacres in modern Asian history. More precisely, it is a blind eulogy to Burma’s aging strongman Gen Ne Win. And the reverence for the "Old Man," as he is usually referred to in Burma, is extended even to his children and grandchildren. For these reasons alone, Dr. Maung Maung’s book is worth reading because it shows how far an academic sycophant is prepared to go to please his mentor..."
        Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Reporting '88
        Date of publication: August 2000
        Description/subject: A veteran journalist gives a personal recount of his experiences in covering Burma and the 8-8-88 movement.
        Author/creator: Dominic Faulder/Bangkok
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 8
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Misremembrance of an Uprising: Dr Maung Maung, The 1988 Uprising in Burma
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: Review Article... (Foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49/Yale Southeast Asia Studies.
        Author/creator: Myint Zan
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Newcastle [Australia] Law Review (Vol. 4, No. 2)
        Format/size: pdf (213K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: 11 Years Later
        Date of publication: August 1999
        Description/subject: Cast of 1988 Players • Burma's Unfinished Revolution • Calm before the storm • August 8, 1988 • "They are killing us" • "Something of ourselves" • Filling the power vacuum • The threat to law and order • Prelude to the coup • Eleven years later... • The Sagaing Massacre • A Sketch of Taunggyi
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 7
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Remembering 1988
        Date of publication: June 1998
        Description/subject: 1) Reminiscences & Reflections on 8-8-88 by Burton Levin2) Voices of 88: selections from Voices of '88, a traveling exhibit compiled under the sponsorship of the Open Society Institute.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol... V, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress, 23-25 July 1988
        Date of publication: 25 July 1988
        Description/subject: July 23: The Extraordinary Session of the BSPP Congress opened at 8:30 am at the Saya San Hall, presided over by Yebaw Aung Tha Ban. 1062 of the 1089 delegates were present, or 97.52%. It heard five addresses: one by Chairman U Ne Win (full text); one by General Secretary U Aye Ko on the convening of the Congress [excerpts]; one on by U Aye Ko changes in State economic policies (excerpts]; one by Joint General Secretary U Sein Lwin on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the guiding philosophy, "the System of Correlation of Man and His Environment"; and one by U Htwe Han on investing the Central Committee with the right to amend the Party Constitution.
        Author/creator: Hugh MacDougall (compiler of BPS)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: The Working People's Daily (via Burma Press Summary)
        Format/size: html (66K)
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: 8-8-88 Archive
        Description/subject: Rangoon General Hospital dead and wounded list 1 (7th Aug-17th Aug 1988)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: 8-8-88 Archive
        Description/subject: Sagaing-dead and wounded list
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: 8-8-88 Archive
        Description/subject: Rangoon General Hospital dead and wounded list 2 (7th Aug-17th Aug 1988)
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Events 1989-1997

        Individual Documents

        Title: Letter to General Ne Win from U Aung Gyi
        Date of publication: August 1997
        Description/subject: Rangoon May 1, 1992 Through a series of open letters to Ne Win and former members of the Revolutionary Council written between 1988 and 1992, U Aung Gyi criticized the economic policies and human rights abuses of the government. The following excerpts are from one of these letters.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol.. IV, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • SPDC Period 1997-2011

      • Chronologies and profiles 1997-

        Individual Documents

        Title: Events of 2009
        Date of publication: December 2009
        Description/subject: For Burma’s generals, 2009 was little more than a breathing space between last year’s constitutional referendum and next year’s election. For everyone else, however, it was a year full of disturbing developments, with just the faintest ray of hope on the horizon. Early in the year, the plight of the Rohingya grabbed the headlines, highlighting a humanitarian crisis that is just one of many in military-ruled Burma. Before the year was over, tens of thousands of refugees from other ethnic minorities would pour over the country’s borders with Thailand and China, fleeing military offensives launched by the junta and its allies. But for the regime, all of this was merely a sideshow. The generals’ main tasks for the year were to keep opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi safely under wraps—which it accomplished thanks to an unwanted American “visitor” and a compliant court—and to rein in restive cease-fire groups ahead of the 2010 election. When it wasn’t settling scores within its own borders, the regime was busy forging new ties overseas. But while the Burmese generals found fellow pariah state North Korea to be a natural ally, they seemed less sure about how to respond to the friendly overtures from the US, their staunchest international critic. Many in Burma welcomed the US initiative with cautious optimism, but after yet another year marked by farce and tragedy, few look forward to the year ahead with any great expectations... Rohingya Refugees on the High Seas; A Pact between Pariahs: Burma and North Korea; Courtroom Theater of the Absurd; The DKBA: Bloodstained Opportunism; Border Guard Force Proposal Sets Off Test of Wills; The Kokang Conflict: The Beginning of the End for Ethnic Insurgency in Burma?; US Rethinks Its Burma Policy
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 9
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17327
        Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


        Title: Looking Back at Burma 2008
        Date of publication: December 2008
        Description/subject: "The Irrawaddy gives a chronological rundown on the top news-making moments from January to November"
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


        Title: Names That Made The News [in 2008]
        Date of publication: December 2008
        Description/subject: Win Tin, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ashin Pannya Vamsa, 88 Generation Students, Snr-Gen Than Shwe, Aung Thaung, Maung Sue San and Thakin Tin Mya, Ein Khaing Oo, Khin Maung Aye, Htun Htun Thein, Nay Phone Latt, Aye Aye Win, Bo Kyi, Khin Ohmar, Charm Tong, Zoya Phan, Mahn Sha.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 22 December 2008


        Title: Review of 2005 in Burma and the Region
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: The Faces of Burma 2005
        Date of publication: December 2005
        Description/subject: By December 2005 The Irrawaddy presents around three dozen profiles of those making headlines in Burma and abroad
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


        Title: The people of 2004
        Date of publication: December 2004
        Description/subject: "Who made an impact in Burma in 2004? The Irrawaddy has compiled its own list of the 25 people who caught the public eye in an event-packed year"...Photos and profiles of:- Artists: Win Pe Myint, Min Wae Aung...Pop Singer: Htun Eindra Bo... Musician: Maung Maung Zaw Latt/Htoo Ein Thin...Model: Thet Mon Myint...Actor: Lu Min...Writer: Kyaw Win...Public Figure: Dagon Taya...Scholar: Prof Dr Myint Myint Khi...Social Service: Than Myint Aung...Media Commentator: Amyotheryei Win Naing...Ethnic Leader: Shwe Ohn...Media: BBC Burmese Service...Rights Group: AAPP...Newsmakers of 2004: Gen Bo Mya (Karen rebel leader); Zarni (founder of the Free Burma Coalition); U Lwin (secretary and spokesman of the National League for Democracy); Min Ko Naing (former student leader); Aung San Suu Kyi (democracy leader and Nobel laureate); Gen Khin Nyunt (former prime minister)... Politics: Sr-Gen Than Shwe; Deputy Sr-Gen Maung Aye; Gen Thura Shwe Mann; Lt-Gen Soe Win (new Prime Minister).
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 11
        Format/size: html, jpg
        Date of entry/update: 23 March 2005


        Title: Burma’s Influential Figures (2003)
        Date of publication: December 2003
        Description/subject: "Power 18" is a list of Burma’s most influential figures of 2003. It is not comprehensive but includes individuals inside and outside Burma whom The Irrawaddy feels made significant contributions—positive and negative—to the country this past year. For our more superstitious readers, that 1 + 8 = 9 is merely a coincidence..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10, December 2003
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


        Title: 2002: Year in Review
        Date of publication: December 2002
        Description/subject: Suu Kyi Moves, Junta Stalls; Thai-Burma Relations: A Family Feud? Rising Tensions: Reports of Human Rights Violations and Social Unrest on the Rise; Death of a Despot, End of an Era; Playing Diplomacy with the Junta; Goodbye to Premier; Kyat Hits Rock Bottom.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Year in Review: 1999
        Date of publication: January 2000
        Description/subject: 18-page summary of news items
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: 1998: a Year of Standoffs
        Date of publication: January 1999
        Description/subject: "In 1998, the roadside standoff between Aung San Suu Kyi and the military reflected the larger impasse between the SPDC and the National League for Democracy. In a surprise move, Burma's military leaders changed the name of the government to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) at the end of 1997, but this has been regarded as only a cosmetic change and, in 1998, there was ardly peace or development in Burma as political instability continued with the potential for future explosion..."
        Author/creator: Editorial
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Year in Review: 1998
        Date of publication: January 1999
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 7, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: CHRONOLOGY 1998
        Date of publication: 01 January 1998
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=575&page=1
        Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


        Title: Chronology 1997
        Date of publication: January 1998
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


        Title: Chronology: February-April 1997
        Date of publication: May 1997
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/research_show.php?art_id=3533
        http://www.irrawaddy.org/research_show.php?art_id=5762
        Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      • Events of 2007 and their consequences: "The Saffron Revolution" and its aftermath

        Websites/Multiple Documents

        Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION
        Date of publication: 24 March 2008
        Description/subject: The protests: Students and opposition activists protested after the unannounced 15 August decision to increase fuel prices by 500%. On 5 September, SPDC security forces used force against monks to break up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokku, Magwe Division. The military refused to apologize by the monks' 17 September deadline, and monks began to lead daily non-violent protests. Civilians joined as the protests quickly gained momentum and grew in size. Between 18 and 28 September, thousands of monks joined and led demonstrations. Between 19 August and 31 October, hundreds of thousands of monks, nuns, and citizens participated in over 150 protests spread across nearly every State and Division in the country. See complete list of protests...... The crackdown: The crackdown began on 26 September and involved the use of deadly force, raids on monasteries, and the arrest of thousands of protesters. The regime arrested over 3,000 people, killed at least 31 during the crackdown, and sentenced to prison at least 33. SPDC authorities detained 18 elected MPs, several thousand monks, 274 NLD members, and 25 88 Generation Students members. At least 18 detainees died in custody due to poor conditions and harsh interrogations. The regime continued to hunt for protesters in the months following the peak of the protests. As of 25 January 2008, 700 people involved in the protest remained in custody with 80 unaccounted for...... The international response: The international community was quick to condemn the arrests of protesters in August, and criticism intensified as calls for a peaceful approach to September protests and genuine political dialogue went unheeded. ASEAN expressed "revulsion"strongly deplored" the violent repression of demonstrators. ..... Worldwide demonstrations: People in over 35 countries organized rallies, vigils, marches, petitions, and protests during and following the Saffron Revolution. Some expressed their support for and solidarity with the peaceful protesters. Many demonstrations focused on the policies of Burma's military regime, with calls for the release of political prisoners and an end to the violent crackdown of the protests. Demonstrators also urged the UN and governments worldwide to intervene. See complete list of worldwide solidarity actions...... Related reports: • Saffron Revolution: Recap; • Fuel price hikes inflame Burmese people; • Face off in Burma: Monks vs SPDC; • Saffron Revolution: Update; • Burma Bulletin - August 2007; • Burma Bulletin - September 2007; • Burma Bulletin - October 2007; • Burma Bulletin - November 2007; • Burma Bulletin - December 2007......The documents include also a photo gallery of the events, maps of the demonstrations and crackdowns, a 12MB! Flash presentation of the background and photos of the international solidarity protests around the world and an invitation to buy the T-shirt.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: html etc.
        Date of entry/update: 28 March 2008


        Title: All Burma Monks' Alliance
        Description/subject: We are a religious and social service provider organization staffed by and composed of Burmese Buddhist monks from the 2007 Saffron Revolution. We are currently supporting and providing assistance to refugee monks inside and outside of Burma. The A.B.M.A was formed by a group of senior monks as a response to the severe economic and social problems existing in Burma in 2007. The A.B.M.A. leaders are recognized as the primary organizers and coordinators of the activities of the so-called Saffron Revolution in September, 2007. In a very dramatic way, the world was reminded again of the Burmese people’s struggle for democracy. The peaceful marches, demonstrations and rallies led by the saffron-robed monks were ultimately met by violent reactions of the Burmese military regime. Since that time there has been less media attention to the ongoing problems in Burma. However, as a result of their activities in September 2007, thousands of monks and individual citizens have suffered from the reaction and repression of the military regime. Some monks were arrested and tortured, and remain in prison. Some went into hiding inside Burma, and others left Burma as refugees. The A.B.M.A has established an assistance network for these internal and external refugees, both monks and civilian democracy activists. We hope that through the support of sympathetic organizations and individuals we will be able to continue and to expand on the important work we are doing. Exiled Burmese monks living in Thailand, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka are supported by the A.B.M.A. main office in Mae Sot, Thailand. Groups of exiled monks are also living in refugee status in various cities around the United States, supported by our monastery in Utica, New York. Objectives: * To maintain our support for the assistance network for monks, both inside and outside of Burma * To promote democracy inside Burma, especially in order to defend and preserve the religious and cultural foundations of the nation * To fulfill the customary role of Burmese monks by distributing reading material and sponsoring meetings and discussions on Buddhist beliefs, practices and education * To maintain and update the database of targeted and refugee monks. We have compiled a list of monks under threat, and we will continue to monitor and document information about them from inside Burma. * To support and expand the existing educational programs for both monks and needy families inside Burma. We are trying to procure assistance for educational facilities, schools and training programs for the monks and needy families inside Burma.
        Language: English, Burmese
        Source/publisher: All Burma Monks' Alliance
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


        Title: Detailed List of Detainees since peaceful protests began in Burma on August 19
        Description/subject: For other lists, see the alternate URL -- http://aappb.org
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://aappb.org
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: List of female detainees from August 19 to date.
        Description/subject: Updated 31 January 2008
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: List of those who disappeared during the protest in Burma
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Sasana Moli - International Burmese Monks Organization
        Description/subject: "Mission Statement background Burmese monks from all around the world established the International Burmese Monks Organization (IBMO) in October 2007 under the leadership of two prominent Burmese Buddhist monks, the late Venerable U Kovida and Venerable U Pannya Vamsa. Following the September 2007 street protests in Burma, many Buddhist monks were arrested, disappeared, beaten and even killed. During the crackdown, monks and nuns inside Burma asked monks living outside of the country to continue to their struggle. They asked the IBMO to raise international awareness about Burma’s political struggles. Inside Burma, there is no freedom of speech. To speak out against human rights abuses, to speak out against dictatorship, or to speak out for common human decency, as the Buddhist faith demands, is to invite attack at the hands of the military junta. The IBMO travels the globe in order to provide a voice for our monks and nuns inside Burma who are denied this right. We try to teach others about both the beauty and the harsh realities of military control inside the closed country. Monks are not politicians but is their duty to help relieve the suffering of all the people of Burma. The Buddha gave ten rules for kings to ensure that kings did not harm their subjects. Burma’s generals violate all of these rules every day. According to IBMO Chairman, the Venerable U Pannya Vamsa, the roots of Burma’s crisis are in the military's refusal to hand over power in 1990 to leaders elected in general elections. The IBMO works alongside the Burma democracy movement to lobby international governments to pressure the junta to commence a real dialogue with democratic opposition leaders including the Nobel Peace Laureate, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Additionally, IBMO partners with the Burmese Diaspora, grassroots advocacy groups, and ecumenical and peace organizations to support direct advocacy efforts on behalf of the Burmese people, such as media interviews, lectures, and testifying before legislators. The IBMO also supports the courageous work of monks and nuns inside Burma. Throughout Burmese history, monks have played a significant role in maintaining peace in our society. The Burmese military dictatorship has total disregard for the welfare of its people. The junta provides no proper education, health care or other public services. People are forced to turn to the monasteries for help. Monks witness the desperate needs of the people every day and in September, they rose up together to answer these needs. Today, monks inside Burma are working desperately to feed and clothe Cyclone Nargis victims taking shelter in monasteries throughout Southern Burma. The IBMO raises funds to send directly to these monks inside Burma to buy rice, medicine, and other much-needed relief supplies..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Sasana Moli
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://sasanamoli.org/
        Date of entry/update: 03 December 2009


        Title: Sites of demonstrations in Burma, August-November 2007
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Individual Documents

        Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
        Date of publication: 23 December 2009
        Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
        Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


        Title: The Resistance of the Monks: Buddhism and Activism in Burma
        Date of publication: 22 September 2009
        Description/subject: "Since the Burmese army’s brutal military crackdown on Buddhist monks and other peaceful protestors in September 2007, a constant refrain has been, “What happened to the monks?” ...This report attempts to answer that question. It tells the story of many among hundreds of monks who were arrested and beaten, and the more than 250 monks and nuns who remain in prison today, often with decades remaining on their sentences. It tells the story of large numbers of monks who left their monasteries, returning to their villages or seeking refuge in other countries. And it tells the story of monks who remained, many of whom live under constant surveillance...".....TABLE OF CONTENTS: * The Resistance of the Monks * Map of Burma * I. Summary * II. Burma: A Long Tradition of Buddhist Activism * III. The Role of the Sangha in the 1988 Uprising and After the 1990 Election * IV. Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhism * V. The SPDC and Buddhism * VI. The Reemergence of Buddhist Political Activism in Burma * VII. The September 2007 Crackdown * VIII. Cyclone Nargis and Its Aftermath * IX. International Networks * X. Conclusion * XI. Recommendations * Acknowledgments * Appendix I: Terminology and Abbreviations * Appendix II: Letter to the Penang Sayadaw U Bhaddantapannyavamsa from the Burmese Foreign Ministry, October 27, 2007[195] * Appendix III: Statement by Sasana Moli, the International Burmese Monks Organization, May 2008
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf
        Date of entry/update: 22 September 2009


        Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 1)
        Date of publication: 2009
        Description/subject: A Commentated and Documented Chronology of the Monks' Demonstrations in Myanmar in 2007 and their Background...The account published here does hot and cannot claim to present the "true story" of what happened in August and September 2007 in Myanmar. The time span between the events and the writing about them is too short for an account putting the events into a proper historical perspective. Moreover, the emotional reactions to the events which are a little bit elaborated at the beginning of chapter 8 are on the one hand very appropriate given the dramatic nature of what happened. At the same time, they point to the limits an unbiased evaluation of the episode under review here. The main aim of this account, therefore, is to present some material which allows the reader with some interest in Myanmar to make up his own mind and to preserve some information, impressions and assessments which otherwise might get lost. Hopefully, the reader will share the opinion that the meaning of the monks' demonstrations can only be understood if one considers them as part of a global and extremely complex net of interdependences which defies simple judgements and that the people of Myanmar need not just sympathy but a thorough investigation into the causes of their problems as well which may be related to some of our own troubles....1 INTRODUCTION... 2 GLIMPSES INTO HISTORY: ECONOMICS, PROTESTS AND STUDENTS 2.0 From 1824 to 1988 - In Fast Motion 2.1 From 1988 to 2007... 3 FROM AUGUST 15 TO SEPTEMBER 5 3.0 Narration of Events 3.1 The Media 3.2 Summary and Open Questions... 4 PAKOKKU 4.0 Preliminary Remarks 4.1 Undisputed facts 4.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 4.3 Summary and Disputed News 4.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 4.5 Open Questions 4.6 Conclusions... 5 THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA 5.1 Reflections on the Sources Taken from the Media 5.2 The Media 5.3 Conclusions... 6 THE MONKS' DEMONSTRATIONS - SEPTEMBER 18 TO SEPTEMBER 25 6.0 Preliminary Remarks 6.1 Undisputed Information 6.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 6.3 Summary and Disputed Information 6.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 6.5 Open Questions 6.6 Conclusions... 7 MONKS, SOCIETY AND THE TURNOVER OF THE ALMS BOWL 7.1 The two Sides of the Alms Bowl 7.2 From Early Times to the End of the Burmese Kingdom 1885 7.3 The Colonial Period 7.4 After Independence 7.5 Conclusion... 8 CRACKDOWN AND SUPPRESSION 8.0 Preliminary Remarks 8.1 Undisputed Information 8.2 On the Coverage of the Events - Media Reports 8.3 Summary and Disputed Information 8.4 Interpretations, contexts and analogies 8.5 Open Questions 8.6 Conclusion: Two Pyrrhic Victories... 9 EPILOGUE 9.1 The Aftermath 9.2 Instead of a Conclusion... BIBLIOGRAPHY
        Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 36
        Format/size: pdf (9.7MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


        Title: NEITHER SAFFRON NOR REVOLUTION (Part 2 -Documents)
        Date of publication: 2009
        Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zoellner
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Institut fur Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften Philosophische FakuItat III der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin - Sudostasien Working Papers No. 37
        Format/size: pdf (7.4MB)
        Date of entry/update: 20 March 2010


        Title: Internal dynamics of the Burmese military: before, during and after the 2007 demonstrations
        Date of publication: December 2008
        Description/subject: "Since the military takeover in 1962, the internal dynamics in the Burmese military, which is not monolithic, have greatly affected the way successive military governments have organised themselves and operated. Top military leaders have devised their ideas, built up their power bases and purged rival factions in order to maintain their hardline approaches and their hold on power. This chapter explains how the internal dynamics of the Burmese military played out before, during and after the September 2007 demonstrations and analyses their impact, especially on political and socioeconomic reforms. It also considers possible future internal dynamics, how they might play out and the potential impacts for the country as a whole..."
        Author/creator: Win Min
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (146K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: The dramatic events of 2007 in Myanmar: domestic and international implications
        Date of publication: December 2008
        Description/subject: "In the second half of September 2007, events in Myanmar exploded onto television screens around the world. The pictures—first showing ordered columns of orange-robed monks marching through the streets of Yangon, then showing the brutal response by security forces—generated surprise and shock. The events took place while the UN General Assembly was meeting in New York, amplifying their international political impact. No-one seemed to have anticipated the sudden involvement of the monks or the speed with which the demonstrations gathered pace. In particular, the regime itself appeared to be taken by surprise. Then, once the demonstrations had been effectively put down, there was a sense that this was a watershed moment, and that the situation in Myanmar could never be quite the same. In the words of the Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General, Professor Ibrahim Gambari, ‘a return to the status quo ante is unsustainable’..... In part one, this chapter explores the origin of the demonstrations, in particular the fuel-price protests of August 2007, in an attempt to understand the events that ultimately led to the large-scale demonstrations in September. It investigates why it was that the recent increase in fuel costs gave rise to persistent (if small-scale) demonstrations, when even sharper fuel-price increases in 2005 prompted no public reaction..... In part two, the chapter looks at how the September demonstrations by the monks evolved, and at the nature of the response of the security forces. It discusses the reasons why the monks took to the streets in such large numbers and the domestic impact of the regime’s violent response. It then discusses whether a return to the status quo ante is inconceivable, and whether it would indeed be unsustainable..."
        Author/creator: Richard Horsey
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: 2007 Myanmar/Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
        Format/size: pdf (158K)
        Alternate URLs: http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf_instructions.html
        http://epress.anu.edu.au/myanmar02/pdf/whole_book.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008


        Title: Burma’s ‘saffron revolution’ and the limits of international influence
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: Abstract: "The demonstrations in September 2007 were the most significant civil protests seen in Burma since the ill-fated pro-democracy uprising of 1988. The military government’s brutal response to the latest unrest prompted an unprecedented level of diplomatic activity and a rare consensus on the need for political change. Since then, however, efforts to resolve the crisis have withered away, underlining the international community’s inability over the past 20 years to make a significant impact on the situation in Burma. Neither the principled approach of some countries and organisations, nor the more pragmatic attitude adopted by others, has persuaded the regime to abandon any of its core positions. Indeed, by demonstrating the international community’s continuing disagreement over Burma, and the limited policy options available, the lack of concerted action since the protests has probably encouraged the regime’s obduracy and increased its confidence that it can survive external pressures. An appreciation of the generals’ threat perceptions may help the international community to understand the regime’s intransigence, but it is still difficult to see what policies can be effective against a government that puts its own survival before accepted norms of behaviour and the welfare of its people. Real and lasting change will have to come from within Burma itself, but the events of 2007 suggest that this is a distant prospect."
        Author/creator: Andrew Selth
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Australian Journal of International Affairs Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 281-297,
        Format/size: pdf (142MB)
        Date of entry/update: 15 February 2009


        Title: Saffron Revolution Imprisoned, law demented
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: Contents: SPECIAL EDITION: SAFFRON REVOLUTION IMPRISONED, LAW DEMENTED... Foreword: Dual policy approach needed on Burma Basil Fernando... Introduction: Saffron Revolution imprisoned, law demented Editorial board, article 2... Ne Win, Maung Maung and how to drive a legal system crazy in two short decades, Burma desk, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong... Ten case studies in illegal arrest and imprisonment..... APPENDIX: Nargis: World’s worst response to a natural disaster, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Article 2 (Vol. 7, No. 3)
        Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
        Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


        Title: The Role of Monkhood in Contemporary Myanmar Society
        Date of publication: September 2008
        Description/subject: Introduction: "Recent events in Myanmar, particularly the “Saffron Revolution” in 2007 and cyclone Nargis in 2008 placed Myanmar monks in the focus of the international community. Not for the first time in history, the Myanmar "Sangha" took a leading role in times of emergency, and was able to mobilise rapidly their forces in order to help and represent the people of Myanmar. In 1988 they went to the streets with other citizens to call for democratic and economic reforms in the country. Similarly, in 2007, monks participated in the nation-wide protests against rising fuel and commodity prices. The visible and silent support of the monks provided encouragement and moral guidance for the predominantly Buddhist na-tion. Facing the post-Nargis devastation and indecisiveness related to access of interna-tional humanitarian aid, Myanmar monks became the only organised group able to respond promptly with aid for traumatised victims, providing them with shelter and distributing basic commodities in their communities. The saffron revolution did not succeed. How-ever, for some analysts it was not the end but rather the beginning of a new chapter in Myanmar’s contemporary history, marking the emergence of a new potential social and political force, nourishing hopes of the opposition and for all who expect general changes in Myanmar. Monks, particularly the younger generation, became more aware of their strength and responsibility for the country. In Myanmar most independent activity is suppressed or under strict control of the state. The monkhood, in contrast, enjoys a high level of immunity and freedom, for instance, with regard to freedom of movement (within the country and abroad)3 or various social activities, mostly in the local area. The recent events showed that their role in the society is not limited to the preservation of religion and rituals..."
        Author/creator: Sylwia Gil
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
        Format/size: pdf (288K)
        Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


        Title: A Monk’s Tale
        Date of publication: April 2008
        Description/subject: A leading activist monk recounts his personal experiences of oppression and torture at the hands of Burma’s self-appointed protectors of the Buddhist faith... "ASHIN Pyinnya Jota is the deputy abbot of Rangoon’s Maggin Monastery. He has also been a political prisoner twice since 1990. Now, nearly six months after Burma’s military rulers crushed monk-led protests last September, he is in hiding in a monastery in the Thai border town of Mae Sot, opposite Myawaddy. The 48-year-old monk played a leading role in last year’s uprising as one of the founding members of the All Burma Monks Alliance. After months of evading the authorities in Burma, he finally fled to Thailand in early February. Monks praying at Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon before joining an anti-government march on September 24, 2007. (Photo: Reuters) Speaking from a Thai monastery where more than a dozen Burmese monks have taken refuge since last year’s crackdown, he described the injustices that fueled the monks’ movement and the Buddhist basis for his decades of political activism..."
        Author/creator: Wai Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Human Rights Council - 7th Session: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar - update
        Date of publication: 07 March 2008
        Description/subject: "...The present report is submitted pursuant to Council resolution 6/33. It is based on information gathered since the Special Rapporteur's report (A/HRC/6/14) on the human rights implications of the crackdown on the peaceful demonstrations in Myanmar in September 2007, its causes and consequences. The report covers the period from December 2007 to March 2008"
        Language: English, Arabic, French, Russian, Spanish
        Source/publisher: United Nations (A/HRC/7/24)
        Format/size: pdf (English - 60K; Arabic - 147K; French - 155K; Russian - 175K, Spanish - 145K)
        Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ar.pdf
        http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-fr.pdf
        http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-ru.pdf
        http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/SRM-HRC-7-24-sp.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 18 March 2008


        Title: BULLETS IN THE ALMS BOWL - An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acronyms and Abbreviations... Maps... Map of Burma Showing Protest Locations... Map of Rangoon... I Executive Summary... II Government by Exploitation: The Burmese Way to Capitalism?... Macroeconomic Policy... Fiscal Policy... Monetary Policy... The Economic Cost of Militarization... The Straw that Broke the Camel’s Back... III Growing Discontent: The Economic Protests... Early Signs of Dissatisfaction... Protesting the Fuel Price Rise....... IV The Saffron Revolution... The SPDC and the Sangha... Interdependence of the Monastic and Lay Communities... Pakokku and the Call of Excommunication... Nationwide Protests Declared... V Crackdown on the Streets... Wednesday, 26 September 2007... Shwedagon Pagoda... Downtown Rangoon... Thakin Mya Park... Yankin Post Office... Thursday, 27 September 2007... South Okkalapa Township... Sule Pagoda... Pansodan Road Bridge... Thakin Mya Park... Tamwe Township State High School No3... Friday, 28 September 2007... Pansodan Road... Pazundaung Township... Latha Township ... Saturday, 29 September 2007, onwards... VI The Monastery Raids... Invitations to ‘Breakfast’ ... Maggin Monastery ... Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery ... Additional Raids in Okkalapa ... Thaketa Township... Raids in Other Locations around the Country...Arakan State Mandalay Division... Kachin State... Continued Raids... VII A Witch Hunt... Night Time Abductions... Arrested for Harbouring... Arrests in Lieu Of Others... Collective Punishment of Entire Neighbourhoods... Release of Detainees... Continuing Arrest and Detention of Political Activists... VIII Judicial Procedure and Conditions of Detention... Prolonged Detention without Charge... Judicial Procedure... Conditions of Detention... Interrogation and Torture of Detainees.... Denial of Medical Care... Deaths in Custody... Treatment of Monks... IX Analysis of the Crackdown: Intent to Brutalise, Cover Up and Discredit... Hired Thugs... Targeted and Intentional Killings... Removal of the Dead and Wounded... Treatment of the Injured... Secret Cremations... Suppression of Information... The Internet... Telephone Networks Severed... The National Press... Deliberate Targeting of Journalists... Providing Information to the Media... Defamation of the Sangha... The Pro-SPDC Rallies... X Conclusion... XI Recommendations.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
        Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
        Date of entry/update: 13 March 2008


        Title: Compassionate Confrontation
        Date of publication: March 2008
        Description/subject: "...Metta, usually rendered as “loving-kindness” in English, is a strong wish for the well-being and happiness of all living things. A mind with metta is inclusive and nondiscriminatory and has the power to transform any situation. This is what the Buddha taught and exemplified. As the Burmese monks who participated in last September’s protests demonstrated, metta is not an attitude of passive acquiescence. Metta does not accept evil, but confronts it directly with a force that is its exact opposite. In times of trouble, the revered Sangha, or community of monks, cannot merely insulate itself from the suffering of ordinary people. The monks who protested in Burma showed that they are not just peace lovers, but peacemakers. They did not stop at praying for the benefit of the Burmese people, but took to the streets to oppose the malice manifested in the exclusionary politics of military domination..."
        Author/creator: Min Zin
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Stanley Van Tha ist zurück in der Schweiz â�" in Burma geht die Repression weiter.
        Date of publication: 18 February 2008
        Description/subject: Die allgemeine Lage in Burma hat sich seit den Protesten signifikant verschlechtert. 80 Prozent der Anführer der Mönche und der Studentengruppen, welche die Proteste anführten, sind im Gefängnis, der Rest ist auf der Flucht. Die burmesische Militärdiktatur schreckt vor ausgiebiger Folter nicht zurück, um sich durch das Aktivistennetzwerk zu arbeiten und auf ebenso brutale Art und Weise wurden weitere Proteste auf der Strasse umgehend unterdrückt. Im Januar wurden neue Bemühungen unternommen, den Internetzugang in Burma zu erschweren. Rolle von burmesischen Kindern; schweizer Asylpolitik; Stanley Van Tha; role of burmese children; suisse asylum policy;
        Author/creator: Nina Sahdeva
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: Subdued but Unbowed
        Date of publication: February 2008
        Description/subject: "Fiery Pakokku monks who were in the forefront of anti-junta demonstrations have been under constant surveillance from authorities... A 35-year-old, slender, dark man with a long face wearing a white shirt and longyi is sitting in a teashop opposite a A-Nauk Taik, a famous monastery in western Pakokku. Many people, including the teashop owner, notice him. They know he is an undercover police officer assigned to watch the monks’ activities in A-Nauk Taik, also known as Mandalay Monastery. Pakokku residents said that since the September monk-led protests, the authorities have assigned various officers in plain clothes to areas surrounding Buddhist monasteries, many of which are also monastic schools that train monks in the higher Buddhist scriptures..."
        Author/creator: Kyo Wai
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: The Lingering Question
        Date of publication: February 2008
        Description/subject: "Why didn’t the ethnic groups do more to help the September protesters? Nearly five months after the anti-regime demonstrations that shook Burma late last year, one central question is still waiting for a definitive answer: Couldn’t the ethnic groups have done more to support the protesters in Rangoon and other cities? As monks and lay protesters filled the streets, there was some speculation that the armed forces of the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) and the Shan State Army—South (SSA-S) might at the very least launch offensives to pin down Burma Army divisions in Karen and Shan State. At the height of the brutal crackdown on the demonstrations in Rangoon it was reported that government troops had been sent from Karen State to help suppress the protests..."
        Author/creator: Violet Cho and Shan Paung
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: AFTER THE CRACKDOWN
        Date of publication: 31 January 2008
        Description/subject: "The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General's special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the U.S. and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar's neighbours and the West must press together for a sustainable process of national reconciliation. This will require a long-term effort by all who can make a difference, combining robust diplomacy with serious efforts to address the deep-seated structural obstacles to peace, democracy and development. The protests in August-September and, in particular, the government crackdown have shaken up the political status quo, the international community has been mobilised to an unprecedented extent, and there are indications that divergences of view have grown within the military. The death toll is uncertain but appears to have been substantially higher than the official figures, and the violence has profoundly disrupted religious life across the country. While extreme violence has been a daily occurrence in ethnic minority populated areas in the border regions, where governments have faced widespread armed rebellion for more than half a century, the recent events struck at the core of the state and have had serious reverberations within the Burman majority society, as well as the regime itself, which it will be difficult for the military leaders to ignore. While these developments present important new opportunities for change, they must be viewed against the continuance of profound structural obstacles. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. The immediate challenges are to create a more durable negotiating process between government, opposition and ethnic groups and help alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, longer-term efforts are needed to encourage and support the emergence of a broader, more inclusive and better organised political society and to build the capacity of the state, civil society and individual households alike to deal with the many development challenges. To achieve these aims, all actors who have the ability to influence the situation need to become actively involved in working for change, and the comparative advantages each has must be mobilised to the fullest, with due respect for differences in national perspectives and interests..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°144)
        Format/size: pdf (806K)
        Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


        Title: Sangha under Siege
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: Yeni looks at the plight of Burmese monks, who took the lead in organizing pro-democracy opposition to the junta and are now feeling the brunt of the junta’s brutality.... "the sonorous sounds of bronze bells and wooden gongs dispel the early morning darkness, monks in maroon robes set off with their alms bowls on their daily rounds of the neighborhoods around their monasteries. This serene picture is part of the cultural tapestry of Burma, the “land of pagodas.” The crackdown on the September demonstrations scattered the protesting monks—and at the same time shattered an age-old picture. The number of monks making their morning rounds has shrunk dramatically. Many monasteries are empty..."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Who Lost the Most in the 2007 Uprising?
        Date of publication: January 2008
        Description/subject: "Who were the true winners and losers in the uprising now widely known as the “Saffron Revolution”? The truth is everyone involved lost—the Burmese people, the military junta and the international community. Most Burmese people lost faith in a better future, their dreams again destroyed by the dark reality of oppression and ruthlessness. The generals lost their chance to show the world they wished to move towards a legitimate government and gain the world’s recognition as leaders who guided Burma to true democracy. The generals might have gone down in history as men of vision, but because they stayed true to their past they will be remembered only as unenlightened villains who have the people’s blood on their hands. The international community lost in its efforts to effect peaceful change and is now searching for new ways to move the regime toward national reconciliation—which seems farther away than ever. Asean, especially, lost its chance to turn a new page, on which it could show it understands its responsibilities within the world community..."
        Author/creator: Editorial
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Burma VJ - reporting from a closed country (video)
        Date of publication: 2008
        Description/subject: 84 MINUTES RUNNING TIME. TRAILER PLUS 9 PARTS. FOR PARTS 1-9, CLICK ON ALTERNATE LINKS, BELOW, OR IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OF YOUTUBE PAGE..."Armed with small handycams undercover Video Journalists in Burma keep up the flow of news from their closed country despite risking torture and life in jail. Their material is smuggled out of Burma and broadcast back via satellite. Joshua, age 27, becomes tactical leader of a group of reporters, as Buddhist monks in September 2007 lead a massive uprising. Foreign TV crews are banned from the country, so its left to Joshua and his crew to keep the revolution alive on TV screens all over. As government intelligence understands the power of the camera, the VJs become their prime target."
        Author/creator: ANDERS OËœSTERGAARD, Khin Maung Win et al
        Language: Burmese, English
        Source/publisher: Magic Hour Films
        Format/size: Adobe Flash Player (84 minutes playing time)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6DfCLqLVUg&feature=related (pt I)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pc4tnvuFoPc&feature=related (pt II)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-i9V2Qpzqw&feature=related (pt III)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsnoYEthIb8&feature=related (pt IV)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOnhJ-yY824&feature=related (pt V)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RtWrYfl2pb0&feature=related (pt VI)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s94tsVAZuY&feature=related (pt VII)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLaOqrAdpM&feature=related (pt VIII)
        http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vaXSwWF6aM&feature=related (pt IX - final)
        http://burmavjmovie.com/
        Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


        Title: Burma: schon vergessen?
        Date of publication: 06 December 2007
        Description/subject: Anfang Dezember verkündeten die Militärbehörden, sie hätten seit Mitte November über 8'500 Gefangene frei gelassen, darunter auch 10 politische Häftlinge. Damit unterstreiche die Regierung ihre Bereitschaft, den nationalen Zusammenhalt und die Zusammenarbeit mit der internationalen Gemeinschaft und den Vereinten Nationen zu fördern, liess das offizielle Organ „New Light of Myanmar“ verlauten. Die offiziellen Angaben sind verwirrlich, so bleibt unklar, ob die jetzt Freigelassenen im Zuge der Niederschlagung der Proteste vom vergangenen Herbst verhaftet worden waren. Offiziellen Quellen zufolge sind dabei 10 Menschen ums Leben gekommen und 2'927 in Haft genommen worden, darunter 596 Mönche; noch 80 Menschen, davon 21 Mönche, würden weiter in Haft gehalten. Menschenrechtsorganisationen fürchten allerdings, die Zahl der Todesopfer und Inhaftierten sei sehr viel höher. Repression nach den Aufständen 2007; repression after the uprisings 2007
        Author/creator: Christine Pluess, Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Fairunterwegs
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: 2007: The Year in Review
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: The Irrawaddy presents a chronology of significant events in words and photographs for 2007.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Burma’s "Saffron Revolution” is not over - Time for the international community to act
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: Executive summary" "The situation in Burma after the “Saffron Revolution” is unprecedented. The September 2007 peaceful protests and the violent crackdown have created new dynamics inside Burma, and the country’sfuture is still unknown. This led the FIDH and the ITUC to conduct a joint mission along the Thai-Burma border between October 13th-21st 2007 to investigate the events and impact of the September crackdown, and to inform our organizational strategies and political recommendations. The violence and bloodshed directed at the monks and the general public who participated in the peace walks and protests have further alienated the population from its current military leaders. The level of fear, but also anger amongst the general population is unprecedented, as even religious leaders are now clearly not exempt from such violence and repression. This is different from the pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988, when monks were not directly targeted. In present-day Burma, all segments of the population have grown hostile to the regime, including within the military’s own ranks. The desire for change is greater than ever. Every witness -from ordinary citizens to monks, and Generation ‘88 leaders- told mission participants the movement was not over, despite the fear of reprisals and further repression. The question is what will happen next, and when? The future will depend of three factors: the extent to which the population will be able to organize new rounds of a social movement, the reaction of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the influence the international community can exert on the junta. What happened in Burma since the crackdown has proven that the international community has influence on the regime. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari’s good offices mission was accepted. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, Sergio Pinheiro was allowed access to the country for the first time in four years, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were given permission to meet with each other for the first time since Daw Suu was placed under renewed house arrest, in May 2003. Yet these positive signs are still weak: a genuine process of political change has not started yet. Such a process, involving the democratic parties and ethnic groups, is fundamental to establishing peace, human rights and development in Burma. To achieve that, the international community must keep its focus on Burma, and maximise its efforts and capacity to help bring about political transition..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
        Format/size: pdf (388K)
        Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/FIDH-ITUC-Saffron-rev..pdf
        Date of entry/update: 14 December 2007


        Title: Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: "In August and September 2007, Burmese democracy activists, monks and ordinary people took to the streets of Rangoon and elsewhere to peacefully challenge nearly two decades of dictatorial rule and economic mismanagement by Burma’s ruling generals. While opposition to the military government is widespread in Burma, and small acts of resistance are an everyday occurrence, military repression is so systematic that such sentiment rarely is able to burst into public view; the last comparable public uprising was in August 1988. As in 1988, the generals responded this time with a brutal and bloody crackdown, leaving Burma’s population once again struggling for a voice. The government crackdown included baton-charges and beatings of unarmed demonstrators, mass arbitrary arrests, and repeated instances where weapons were fired shoot-to-kill. To remove the monks and nuns from the protests, the security forces raided dozens of Buddhist monasteries during the night, and sought to enforce the defrocking of thousands of monks. Current protest leaders, opposition party members, and activists from the ’88 Generation students were tracked down and arrested – and continue to be arrested and detained. The Burmese generals have taken draconian measures to ensure that the world does not learn the true story of the horror of their crackdown. They have kept foreign journalists out of Burma and maintained their complete control over domestic news. Many local journalists were arrested after the crackdown, and the internet and mobile phone networks, used extensively to send information, photos, and videos out of Burma, were temporarily shut down, and have remained tightly controlled since. Of course, those efforts at censorship were only partially successful, as some enterprising and brave individuals found ways to get mobile phone video footage of the demonstrations and crackdown out of the country and onto the world’s television screens. This provided a small window into the violence and repression that the Burmese military government continues to use to hold onto power..."
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
        Format/size: pdf (1.88MB)
        Date of entry/update: 08 December 2007


        Title: Death of a Journalist
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: The shooting of a Japanese cameraman by Burmese security forces shocked the Japanese public and government, but what about official foreign policy?
        Author/creator: Yamamoto Munesuke
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 28 April 2008


        Title: Editorial_December 2007
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: Ups and Downs in 2007... "The year 2007 brought high hopes to the Burmese people when protesters led by monks took to the streets demanding democratic change. But the hopes were short lived. The brutal crackdown unleashed by the military regime killed not only innocent people but also the people’s hope for change. However, the people of Burma, tired of their life under a repressive regime, have pressed the fast forward button for change, and I believe they won’t let up that pressure. Regional players and allies of the regime have failed to back this indefatigable will for change. They have also seen many ups and downs since Burma joined Asean in 1997..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Faces of 2007
        Date of publication: December 2007
        Description/subject: The year when the people of Burma again lost patience with their military rulers... "Without them, the people of Burma wouldn’t have achieved the present political momentum which seems to be building toward a chance of democratic reforms. Without them, the pro-democracy movement wouldn’t have achieved the current international pressure that’s pushing the ruling junta to engage in a dialogue with the opposition. Without them, there would be no hope for a better future in 2008..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 12
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


        Title: Myanmar: Briefing Paper: No Return to "Normal"
        Date of publication: 09 November 2007
        Description/subject: "The violent suppression by the Myanmar authorities of peaceful demonstrations in 66 cities country-wide from mid-August through September 2007 provoked international condemnation. Amnesty International continues to document serious human rights violations. The situation has not returned to normal. Based on numerous first-hand accounts from victims and eye-witnesses, this briefing paper outlines some key human rights abuses committed since the start of the crackdown."
        Language: English, Francais, Espanol
        Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/037/2007)
        Format/size: pdf (55.7K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/037/2007
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/55be999b-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Francais)
        http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/53392708-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa1... (Espanol)
        Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


        Title: A Rangoon Diary
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: "They were nine days that not only rocked Burma but shook the conscience of the free world. Just over one week of bloody suppression of peaceful demonstrations in Rangoon and other cities and in the country’s monasteries—a period that will go down in Burmese history as the Uprising of September 2007. Bangkok-based author and photojournalist Thierry Falise lived through the events in Rangoon and wrote a diary of the nine days of terror..."
        Author/creator: Thierry Falise
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Burma’s Long Road to Democracy
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: Summary: • In August and September 2007, nearly twenty years after the 1988 popular uprising in Burma, public anger at the government’s economic policies once again spilled into the country’s city streets in the form of mass protests. When tens of thousands of Buddhist monks joined the protests, the military regime reacted with brute force, beating, killing, and jailing thousands of people. Although the Saffron Revolution was put down, the regime still faces serious opposition and unrest. • Burma’s forty-five years of military rule have seen periodic popular uprisings and lingering ethnic insurgencies, which invariably provoke harsh military responses and thereby serve to perpetuate and strengthen military rule. The recent attack on the monks, however, was ill considered and left Burma’s devoutly religious population deeply resentful toward the ruling generals. • Despite the widespread resentment against the generals, a successful transition to democracy will have to include the military. Positive change is likely to start with the regime’s current (though imperfect) plan for return to military-dominated parliamentary government, and achieving real democracy may take many years. When Than Shwe, the current top general, is replaced, prospects for working with more moderate military leaders may improve. In the end, however, only comprehensive political and economic reform will release the military’s grip on the country. • Creating the conditions for stable, effective democracy in Burma will require decades of political and economic restructuring and reform, including comprehensive macroeconomic reform, developing a democratic constitution and political culture, re- establishing rule of law, rebuilding government structures at national and state levels, and building adequate health and educational institutions. • The international community must give its sustained attention to Burma, continuing to press the regime for dialogue with the forces of democracy, beginning with popular democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and insisting on an inclusive constitutional process. International players should also urge the regime immediately to establish a national commission of experts to begin studying and making recommendations for economic restructuring to address the underlying concerns that brought about the Saffron Revolution. • Though China is concerned about the Burmese regime’s incompetence, it has only limited sway with the generals, who are fiercely anticommunist and nationalistic. Nonetheless, Beijing will cautiously support and contribute to an international effort to bring transition, realizing that Burma will be seen as a test of China’s responsibility as a world power. • The United States should restrain its tendency to reach simply for more unilateral sanctions whenever it focuses on Burma. Because a transition negotiated with opposition parties is still likely to produce an elected government with heavy military influence, the United States must prepare to engage with an imperfect Burmese democracy and participate fully in reconstruction and reform efforts, which will require easing some existing sanctions.
        Author/creator: Priscilla Clapp
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: United States Institute for Peace (Special Report 193 November 2007)
        Format/size: pdf (215K)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/Burma%27s%20long%20road%20to%20democracy%20-%20Clapp.pdf
        Date of entry/update: 09 September 2011


        Title: The Long Nightmare
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: Rangoon’s weeks of terror left few untouched... "There can be very few, in this city of five million, who have not been touched by the events of the last few weeks. Everyone I meet has a story to tell or a memory of where they were when the shooting started. No amount of censorship can erase these memories or the emotions they have aroused. No matter how many lines of communication are cut, the accounts of what people saw, heard or felt during the uprising will continue to circulate. Many of those with whom I have spoken confess to feelings of guilt because they did not or could not take part in the demonstrations. That the monks who walked in peaceful protest on their behalf should have been treated with such callous disregard has fermented in them a new sense of defiance. Even among very ordinary people whose silence has traditionally been taken by the regime as a sign of agreement, there is a growing mood of resentment. The scales have most decidedly tipped—but in whose favor? ..."
        Author/creator: Naomi Mann
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Where There’s Struggle, There’s Hope
        Date of publication: November 2007
        Description/subject: "The September 2007 uprising was a struggle between the sons of Buddha and the forces of darkness and repression. In the struggle for democracy, hope is the key. The battle lines are drawn more clearly now than ever before..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 11
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Burma Berichterstattung
        Date of publication: 24 October 2007
        Description/subject: Burma 3 Wochen nach den Aufständen; Rolle und Möglichkeiten der NLD und der ethnsichen Minderheiten; Burma 3 weeks after the uprisings; role and possibilities of the NLD and ethnic minorities;
        Author/creator: Rebecca Vermot
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Comedia
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION: UPDATE
        Date of publication: 15 October 2007
        Description/subject: In the "Saffron Revolution," tens of thousands of Buddhist monks led massive anti-junta demonstrations. It was the largest show of peaceful protests against the military regime since 1988. Between 19 August and 2 October, 227 rallies defied military rule in 66 cities across all of Burma's States and Divisions. The SPDC arrested up to 6,000 people, including at least 1,400 monks, since the beginning of the crackdown on 26 September. This briefer contains the latest accounts of resistance and documentation of human rights abuses perpetrated during crackdowns.
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
        Format/size: pdf (80K)
        Date of entry/update: 28 October 2007


        Title: Inside Myanmar: The Crackdown - 10 Oct 07 (video)
        Date of publication: 11 October 2007
        Description/subject: IN 2 PARTS - FOR PART 2, CLICK ON ICON IN RIGHT HAND COLUMN OR link in "ALTERNATE URLs, BELOW... "For this extended special news programme, Al Jazeera's Tony Birtley went undercover in Myanmar to report exclusively on the people's protests and resulting bloody crackdown by Myanmar's military government, talking to the protesters, filming the bloody crackdown and gauging the mood of the nation "
        Author/creator: Tony Birtley
        Language: English commentary, Burmese background
        Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
        Format/size: Adobe Flash (12:45, 10:07)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h2goTVC5g3M (part 2)
        Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


        Title: Globale Unterstützung der "Safran-Revolution"
        Date of publication: 07 October 2007
        Description/subject: Weltweit haben am Wochenende Bürger und Menschenrechtsorganisationen Solidarität mit den Demonstranten und den buddhistischen Mönchen in Birma bekundet. In Australien, Asien, Nordamerika und Europa hielten Tausende Menschen mit Kerzen in den Händen Mahnwachen zum Gedenken an die Opfer der gewaltsamen Protest-Niederschlagung; Rolle Russlands, Indiens und Chinas; international support for the demonstrators; role of Russia, China, India
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Aller-Zeitung
        Format/size: html
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: Einige Aspekte der Situation in Birma/Myanmar
        Date of publication: 01 October 2007
        Description/subject: Die Zuspitzung der von buddhistischen Mönchen angeführten Proteste gegen das Militärregime in Birma bzw. Myanmar sowie das harte Vorgehen der Militärjunta haben Birma in den Blickpunkt der Weltöffentlichkeit gerückt. Seit Jahren wird von seiten vor allem der US-Regierung, aber auch Großbritanniens und teils auch der EU Propaganda gegen das Militärregime dort gemacht, wurden Drohungen ausgesprochen und Sanktionen verhängt. Und sie drängen auch jetzt zu verschärften Maßnahmen gegenüber Birma und setzen zunehmend China, Indien und die ASEAN-Staaten unter Druck, gegen die Militärjunta vorzugehen und noch mehr, sie drängen dazu, zu einem Machtwechsel in Birma beizutragen.USA-Burma Beziehungen, Aufstände 2007; USA-Burma relations; uprisings 2007
        Author/creator: Uwe Mueller
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Neue Einheit
        Format/size: Html (17 kb)
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: No Soft Touch
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: As the mother of a four-month-old baby, Nilar Thein should be at home now, caring for her little daughter. Instead, she’s a fugitive with a price on her head, in hiding from Burmese government forces desperate to silence her and other outspoken activists.For Nilar Thein, 35, it was a clear choice—whether to remain silent in the interests of her family or to join in the movement to bring democracy to Burma, knowing she risked jail and separation from her baby. She took the second course of action, believing that in the long run it would benefit her daughter far more than if she had done nothing. By working for democratic change in Burma, she hoped to “bring about a bright future for my daughter,” Nilar Thein told The Irrawaddy from her hiding place..."
        Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8907
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Risiken und Nebenwirkungen einer Farbrevolution in Birma
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: Eine Beleuchtung der Hintergründe und Akteure des Aufstandes, im Vergleich zu den Aufständen von 1988. background and actors of the uprisings 2007; uprisings 1988
        Author/creator: Wolfram Schaffer
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Zeitschrift-Peripherie
        Format/size: Pdf
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


        Title: The Power Behind the Robe
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: Why Burma’s generals fear the influence of the Sangha... "The Lord Buddha shunned worldly affairs, but in his teachings he stressed the need for good governance and good rulers in the practice of politics. The Buddha said: “When the ruler of a country is just and good, the ministers become just and good; when the ministers are just and good, the higher officials become just and good; when the higher officials are just and good, the rank and file become just and good; when the rank and file become just and good, the people become just and good.” If these admonitions are followed by the large community of monks—the Sangha—in predominantly Buddhist Burma, the lingering “love lost” relationship between the country’s military rulers and its monks should be no surprise..."
        Author/creator: Aung Zaw
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8908
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Walking a Stony Path
        Date of publication: October 2007
        Description/subject: The pro-democracy activists who first took to the streets in the lead up to the mass demonstrations knew in advance that they faced arrest, imprisonment and possible torture. Many of them were well prepared for the ordeal, however, after serving many years in prison following the 1988 uprising, writes Yeni... "Spirits were high as around 500 demonstrators, led by prominent pro-democracy activists, paraded through Rangoon on that fateful day in August. The demonstrators were a happy, optimistic crowd, talking about their hopes for a better life some time in the future. For some prominent members of the 88 Generation Students group—notably Min Ko Naing, Ko Ko Gyi and Min Zeya—the demonstration would lead to imprisonment. But they were well prepared for it after each spending at least 15 years behind bars for their leadership role in the 1988 uprising. .."
        Author/creator: Yeni
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 10
        Format/size: html
        Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8904
        Date of entry/update: 29 April 2008


        Title: Burmas Mönche zwischen Gleichschaltung und Rebellion
        Date of publication: 25 September 2007
        Description/subject: Zehntausende buddhistische Mönche demonstrieren in Burma für Demokratie und den Sturz der Militärjunta. Sie riefen sogar zur "Exkommunikation" der herrschenden Generäle auf, indem sie erklärten, von Militärs keine Nahrungsmittelspenden oder Almosen mehr anzunehmen. Da sich Buddhisten mit diesen Gaben traditionell jedoch Verdienste für das nächste Leben erwerben wollen, strafen die Mönche die Militärs mit ihrer Verweigerung wirksam ab.
        Language: German, Deutsch
        Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
        Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


      • SPDC - general studies

        Individual Documents

        Title: Myanmar: Autoritarismus im Wandel
        Date of publication: July 2008
        Description/subject: Vor 20 Jahren erlebte die Demokratiebewegung in Myanmar (Birma) ihren bisherigen Höhepunkt, als am 8. August 1988 100.000 Menschen in Rangoon für die Demokratie demonstrierten. Das sozialistische Einparteiregime brach zusammen und machte einer Militärregierung Platz, die sich bis heute an der Macht hält. Analyse: Das Militär hat in den letzten zwei Dekaden seine Herrschaft langsam konsolidieren können. Aus einer Politik der Stärke heraus leitet das Militär nun einen Wandel ein und lässt knapp 20 Jahre nach den Demonstrationen von 1988 über eine neue Verfassung abstimmen; für 2010 sind Wahlen versprochen. Gleichzeitig stellt das Militär sicher, dass ihm auch in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle im Staate zukommt. Das Militär hat im vergangenen Jahrzehnt die territoriale Durchdringung des Staates erhöhen und seine Stellung konsolidieren können. Mit Hilfe einer geschickten Modernisierungs- und Beförderungspolitik hat es sein korporatives Interesse befriedigen und Risse innerhalb des Militärs verhindern können. Die äußere Sanktionierung des Militärregimes hat den Korpsgeist der Armee noch gefördert. Das Militärregime nutzt im Wesentlichen Repression und Propaganda, um seine Herrschaft abzusichern. Die Proteste gegen die Herrschaft des Militärs im Jahre 2007 haben indes gezeigt, dass das Militärregime zusätzlicher Legitimationsmittel bedarf, um sich dauerhaft an der Macht halten zu können. Externer Druck und interner Protest haben dazu geführt, dass das Militär die lange versprochenen Reformen allmählich umsetzt. Dabei monopolisiert es jedoch den gesamten Reformprozess und versucht, sich weiter eine dominante Stellung im politischen System zu sichern. Die neue Verfassung sieht nach wie vor eine dominante Rolle für die Streitkräfte vor. Gleichzeitig erlaubt sie aber – anders als beim jetzigen Status quo – die Repräsentation anderer gesellschaftlicher Kräfte. Es besteht die Hoffnung, dass mittelfristig neue Spielregeln entstehen, die zu einer größeren Öffnung führen und den rigiden Autoritarismus aufbrechen... Schlagwörter: Myanmar, Militärregime, Demokratisierung, Opposition, Medien
        Author/creator: Marco Bünte
        Language: Deutsch, German
        Source/publisher: GIGA Focus No. 7
        Format/size: pdf (476K)
        Alternate URLs: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QJRl7nG0Vh4J:se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/Files/EINIRAS/9...
        Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


  • Burmese History Book Reviews

    Individual Documents

    Title: "Myanmar Meanderings" -- a review by David Scott Mathieson of Robert Taylor's "The State in Myanmar"
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: "In the aftermath of the 1988 uprising in Burma, a new generation of military autocrats decided a makeover was in order. The rebranding of the Union of Burma into the Union of Myanmar in 1989 was as much to confuse memory in the wake of the mass killings of protestors by the army as it was to stamp a new look on the repression that had occurred since 1962. One of the military government's leading chroniclers is the academic Robert Taylor, whose landmark book "The State in Burma" was released in 1987 and gets its own rebranding in the updated "The State in Myanmar" by Robert H. Taylor. National University of Singapore Press, 2009. P 540... Taylor has been widely maligned for his conclusions in the first book, whose final paragraph declares "for better or worse the state is accepted as inevitable" and that despite dissatisfaction amongst many Burmese with the ruling Burma Socialist Program Party, its disastrous economic management and reclusive foreign affairs, the system itself was in more or less sound shape. This was repudiated not just by the popular uprising that rocked Burma several months after the book's release, but by the architects of the socialist system itself. They included Burma's strong man Ne Win, who admitted not just to the system's unpopularity but also to its unsustainability under modern conditions. The socialist system was swept away and multi-party democratic elections promised. The disagreements created by "The State in Burma"shouldn't necessarily detract from its sweep of Burmese political history, at the time unprecedented since the work of the colonial scholar J S Furnivall..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research Book Reviews Spring 2003
    Date of publication: 20 March 2003
    Description/subject: THANT MYINT-U. "The Making of Modern Burma". Reviewed by MARILYN LONGMUIR... ROBERT H. TAYLOR (ed.). "Burma: Political Economy Under Military Rule". Reviewed by JÖRG SCHENDEL
    Author/creator: MARILYN LONGMUIR, JÖRG SCHENDEL
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003
    Format/size: pdf (64.1 K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.archive.org/details/BookReviewsFromSoasBulletinOfBurmaResearch1.1spring2003
    Date of entry/update: 07 January 2011


  • Economic history

    • Economic History - general

      Individual Documents

      Title: DIE AKTUELLEN POLITISCHEN, WIRTSCHAFTLICHEN UND SOZIALEN RAHMENBEDINGUNGEN IN BURMA
      Date of publication: October 2007
      Description/subject: Ãƒï¿½hnlich der Entwicklung der politischen Verhältnisse lassen sich auch in der wirtschaftlichen Ordnung bemerkenswerte Parallelen zwischen der vor- und der postkolonialen �ra in Burma beobachten. Am auffälligsten ist dabei die Tradition einer dirigistischen Wirtschaftspolitik. Soziale Verhältnisse; History of Economy; Social conditions
      Author/creator: René Hingst
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Heinrich-Boell-Stiftung
      Format/size: Html (28k)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/alt/de/05_world/5317.html
      http://www.boell.de/downloads/hingst_burma2003.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


      Title: The Control of Political Economy - a review of "State Dominance in Myanmar"
      Date of publication: April 2007
      Description/subject: State Dominance in Myanmar, by Tin Maung Maung Than. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore, P472... Burma’s economic development reflects the history of failed dictatorships... "The Political Economy of Industrialization,’ the subtitle of Dr Tin Maung Maung Than’s recently released State Dominance in Myanmar, may be perplexing to those who perceive industrialization as modernization, impersonal bureaucratization and the welfare state formation of the West over the past two centuries. Is there such a thing as industrialization in Burma? Tin Maung Maung Than’s answer is an unequivocal “Yes.” He defines industry, following the late American economist Simon Kuznets, as “encompassing manufacturing and processing of agricultural, forest, marine and mineral products as well as electricity production.” The first few chapters will convince the reader that the tradition of planned economy in Burma is deeply rooted in “the negative experience of laissez-faire economy” for the locals under colonial rule. It had also emerged from the leftist ideas and “lingering notions” of the nationalist leaders, led by Gen Aung San..."
      Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 4
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    • Economic History -- Money-lending and Banking

      Individual Documents

      Title: Central Banking at the Periphery of the British Empire: Colonial Burma, 1886-1937
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: Abstract: "The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the efforts to fashion a central bank in Burma during the years in which the country was a province of British India. Throughout this period, which lasted from 1886 to 1937, questions of money and finance in Burma were mostly the preserve of the Raj in Calcutta and New Delhi. And, yet, it is a little-known fact that plans to establish a central bank for Burma were promoted throughout the colonial years by a succession of imperial officials. These plans, which reached their apogee in the ‘monetary reform’ advocacy that followed the Great Depression, were never realised in the colonial era. They were, however, indicative of a political economy discourse in colonial Burma that was more vigorous, and theoretically sophisticated, than is commonly supposed."
      Author/creator: Sean Turnell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Macquarie Economics Research Papers, July 2005, no.11/2005.
      Format/size: pdf (116K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


      Title: THE CHETTIARS IN BURMA
      Date of publication: July 2005
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "In the history of Burma's political economy, few groups have been so roundly vilified as the Chettiars. A community of moneylenders indigenous to Chettinad, Tamil Nadu, the Chettiars operated throughout the Southeast Asian territories of the British Empire. They played a particularly prominent role in Burma where, alas, they were typically demonised as rapacious usurers, responsible for all manner of vices concomitant with the colonial economy. Not least of these was the chronic land alienation of the Burmese cultivator. The purpose of this paper is to reappraise the role of the Chettiars in Burma. Finding that their role was crucial in the dramatic growth in Burma's agricultural output during the colonial era, the paper disputes the moneylender stereotype so often used against them. Employing modern economic theory to the issue, the paper finds that the success of the Chettiars in Burma lay less in the high interest rates they charged, than it did to patterns of internal organisation that provided solutions to the inherent problems faced by financial intermediaries. A proper functioning financial system could have provided better solutions perhaps for Burma's long-term development, but Burma did not have such a system, then or now. Easy scapegoats for what went wrong, the Chettiars merit history's better judgement."
      Author/creator: Sean Turnell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Macquarie Economics Research Papers, July 2005, no.12/2005.
      Format/size: pdf (169K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


      Title: The Rise and Fall of Cooperative Credit in Colonial Burma
      Date of publication: June 2005
      Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "Cooperative credit was the British Empire's all-purpose answer to problems of rural poverty and indebtedness, usury, and land alienation. Originating in the idealism of the 'Rochedale Pioneers' and in schemes from rural Germany, cooperative credit was imported into India with an evangelical zeal to solve all manner of perceived economic and social ills. With only slightly less moral fervour it was transplanted from India into Burma in the first decade of the Twentieth Century, and by 1920 several thousand cooperative credit societies had mushroomed across the country. The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of cooperative credit in Burma from these promising beginnings, until the near collapse of the movement on the eve of the Great Depression. The paper explores the way in which cooperative credit was seen by the imperial authorities as a device to limit the role of Indian money-lenders in Burma, and as the basis for the establishment of formal rural credit markets. The paper concludes that poor implementation, on top of official myopia as to the cultural, historical and economic differences between India, Burma and Europe, brought about the demise of a movement that promised much."
      Author/creator: Sean Turnell
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Macquarie Economics Research Papers, June 2005, no.9/2005.
      Format/size: pdf (118K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 May 2008


    • Economic History: Agriculture

      Individual Documents

      Title: An Annotated Bibliography of Articles on the Burmese Peasantry from the Journal of the Burma Research Society, 1911-1970
      Date of publication: 2000
      Description/subject: This compilation covers fifty articles and twenty-six township records published in the Journal of the Burma Research Society between 1911 and 1970. The selected articles all shed light on the economic life of the peasantry and have been divided as follows: Part I) Translations of relevant sources or commentaries on the peasantry, Part II) Geographic and other background information necessary for understanding peasant life, and Part III) Analyses or descriptions of the traditional, colonial, and early modern economy, of which the peasants were an important part. The articles are arranged by theme and date of publications within each section and sub-section.
      Author/creator: Maria Serena I. Diokno
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
      Format/size: pdf (1.34MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol5.html (Vol. 5)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      Title: Temples and Rainfall in Ancient Pagan
      Date of publication: 1997
      Description/subject: This article examines unusual features of various religious buildings located at Pagan, such as below-ground monasteries and brick-lined water-catchment basins, to establish that low rainfall of less than 24 inches annually was a constant in the local climate throughout the Pagan period. Confirming this fact sheds light on the critical role the construction of religious structures played in linking the inadequately watered capital to outlying irrigated agricultural lands, thus ensuring the necessary provision of food to the city. As the population of Pagan grew, the need to increase food supplies from the outlying areas created an incentive for focusing the practice of the Merit Path to Salvation on the erection of still more religious buildings, thus creating the "forest of temples" seen at Pagan today.
      Author/creator: Richard Cooler
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 1 (1997)
      Format/size: pdf (1.64MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol1/index.shtml
      Date of entry/update: 10 July 2010


      Title: Tea Production On the Periphery of the British Empire
      Date of publication: September 1991
      Description/subject: The political economy of Shan tea under British colonial rule. "...Tawngpeng State, the major tea-producing area in the Federated Shan States, contained an area of 938 square miles. As of 1939 the population of Tawngpeng was 59,398 and it had a revenue of Rs. 645,634. The State was divided into 16 circles which corresponded as closely as possible to clan-divisions. Geographic features were characterised by hills ranging from five to seven thousand feet in height interspersed with valleys that averaged approximately ten miles in length and from a few hundred yards to a few miles in width. Maurice Collis, a former Burma civil servant, noted that upon approaching Namhsan, the capital of Tawngpeng which lies at the centre of the State at a height of six thousand feet, 'there is a vale and in the midst, ten miles away, is a ridge, on one end of which stands the town of Nam Hsan with the palace over it on a circular hill....The vale is one vast tea garden'. On the lower levels of the hillsides, Palaungs and Shans grow tea whilst higher up Kachins and Lisus practice shifting agriculture. Shans predominate in the valleys where rice is the staple crop..."
      Author/creator: Robert Maule Department of History, University of Toronto
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter No. 14, September 1991
      Alternate URLs: ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/thai-yunnan-nwsltr-14.txt">ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/thai...
      The directory of the Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletters is on ftp://coombs.anu.edu.au/coombspapers/coombsarchives/thai-yunnan-project/thai-yunnan-newsletter/
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Economic development of Burma in colonial times
      Date of publication: July 1991
      Description/subject: "This study deals with the economic development of Burma during colonial times. This is not only of importance itself, but also crucial to understanding the post-war economy. It can hardly be denied that its fundamental structure was created in the colonial period. It had some typical characteristics peculiar to colonial economy for a long time. In practice, it was almost a mono-cultured economy and the main and lucrative fields of the economy were mostly dominated by foreigners. Therefore, post-war independent governments were forced to make strenuous efforts in tackling the defective economy which was formed in the course of the development during colonial times. One of the most important post-war idea for reconstructing independent Burma was socialism, which should be understood to be a nationalistic movement againt colonialism, which here is synonymous with capitalism or imperialism. After General Ne Win seized power with the military coup in 1962, the more radical policies were pursued by the military government of the Revolutionary Council in the 1960s under the slogan of the so-called "Burmese Socialism". This government was mostly nationalistic and anti-capitalistic; in fact the most important target of the Revolutionary Council was to establish an economy for the Burmese people by getting rid of foreign elements from it. Furthermore, in order to prevent the penetration of neo-colonialism, a strict closed policy was adopted. However, foreign trade shrank significantly and direct foreign investment was in effect stopped. Therefore, such policies resulted in long-run economic stagnation. This directed my research to the economy under British rule. In my work, I have tried to depict the major structural features of the colonial economy in the context of economic development. Unless economic development leads to the significant improvement in the standard of living of general populace, it may be meaningless. However, it is doubtful that this took place in Burma in the colonial period. This problem was my major interest and motive for the study as well. It was impossible to do more in--depth of the economy in specific areas. However, my aim may been to provide an overall view of the economy...
      Author/creator: NISHIZAWA Nobuyoshi,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: IPSHU Research Report Series 15
      Format/size: pdf (6.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 07 September 2009


    • Economic History: Industry

      • Economic History - extractive industries

        Individual Documents

        Title: Yenangyaung and its Twinza: The Burmese Indigenous "Earth-Oil" Industry Re-examined
        Date of publication: 2000
        Description/subject: In the early nineteenth century, the indigenous oil industry at Yenangyaung may have been the largest in the world. The article summarizes and evaluates the descriptions of nineteenth and early twentieth century European observers, with special attention to the pre-colonial uses of the oil, the legends about the site, the local institutions governing ownership of the wells, the indigenous methods of oil extraction, and the Europeans'estimates of production levels
        Author/creator: Marilyn Longmuir
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 5 (2000)
        Format/size: pdf (1.87MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol5/Abstract4_JamesOpt.pdf
        http://www.niu.edu/burma/publications/jbs/vol5/index.shtml
        Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


        Title: Footnote to Burmese Economic History: The Rise and Decline of the Arakan Oil Fields
        Date of publication: 1998
        Description/subject: After the annexation of Upper Burma in 1886, the modern Burmese oil industry expanded at Yenangyaung, the long-standing center of hand-dug wells worked by twinza. An earlier attempt to establish a commercial industry in Arakan in the late 1870s was thereby eclipsed. On the islands off the Arakan coast -- Ramree, Cheduba, and the Boronga Islands -- British explorers had drawn attention to oil pools and seepage. In 1878, the first modern oil well in Burma was drilled on Eastern Boronga Island. However, the eager oil speculators had not done their homework, and the Arakan oil industry declined because the oil-fields were poor producers and thus not economically viable for mass production. The Arakan experience nonetheless influenced the early commercial exploitation of the Yenangyaung fields.
        Author/creator: Marilyn Longmuir
        Language: English
        Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
        Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
        Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol3.html (Vol. 3)
        Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


    • Economic History: Trade

      Individual Documents

      Title: Documents on Western Burmese Economic History
      Date of publication: 20 March 2003
      Description/subject: 1) WILLIAM TURNER. Extract of a Letter dated Nagore, 7th July 1761; 2) ANONYMOUS. Memorandum of Arracan Trade, circa 1770s; 3) ANONYMOUS. History of the Mugs, 1777; 4) W. F. NUTHALL. Memorandum Regarding the Trade of Arracan and the Port of Akyab in the East Indies, Lat. 20° S’N Long 92° 56 ¼ E. (1849).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003
      Format/size: pdf (138K) 13 pages
      Date of entry/update: April 2003


      • Overseas trade

        • Trade with Europeans and the East India Companies

          • Dutch trade

            • The VOC in Burma: 1634-1680

              • VOC in Burma: general articles, archives, bibliographies etc.

                Individual Documents

                Title: The archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as they relate to Burma
                Date of publication: 20 March 2003
                Description/subject: Archive report: "The archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) are preserved largely at the National Archives at The Hague (previously the Algemeen Rijksarchief/General State Archives). Though the information contained within this vast collection of records and accounts forms an invaluable source for the reconstruction of the (economic) history of seventeenth century Burma, they have never before been examined. This is indeed surprising since practically everything written between 1634 and 1680 by usually well informed VOC employees in Burma is still extant, making this a major primary source for just such a purpose. The VOC archives have been categorized with each individual volume simply designated VOC and numbered consecutively. The most important sets relating to Burma are given below in alphabetical order followed by the respective VOC numbers where applicable..."
                Author/creator: Wil O. Dijk
                Language: English
                Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003
                Format/size: pdf (43.20 K)
                Alternate URLs: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/41061580/THE-ARCHIVES-OF-THE-DUTCH-EAST-INDIA-COMPANY-%28VOC%29
                Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


                Title: The Dutch in seventeenth century Burma
                Date of publication: August 2002
                Description/subject: "The VOC had three factories in seventeenth century Burma: the main office in Syriam and subsidiaries in Ava and Pegu City. The present research adds a new dimension to VOC as well as Burma studies seeing that till now, even Dutch historians were quite unaware of the fact that the VOC traded successfully with Burma for almost half a century. The vast archives of the Dutch East Asia Company (VOC) at the ARA (Algemeen Rijksarchief / General State Archives) at The Hague have yielded a veritable treasure trove of information on Dutch relations with seventeenth century Burma. This newly unearthed material enables us to finally determine what the VOC’s Burma trade entailed and how it fitted into the grand design of the Company’s inter-Asian commerce, where it was not as marginal as some historians would have it. This complete set of invaluable contemporary materials also allows us a unique glimpse of life in seventeenth century Burma. There are no lacunae at all in the collection of VOC documents covering the Burma years, consequently, it has been possible to compile complete series of indispensable statistics, such as shipping, import and export, profit and loss, wages and prices (standard of living), as well as details on all the Indian textiles the Dutch imported into Burma, together with their purchasing and selling prices and the margins of profit..."
                Author/creator: Wil O. Dijk
                Language: English
                Format/size: html (17K)
                Date of entry/update: April 2003


                Title: "The VOC in Burma: 1634-1680"
                Date of publication: 2001
                Description/subject: This article is intended to show that the archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) at the General State Archives (ARA), The Hague, The Netherlands, are a rich source of information on seventeenth century Burma. Because this unearthed data is mostly about commerce, this paper deals with the VOCâ's trade with Burma. What has come to light is that the Dutch factories in Burma were an important and integral part of the VOC's network of trade, seeing that the profits helped to fund the purchase of Indian textiles that were the backbone of much of the Dutch inter-Asian trade. The Dutch, moreover, sold Burmese export products profitably from Persia to Japan and Holland. In the end, the VOC's establishment in Burma became the victim of a general change in Dutch fortunes when forces in both Europe and the Far East began working against the Dutch East India Company.
                Author/creator: Wil O. Dijk
                Language: English
                Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 6 (2001)
                Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
                Date of entry/update: 07 March 2009


              • The VOC factories and its employees

                Individual Documents

                Title: The Dutch factories in Burma in the Seventeenth Century
                Date of publication: 15 August 1997
                Description/subject: "In April 1939, now almost 60 years ago, it was D.G.E. Hall who wrote: 'Its [the Dutch factory in Burma] history seems never to have been written, though the many references to it that lie buried in the published volumes of the Daghregister of Batavia lead one to think that the Dutch archives probably contain more than enough material for such a purpose.' Wil Radelaar examined the research possibilities in the VOC archives in Burma. Setting myself the target of finding out just how much material pertaining to those factories in Burma lie hidden within the VOC archives at the Algemeen Rijksarchief in The Hague, I commenced my search in the summer of 1994. In my naivety I judged a maximum of six months to be sufficient for this task. However, it is only now, three very long years on, that I am finally nearing the end of my quest. From the outset it became clear that my search could not remain limited to Burma itself and the Coromandel Coast under whose jurisdiction it fell, but that I would also need to plough through vast numbers of manuscripts from and about such diverse locations as Siam, Persia, Japan, and of course, Batavia itself. This test of endurance has yielded a rich harvest indeed. For, from the murky depths of these ancient writings has emerged a colourful and highly fascinating kaleidoscope of details that paints a vivid picture of how a distinct group of foreign traders functioned in seventeenth-century Burma and what was involved in their relationship with the Court of Ava, the capital city of what the Dutch always referred to as the 'Kingdom of Pegu'. Furthermore, the VOC archives also contain detailed eyewitness accounts of destructive internecine wars between Burma and both Siam and China in the seventeenth century; a period in Burma's history suffering from a dearth of information..."
                Author/creator: Wil O. Dijk
                Language: English
                Source/publisher: IIAS Newsletter No. 13
                Format/size: html
                Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


              • The VOC's trade in Indian Textiles with Burma: 1634-1680

                Individual Documents

                Title: Dutch trade in Indian textiles with Burma: 1634-1680
                Date of publication: August 2002
                Description/subject: "The VOC’s seventeenth century trade with Burma is a heretofore little known aspect of the Dutch East India Company’s inter-Asian commerce. Their Burma trade was based on Indian textiles, particularly the cheaper, coarser varieties from the Choromandel Coast much favoured by the commoner people who could well afford an occasional length of imported Indian cloth, as indicated by newly available data. =========== The demand for the products of Indian looms was enormous, almost from time immemorial, or so it seems. There were piece goods as well as articles of apparel, such as lungis, shawls cummerbunds and turbans. Indian cloth was skilfully woven and coloured in dyes that were fast to washing. Some had a fabulous lustre polished to a sheen. These high quality textiles were much sought after and had been traded for centuries throughout Asia and beyond. Most came in a wide range, from super fine to very coarse. The wealthy coveted fabrics of a delicate softness with complex patterns or trimmed with decorative gold designs, while the common folk were happy enough with coarser cloth for daily wear. The Dutch stumbled upon this ancient inter-Asian trade quite by accident. They had made their way from Holland to the distant “Spice Islands” merely to discover that the spices they wanted could only be had in exchange for Indian cotton textiles, particularly from Choromandel. Arriving on India’s east coast, the Dutch chanced upon the highly lucrative, textile-based trade across the Bay of Bengal to countries such as Burma..."
                Author/creator: Wil O. Dijk
                Language: English
                Format/size: html (26K)
                Date of entry/update: March 2003


  • Historical documents

    • Accounts of Burma by travellers, diplomats, merchants, soldiers et al

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Southesast Asia Visions - a collection of historic travel narratives
      Description/subject: Several hundred full-text books covering or with references to Burma. Search for Ava, Burm* Burmah, Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Myanmar etc... Read online or, if you are clever or have special software, you might be able to download. Use the Search Help page at http://dlxs.library.cornell.edu/s/sea/help.php
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Cornell University Library
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 April 2008


      Individual Documents

      Title: Palm-leaf Manuscript Record of a Mission Sent by the Myanmar King to the Chinese Emperor in the Mid-Eighteenth Century
      Date of publication: December 2008
      Description/subject: "...On 16 September 1983, as Chief Librarian of the Universities Central Library (UCL) in Yangon, I acquired an extremely rare palm-leaf manuscript from a Middle School teacher from Pakkoku, U Tin Ngwe (U Tin Ngwe (1931-2004) later became Headmaster of a Middle School in Pakkoku). When U Tin Ngwe brought the manuscript to UCL, he told me that he had acquired it from a Buddhist monastery near Myaing, his birthplace about twenty-five miles northwest of Pakkoku. I first come to know of the existence of this manuscript about five years earlier, in November 1978, while I was in Pakkoku on one of many trips made to various parts of Myanmar in search of rare palm-leaf and paper parabike manuscripts. We used to go on manuscript search trips from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s and found many interesting and rare manuscripts that are now kept in UCL. The palm-leaf manuscript purchased from U Tin Ngwe is a record of a mission sent by the Myanmar king Maha-damá-ya-za-dí-patí (r. 1733-1752) to the Chinese Qianlong Emperor (r. 1736-1795) of the Qing Dynasty..."
      Author/creator: U Thaw Kaung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 6, 2008
      Format/size: pdf (376K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Editorial Introduction to Nicolò de’ Conti’s Account
      Date of publication: 20 September 2004
      Description/subject: Nicolò de’ Conti did not write about his extensive travels. Our knowledge of him has been filtered through the works of two men to whom he recounted his adventures. A Spanish nobleman, Pero Tafur, was visiting the seashore near the monastery at Mount Sinai in 1437, when Conti arrived there, on his way back to Europe from Asia. Conti was accompanied by his wife, whom he had met and married in India, and by his four children, who were born in the course of his travels. Tafur travelled with the Conti family by caravan to Cairo and then set out for Crete. The wife and two children died in an epidemic in Egypt, and Conti returned with his remaining children to Venice, his native town. In 1439 he went to Florence during a papal visit to that city, and at that time he related the stories of his travels to the papal secretary, Giovanni Francesco Poggio Bracciolini.
      Author/creator: Kennon Breazeale
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004,
      Format/size: pdf (43K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2004


      Title: Robert Talbot Kelly and 'Picturesque' Burma
      Date of publication: 1998
      Description/subject: Robert Talbot Kelly, through his art and his 1905 publication, Burma Painted and Described, provides a visual and textual account of colonial Burma that was subsequently marketed in England and America. Travelogues served as a form of voyeuristic education about the exotic for the stay-at-home adventurer. Postcolonial scholarship, to some degree assisted by Edward Said's Orientalism, now permits a reanalysis of both the art and the written texts of travel literature for what they say about cultural attitudes during the age of high imperialism, and in particular about Kelly's use of the word picturesque as a literary and artistic descriptor.
      Author/creator: Oliver B. Pollak
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Journal of Burma Studies Vol. 3 (1998)
      Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.grad.niu.edu/burma/webpgs/abstractsVol3.html (Vol. 3)
      Date of entry/update: 10 March 2009


      Title: The Soul of a People
      Date of publication: 1902
      Description/subject: First published in 1899..."This book is about Burma, seen through the eyes of an English gentleman during and after the conquering of Upper Burma by the British towards the end of the 19th century. It describes his impressions of the Burmese people and particularly their religion, Buddhism, which explains so much their strange customs and ways. Written in the excellent English, in choice of words and prose, lost in modern times, that typified the Victorian period".....CONTENTS: LIVING BELIEFS; HE WHO FOUND THE LIGHT—I; HE WHO FOUND THE LIGHT—II; THE WAY TO THE GREAT PEACE; WAR—I; WAR—II; GOVERNMENT; CRIME AND PUNISHMENT; HAPPINESS; THE MONKHOOD I; THE MONKHOOD II; PRAYER; FESTIVALS; WOMEN—I; WOMEN—II; WOMEN III; DIVORCE; MANNERS; 'NOBLESSE OBLIGE'; ALL LIFE IS ONE; DEATH, THE DELIVERER; THE POTTER'S WHEEL; THE FOREST OF TIME..... The Alternate URL has a link to the openlibrary page which offers several editions, in various formats. The OBL link is to the 1902 edition, with the insertion of the first page of the Contents, omitted from the openlibrary 1902 version.
      Author/creator: Harold Fielding Hall
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Macmillan & Co. via openlibrary.org
      Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1104253W/The_soul_of_a_people
      Date of entry/update: 23 September 2010


      Title: A JOURNEY THROUGH BURMA [IN 1888]
      Date of publication: 1888
      Description/subject: "...For the amusement and edification of readers of Wachirayan, who were the élite of Bangkok in his day, he began to write an account of his journey. This article takes the reader to Rangoon and then up the Irrawaddy as far as Min-hla. Prince Naris planned to continue the narrative of his river journey from Min-hla to Mandalay and back, adding an account of recent political events leading up to the British annexation of upper Burma. After completing this first article, however, he apparently abandoned the project, and the full account of his journey never materialised. He may, however, have written an official but confidential military and political report when he returned to Bangkok, and that report may be in the archives of the Ministry of Defence...Even though incomplete, it may be of some value to historians. It reflects the attitudes, prejudices and admitted ignorance of the Thai élite vis-à-vis the Burmese at the end of the Burmese monarchy. It may also contain some minor factual observations useful to historical research..."
      Author/creator: H.R.H. Prince Naritsara Nuwattiwong
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: AN ACCOUNT OF AN EMBASSY TO THE KINGDOM OF AVA, SENT BY THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA, IN THE YEAR 1795
      Date of publication: 1880
      Description/subject: Full text of the Symes account
      Author/creator: MICHAEL SYMES
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Volume 4, Issue No. 1, Spring 2006
      Format/size: pdf (1.5MB) 150 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/4.1Symes-red.pdf
      http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/10294/
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: FOUR YEARS IN BURMAH - Volume I
      Date of publication: 1860
      Description/subject: CONTENTS OF VOL. I. CHAPTER I. Sketch of the History of Burmah—War with the Burmese in 1824—Conquered by the British— Negotiations with the Court of Ava—Occupation of the Tenasserim Provinces in 1851 — Naval Expedition to Ava—Arrival in Burmah in 1854 …. CHAPTER II. How I came to go to Burmah — Captain Biden — Voyage in the " Hugh Lindsay" — Masulipatam — Coringa — The Temples of Juggernathpooram—Nautch Girls—Vizagapatam —Munsuorcottah—A shooting party ashore …. CHAPTER III. Description of the Town of Maulmain and its Environs—Picturesque Population—Domestic Manners of the People—Costumes, &c…. CHAPTER IV. My Burmese Preceptor—Intercourse between Europeans and Burmese Women—Plays and Entertainments—Curious Customs and Amusements— Traditions—Creation of the World—Missionaries —Education of Youth.... CHAPTER V. Account of the Great Fire at Maulmain in 1854— Other Fires …. CHAPTER VI. Description of my house—Domestic servants — Marketing — The Bazaar — Articles of food — Prejudices of the people—Cloth merchants — Extortionate shop-keepers…. CHAPTER VII. Law and Police Courts—Magistrates and Judges— Pleaders — Affrays and Police Proceedings — Chinese Passion for Play— Gambling Houses — Heavy punishment and fines — Punishment of a criminal.—Law processes — Delay in administering justice…. CHAPTER VIII. Voyage to Rangoon in the "Nemesis" — Amherst, on the Salween River—The Irrawaddy — Immense alligator— Animals and insects — Mosquito creek—Miseries on arriving at Rangoon — State of affairs there — Journey to the house of Mr. L. — Generous hospitality — Wretched dwellings—Burmese boat races—Accommodations for the spectators—Animated description of the race—A Burmese drama—Dancing girls— Curious scene—Wrestling matches—Extraordinary climate—Excursions about the town—The Great Pagoda described—A fearful prospect— Return to Maulmain....N.B. THE COVERS, THE GOOGLE NOTE, ETC. HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT AND THE FRONTISPIECE REPOSITIONED … SEE ALTERNATE URL FOR ORIGINAL ORDER.
      Author/creator: W. H. Marshall
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Charles J. Skeet (publisher) via Google Books
      Format/size: pdf (3.7MB) 322 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=dnli6a6HpfgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=four+years+in+burmah&as_brr=1
      Date of entry/update: 07 April 2008


      Title: FOUR YEARS IN BURMAH - Volume II
      Date of publication: 1860
      Description/subject: CONTENTS OF VOL. II. CHAPTER I. Ceremonies relating to deceased Priests — Their Bodies embalmed and afterwards burned…. CHAPTER II. The Band Stand—Carriages and other vehicles— Soldiers' barracks—Public ball—Burmese notions Propagation of slander …. CHAPTER III. Natural Productions of Burmah—Beasts—Birds— Insects—Flowers…. CHAPTER IV. Literary Reminiscences—My Newspaper—Printer's Devils and Devils of Printers—My Troubles— General D'Orgoni—Final Secession and Return to Maulmain…. CHAPTER V. Petroleum—The Wells at Rama gong—Mode of procuring the Oil, its Uses, &c….. CHAPTER VI. Execution of two Burmans—Their Story—A Burman Village—English Jurisprudence—The stolen Elephant—The Thief executed—Capital Punishment—Revolting Scene—Reflections…. CHAPTER VII. Visit to the Jail—Description of it—Conversation with a Convict—Weaving and Carpet making —Surprising Agility of a Female—Inspection of the Convicts—Divided into Classes—A noisy Prisoner—Crowded state of the Jail—Its offensive State—The different Wards—Cooking-houses— Granaries, &c.—Anecdote of a French Prince— A Funeral….. CHAPTER VIIL Village of Nyoungbienziek—Visit to the Distillery at the Place—The Goung Gyoup—The Timber Station at Kadoe—Tricks of the Trade—Visit to Martaban…. CHAPTER IX. Determination to quit Burmah—The Law's Delay —Past Government and future Prospects of Burmah—News of the Revolt in Bengal—Sugar Factory at Amherst—Productions and Capabilities of this part of India—Its favourable Climate… CHAPTER X. My Voyage Home in the "Avondhu "—Incident at Amherst—The Andamans and Nicobars— Hurricanes—The Cape of Good Hope—Ascension—The Azores—Whalers—HOME........N.B. THE COVERS, THE GOOGLE NOTE, ETC. HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT AND THE FRONTISPIECE REPOSITIONED … SEE ALTERNATE URL FOR ORIGINAL ORDER.
      Author/creator: W. H. Marshall
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Charles J. Skeet (publisher) via Google Books
      Format/size: pdf (3.4MB) 307 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=yDdLW1NE1SwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=four+years+in+burmah
      http://books.google.com/books/download/Four_years_in_Burmah.pdf?id=yDdLW1NE1SwC&output=pdf&...
      Date of entry/update: 07 April 2008


      Title: A Narrative of the Mission sent by the Governor-General of India to the Court of Ava in 1855
      Date of publication: 1858
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: I. JOURNAL OF THE MISSION FROM THE BRITISH FRONTIER TO PAGAN-MYO... II THE REMAINS AT PAGAN... III. JOURNAL FROM PAGAN TO THE CAPITAL... IV. OUR RESIDENCE AT THE CAPITAL... V. THE CITY OF AMARAPOORA... VI. EXCURSIONS IN THE ENVIRONS OF THE CAPITAL... VII. RETURN OF THE MISSION FROM THE CAPITAL TO RANGOON... VIII. NOTES ON THE INTERCOURSE OF THE BURMESE COUNTRIES WITH WESTERN NATIONS UP TO THE PEACE OF YANDABO... IX. NOTICES OF THE HISTORY OF BURMA FROM THE PEACE OF YANDABO (1826) TO THE REVOLUTION OF 1853... X. SOME ACCOUNT OF THE RELIGION OF THE BURMESE... XI. THE MINISTERS OF STATE --MILITARY AFFAIRS -- REVENUES AND CURRENCY... XII. ON THE MAP OF BURMAH -- DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY -- AND POPULATION... XIII. THE SHAN STATES TRIBUTARY TO BURMA..... APPENDIX. A. NOTES ON THE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE BANKS OF THE IRAWADI, AND OF THE COUNTRY NORTH OF AMARAPOORA... B. FROM APPENDIX B. TO THE MS. JOURNAL OF MAJOR H. BURNEY, RESIDENT AT AVA, ACCOMPANYING A LETTER DATED 11TH SEPTEMBER, 1830, IN THE FOREIGN OFFICE, CALCUTTA... C. TRANSLATION OF THE BURMESE HYMN CHANTED BY THE BRAHMINS ... D. LETTER FROM THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL TO THE KING OF AVA... E. THE KING'S LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL... F. ON THE PLAN OF BURMESE MONASTERIES... G. ON THE SOURCES OF THE IRAWADI... H. DETAIL OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS... I. SPECIMENS OF THE REIGNING KING'S EDICTS... J. SPECIMEN OF A BURMESE DRAMA (MAJOR PHAYRE)... K. THE MISSION OF GERARD VAN WUSTHOF TO THE KING OF THE LAOS... L. NOTE ON THE AFFINITIES OF THE INDIAN AND BURMESE STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE. BY JAMES FERGGSSON, ESQ... M. ON THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN BURMA AND THE ADJACENT COUNTRIES......THIS IS NOT A PERFECT SCAN...SOME BLANK PAGES AND COVERS HAVE BEEN DELETED FOR THE ELECTRONIC VERSION. SEE ALTERNATE URL FOR THESE PAGES.
      Author/creator: Captain Henry Yule
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Smith, Elder & Co.
      Format/size: pdf (6.5MB) - 462 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.co.th/books?id=13wsAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22A+Narrative+of+th...
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2010


      Title: ACCOUNT OF THE JOURNEY OF HIERONIMO DI SANTO STEFANO, A GENOVESE (1495-1496)
      Date of publication: 1857
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: This translation of Hieronimo di Santo Stefano’s journey to Pegu in 1495-1496 was originally published in India in the Fifteenth Century Being a Collection of Narratives of Voyages to India, edited by R. H. Major, in 1857. The account was written in the form of a letter to Messer Giovan Jacobo Mainer. Only those portions related to Burma have been included in the version below... M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Hieronimo di Santo Stefano of Genoa. Translated by R. H. Major
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004,
      Format/size: pdf (12.4K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2004


      Title: BRIEF EXTRACT FROM THE TRAVELS OF ATHANASIUS NIKITIN, A NATIVE OF TWER
      Date of publication: 1857
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: This translation of Athanasius Nikitin’s fifteenth century travels to India was originally published in India in the Fifteenth Century Being a Collection of Narratives of Voyages to India, edited by R. H. Major, in 1857. Nikitin appears to have only included information on Burma which he obtained by word of mouth. His brief references to Pegu are provided below. The reference to Pegu has been standardized, as two different spellings were included in the original translation. M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Athanasius Nikitin of Tver.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (12K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 22 September 2004


      Title: Extracts from Royal B. Hancock’s Journal at Mergui
      Date of publication: 1838
      Description/subject: Note: Original editorial note: Mr. Royal B. Hancock and family left Maulmain on 27 November 1837 and arrived at Mergui December 3rd. On the 26th of December, he was joined by Eugenio Kincaid, as stated in former communications. For several months previous to his departure from Maulmain, he had been engaged partly on the printing office, and partly in evangelical labors in Maulmain and its vicinity. December 16, 1837
      Author/creator: Royal B. Hancock
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (127K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: “On the Peoples and Cultures of the Kingdom of Burma”
      Date of publication: 1829
      Description/subject: Notes: The following materials by John Crawfurd have been drawn and organized from his notes to his Embassy account. M.W.C.
      Author/creator: John Crawfurd,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (158K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Account of Rangoon in the Summer of 1826
      Date of publication: 1829
      Description/subject: Notes: During his stay at Rangoon in the summer of 1826, Crawfurd drew up his account of this town, although it was not published until he included it in his account of his embassy made to the Burmese court in 1827, which was published in 1829. As Crawfurd explains: “The following account of Rangoon was collected by me while I resided there in civil, charge of Pegu, a period of more than six months.” M.W.C.
      Author/creator: John Crawfurd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (100K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Journal of An Embassy From the Governor-General of India to the Court of Ava
      Date of publication: 1829
      Description/subject: [IN THE SOAS VERSION] Note: We include below the complete diary portion of John Crawfurd’s account of the embassy he headed to the Burmese court in 1826 and 1827, introduced by Crawfurd’s dedication. This account was originally published (with the misleading attribution of the embassy to 1827). Journal of an Embassy From the Governor-General of India to the Court of Ava, in the Year 1827, by John Crawfurd, Esq., FRS. FLS. FGS., &c. Late Envoy. With an Appendix, Containing a Description of Fossil Remains, by Professor Buckland and Mr. Clift (London: Henry Colburn, New Burlington Street. 1829). M. W. C.
      Author/creator: John Crawfurd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (868K-SOAS version; 11MB, 16MB) -- 324 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Crawfurd-red.pdf
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Crawfurd-op.pdf
      http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092719/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3.2files/19CrawfurdDiary.pdf
      http://books.google.com/books?id=GyYAAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&...
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Account of the Fortifications at Ava in 1827
      Date of publication: 1827
      Description/subject: "...The city of Ava is surrounded by a brick wall fifteen and a half feet in height, and ten feet in thickness: on the inside of which there is thrown up a bank of earth forming about an angle of forty-five degrees: on the top of this bank there is a terre pleine, in some places, of a good breadth, but in others, so narrow as scarcely to admit the recoil of a gun. The parapet of brickwork is four and ahalf feet in height, and two in thickness, measured across the superior slope..."
      Author/creator: M. Montmorency
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (279K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: An Account of Martaban in March and April 1826
      Date of publication: 1827
      Description/subject: Notes: In the last sections of his account of his mission to Ava in 1827, John Crawfurd included his journal of his visit to Martaban in the previous year, in order to fill a gap in his 1827 narrative. As he explained: “Our return to Bengal having hindered our excursion to the Saluen and Gain rivers, as well as prevented us from visiting other parts of the province, I shall endeavour in some measure to supply the deficiency, by the insertion of the journal of a voyage to Martaban, which, I performed about ten months before the time of which I am now writing. It is as follows…” We reproduce this account on its own here. M.W.C.
      Author/creator: John Crawfurd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (145K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Geological Account of a Series of Animal and Vegetable Remains and of Rocks, collected by J. Crawfurd, Esq. on a Voyage up the Irawadi to Ava, in 1826 and 1827
      Date of publication: 1827
      Description/subject: "For the specimens and notes which form the subject of the present communication, the Society is indebted to the zeal and activity of J. Crawfurd, Esq. one of its Fellows, who having occasion to traverse the Burmese Country, on an embassy to Ava, in the years 1826 and 1827, discovered an extensive deposit of organic remains in that unknown and distant region. He has brought home specimens of these remains, both animal and vegetable, as well as of the strata in which they were found, and has with much judgment and liberality presented them to the Geological Society of London, and to several other scientific Societies. It is on an examination of these specimens, and of the notes contained in Mr. Crawfurd’s daily journal, that the observations and descriptions that make up the present memoir arc founded..."
      Author/creator: William Buckland,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (169K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Quadrupeds and Other Animals of Burma
      Date of publication: 1827
      Description/subject: Note: The following note has been extracted from the 1829 publication, Journal of an Embassy from the Governor-General of India to the Court of Ava in the Year 1827, by John Crawfurd, the envoy on this mission. It was originally organized within the sixteenth chapter, but has been separated and included here under the present title as its information is self-contained within that chapter and because it has a topical interest to those currently researching the history of animals of Southeast Asia.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: John Crawfurd
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Brief Excursion to the Hills to the East of Ava in November 1826
      Date of publication: 1826
      Description/subject: Note: "The following account by Dr. N. Wallich, who was at that time the Superintendent of the Government Botanical Garden at Calcutta, of his excursion into rural Burma in 1826 was quoted in full in John Crawfurd’s account of his mission, of which Dr. Wallich was a part, to Ava in that year. As Crawfurd explains in his introduction to the entry: “Dr. Wallich returned to-day from a botanical excursion to the range of mountains lying east of Ava, which he performed with the sanction of the Burman Government. The following is the narrative of this short but interesting journey, which was replete with botanical discoveries."” M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Dr. N. Wallich
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (118K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Empire Birman-Arracan
      Date of publication: 1826
      Description/subject: Editor’s notes: This brief account of Arracan was originally published in the Bulletin de la Société de Géographie 5.35 & 36 (March-April) in 1826. Thus, its publication dates from the last year of the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826), although it was likely based on information preceding that conflict... M.W.C.
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie 5.35 & 36 via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (16K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 25 September 2004


      Title: Note on the Word ‘'Baren' for the British East India Company
      Date of publication: 1826
      Description/subject: Note: The following brief note has been drawn from Crawfurd’s 1826 Journal. Although brief, it offers an account of the origin of the use of ‘Baren’ that Burmese sometimes used to refer to the British.
      Author/creator: John Crawfurd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (93K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Miscellaneous Letters on Burma, 1755-1760, I
      Date of publication: 1808
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: "The following letters, and in cases extracts of letters, were reproduced by Alexander Dalrymple in 1808, published in London under the title Oriental Repertory, by William Ballintine for the East India Company. Relevant portions of Dalrymple’s commentary to some letters have also been included." M.W.C. _____
      Author/creator: Alexander Dalrymple (ed)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol.3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (47K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: CAMMUAZA, or the ceremony used at the Induction of a Birman into the Order of Priesthood, called Phonghi, or Rhahaan (1795)
      Date of publication: 1795
      Description/subject: Editorial note: "The following account of the induction ceremony for Buddhist monks was included as Appendix V in Michael Symes, An Acount of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, Sent by the Governor-General of India in the Year 1795 (London: W. Bulmer & Co., 496-500). Symes, then a major in the 76th Regiment, made numerous valuable observations on Burmese culture, society, government, and history. While it is clear that he did consult the accounts of other visitors to Burma, most of his material was derived from first-hand observation or from material provided by Burmese acquaintances, and the following account was likely derived from the latter." M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Michael Symes
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (26K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Account of the Loss of Negrais
      Date of publication: 1791
      Description/subject: Note: The following account is one of many of the massacre at Negrais, an island close to Bassein where the English East India Company attempted to establish a factory in the mid-eighteenth century. An introduction for the account has been provided by Dalrymple: It will be necessary, by way of Introduction, to mention that it having been determined to withdraw the settlement at Negrais except three or four people to take care of the teak timbers that had been collected there, and to secure the right of possession, in case it might afterwards be thought proper to resettle at that place. Captain Newton proceeded accordingly to Bengal, where he arrived 14th of May 1759, with thirty-five Europeans, and seventy black people. On 30th of July 1759. The administration at Bengal, thought proper to accept of Captain William Henry Southby’s offer to go to Negrais, to take care of the teak timbers, and accordingly dispatched the Victoria Snow, Captain Walter Alves, to carry Mr. Southby to the Negrais. Captain Alves returned to Bengal in November, and gave the following account of the Settlement at Negrais, being cut off. The papers concerning Negrais, and Captain Alve’s Embassy to Ava [previous issue of the SBBR], with the letters that passed on that occasion, were communicated by my much lamented friend, the late Lord Pigot… Alexander Dalrymple (1791)
      Author/creator: Captain Walter Alves,
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (95K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: A VOYAGE TO PEGU
      Date of publication: 1789
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: This account was originally composed in French, but translated into English by Francis Magnus and published in Calcutta at the Joseph Cooper Press in 1789, the year of the French Revolution. It was published within the multi-volume travels (Vol. III, book 4, chapter 2) of the Comissary of the Marine, Monsieur Sonnerat, entitled, A Voyage to the East-Indies and China; Performed by Order of Lewis XV. Between the Years 1774 and 1781. Containing A Description of the Manners, Religion, Arts, and Scieneces, of the Indians, Chinese, Pegouins, and of the Islanders of Madagascar; Also Observations on the Cape of Good Hope, the Isles of Ceylon, Malacca, the Phillippines, and Moluccas. As only the account to Pegu is included here, “A French Voyage to Pegu” has been decided upon as the title for this edition... M. W. C.
      Author/creator: Monsieur Sonnerat
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (44K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Notes on Bûraghmah (c. 1755)
      Date of publication: 1755
      Description/subject: Note: Dalrymple provides some information on Captain George Baker in his introduction to the Oriental Repertory: Captain George Baker’s Observations at Persaim in 1755, his Journal of an Embassy, to the King of the Bûraghmahns, his Character of that King, and the Short Account of the Country are from MSS, which that valuable friend gave to me during the course of our voyage in the Cuddalore [in] 1759: His modest diffidence makes him apprehensive of appearing as an author; but, I doubt not, the publick approbation will shew his apprehensions were groundless. All of the accounts mentioned by Dalrymple have been republished in the SBBR (see volume 3.2 and the present issue). In the collection of notes included below, “The Palace at Pegu” has been extracted from Dalrymple’s introduction. As he explains of the origin of the note, “I find amongst my memos of information, received from Captain Baker, the following account of Pegu, which could not properly be introduced in any other place, and therefore I have inserted it here.” The sections on (1) the Burmans and Mons and (2) the Karens, below, were extracts inserted into the initial anonymous letter included in the Oriental Repertory collection by Dalrymple, indicating with a “B” that Baker was the source of the quotations. Dalrymple, in his introduction to Oriental Repertory, also makes the following observation based on Baker’s accounts which may usefully be included here: It has appeared, in Captain Baker’s Observations, that the Bûraghmah King had risen from his abilities; Simento, King of Pegu, was at first a Goldsmith; so that both competitors were self-raised. M. W. C.
      Author/creator: Captain George Baker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (87K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Observations at Persaim and in the Journey to Ava and Back in 1755
      Date of publication: 1755
      Description/subject: Editorial Note: "The following materials from Captain George Baker’s diaries and other records and notes were originally published in Alexander Dalrymple’s Oriental Repertory in 1808. Baker has left numerous other reports, many found in the Records of Fort St. George for the period. These latter materials will be published in later editions of the SBBR. Baker’s account is especially useful for being one of the few firsthand accounts written by a European, of Alaunghpaya, the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty." M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Captain George Baker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 2005
      Format/size: pdf (261K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070102014547/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_1.htm
      http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/10288/
      Date of entry/update: 17 November 2010


      Title: Short Account of the Bûraghmah Country
      Date of publication: 1755
      Description/subject: "The Bûraghmah country, it is certain, has heretofore been frequented by many Europeans, particularly English, whose residence, in it, has undoubtedly afforded them much greater opportunities of giving better accounts of it, than what I can pretend to do; yet, as these gentlemen are now mostly defunct, and perhaps no account of theirs extant, I will say a few words towards it, for the satisfaction of such as have not themselves seen it..." N.B. This extract is undated -- the date of 1755 given in the date field is approximate.
      Author/creator: Captain George Baker
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Account of Pegu and the Voyage to Cambodia and Siam in 1718
      Date of publication: 1727
      Description/subject: Note: "Captain Alexander Hamilton collated an account of his voyage to Cambodia and Siam in 1718 with accounts of his experiences in Pegu and elsewhere on earlier travels, as well as information he had gathered about certain other locations (such as Arakan) in his A New Account of the East Indies (Edinburgh, 1727). While the original account also included accounts of parts of the Malay world and “Cochinchina,” these have been excluded from the following text. The account begins with a brief account of Chittagong and concludes with eastern mainland Southeast Asia. The best biographical account of Hamilton is that by William Foster in his introduction to the 1930 reprint of the text (London, Argonaut Press)." M.W.C....Includes sections on Chittagong, Arakan, Pegu, Mergui, Tenasserim and The Andamans,
      Author/creator: Captain Alexander Hamilton
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: A New Account of the East Indies (Edinburgh, 1727). via SOAS Bulletin og Burma Research 4.2 (Autumn 2006)
      Format/size: pdf (483K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20071010121234/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/4_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: AN ACCOUNT OF PEGU IN 1586-1587
      Date of publication: 1625
      Description/subject: Tippera and Bengala in 1585...Journey to Pegu in Late 1586...Dala and Syriam...The Old Town of Pegu...The New Town of Pegu...The Royal Elephants...The King and the Nobles...Commodities Suitable for Pegu...Pagodas and Monks...Chiangmai...Capelan...Body Adornment...Justice...Departure from Pegu, January 1587...Brief Return to Pegu and Departure from Southeast Asia...Commodities of the East...Return to London.
      Author/creator: Ralph Fitch
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004,
      Format/size: pdf (52K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: ACCOUNT OF THE KINGDOME OF PEGUE (1608)
      Date of publication: 1615
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: The account of Henri de Feynes de Monsart was translated anonymously into English and published in London in 1615, for Thomas Dawson by William Arondell under the title of An Exact and Curious Survey of all the East Indies, even to Canton, the chiefe Cittie of China: All duly performed by land, by Monsieur de Monsart, the like whereof was never hetherto, brought to an end. The original edtion is available in at least four copies in the British Library... M. W. C.
      Author/creator: Henri de Feynes de Monsart
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (14K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: CERTAINE WORDS OF PEGU LANGUAGE (1603)
      Date of publication: 1603
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: This world list was included in the back matter of A True and Large Discourse of the Voyage of the Whole Fleete of Ships Set forth the 20 of Aprill 1601 by the Government and Assistants of the East Indian Marchants in London, to the East Indies, published for Thomas Thorpe by William Alpley of London in 1603. Curiously, the mission, which did come across ships in the Straits of Melaka, does not appear to have visited Pegu. There is no indication in the text of how or where the world list was obtained. It may be possible the it was gathered from Peguan traders on ships encountered at sea or in a local trading port... M.W. C.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (14K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: ACCOUNT OF PEGU
      Date of publication: 18 June 1588
      Description/subject: Editor's Note: ...The account reproduced below attempts to provide as complete a version of Federici’s account of Pegu as possible, based on the Hakluyt and Purchas editions, but checked for major errors against the original Hickok translation. The text included below only includes the sections relevant to Burma and Southeast Asia, for information on trade in India and the Middle East, the reader is directed to the Voyages or Hakluytus Posthumus, or the Hickok original (the latter may be republished here in a later issue)... M.W.C....Cæsar Frederick to the Reader...A Voyage to the East Indies, and Beyond the Indies, &c....Sumatra...Malacca...Pegu’s Conquest of Siam...Tenasserim...Difficulties of Journey...Martaban...Dealings with the Retor at Martaban...Voyage to City of Pegu...City of Pegu...Royal Elephants in Pegu...Armies of the King of Pegu...The Wealth of the King of Pegu...Justice in Pegu...Death and Property in Pegu...Commerce in Pegu...Duties and Currency in Pegu...Manner of Dress at Pegu4...A Typhoon...Sundiva Island and Arakan...Commodities of India...Return to Pegu...Commerce of the East Indies...End of Voyage
      Author/creator: Cesar Fedrici of Venice. Translated from the Italian by Master Thomas Hickock
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (114K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Early Fifteenth Century Travels in the East
      Date of publication: 1579
      Description/subject: From Ceylon to Sumatra and the Andaman Islands...Tenasserim...Bengal and the River Ganges...Arakan and Crossing the Mountains to Ava...Specialty Shops with Lascivious Things...Elephants of War in Burma...Manner of Catching and Taming Elephants in Burma...Marriage, Tattooing, and Religion in Burma...Fruits of Burma...Buffaloes and Oxen in Upper Burma...Cathay...Departure from Ava
      Author/creator: Nicolò de’ Conti of Venice. Translated by John Frampton in the late sixteenth century. Notes by Kennon Breazeale
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (77K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: THE LUSIAD, OR, PORTUGALS HISTORICALL POEM (Tenth Canto, STANZA. 1.)
      Date of publication: 1572
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: "Luís Vaz de Camões (c. 1524-1580), the famous Lisbon poet, composed Os Lusiades in 1572 to glorify the expedition and exploits of Vasco da Gama in the Indian Ocean. It is a lengthy and epic poem, consisting of ten cantos, the portion relating to mainland Southeast Asia limited to a portion of the last of these. Only this portion is reproduced below. The chief utility of this information for the historian is that it helps us to understand how much, by 1572, Portuguese at home knew about the region. Some information is of special interest, such as the reference to the Gwe..."
      Author/creator: Luís Vaz de Camões Translated by Richard Fanshaw (1655)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (20K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: THE ITINERARY OF LUDOVICO DI VARTHEMA OF BOLOGNA FROM 1502 TO 1508
      Date of publication: 1510
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: Ludovico di Varthema of Bologna has left us an account of India and Burma from the very first decade of the sixteenth century, prior to the largescale of the First Taung-ngu Dynasty that would follow in the decades ahead. It thus provides a valuable insight into a period for which many foreign sources are not available. The original account, in Italian, was published at Rome on the 6th of December 1510 at the request of Lodovico de Henricis da Corneto of Vicenza by Stephano Guillireti de Loreno and Hercule de Nani, both of Bologna. The translation followed here was made by John Winter Jones in 1863, edited by G. P. Badger, and published under the title of “The Itinerary of Ludovico di Varthema of Bologna from 1502 to 1508,” the same title we use in the text below. Only material relevant to Burma has been included in the following text. Additional editorial changes include additional paragraph breaks and the addition of subject headers for clarification... M.W.C.
      Author/creator: Ludovico di Varthema. Translated by John Winter Jones
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (46K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: THE TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO, THE VENETIAN (1298)
      Date of publication: 1298
      Description/subject: Editor’s note: Marco Polo was the frst Western traveller to speak of Burma (Mien). His late thirteenth century account has been translated numerous times, one of the most popular editions being Henry Yule’s (tr.) The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East in the nineteenth century and the revision of this translation by Henri Cordier in the early twentieth. The Yule- Cordier edition of 1903 is widely available in reprint. Less widely available is the present translation made by W. Marsden from Ramusio’s collection of travels published in 1818 and re-edited by Thomas Wright in September 1854, published as The Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian. (London: Henry G. Bohn). Polo’s account of events in Burma can be dated to the early-mid 1290s, for he returned to Venice in 1295, although the Travels were not put into writing until 1298. The version below has been made from the copy in the British Library... M.W. C.
      Author/creator: Marco Polo of Venice, Translated by W. Marsden, Re-edited by Thomas Wright
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004,
      Format/size: pdf (41K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    • Documents on social and economic history

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Documents of Myanmar Socio-Economic History
      Description/subject: "This database contains raw data that we were allowed to record by the holders in Myanmar, and as a result it has not been sorted according to subject. We aimed to select Parabaik relevant to socio-economic history, but documents relating to astrology, medicine, poetry and so on are to be found, because one Parabaik was customarily used to record material on many different topics. 1. Each image consists of two facing pages of a Parabaik manuscript. Therefore, one image may contain several documents, while one longer document may consist of several images. 2. Since images are taken after turning each page in the Parabaik, a particular document may be identified in its context by viewing the images numbered before and after it. 3. In some cases the same image appears twice in order to facilitate detailed comparison of its contents. 4. Some images are reversed and others are revised to make them easier to read. Images that are still difficult to decipher should be adjusted using imaging software. 5. The documents are classified according to their contents. Users can search for documents in the index of these categories..."
      Language: Burmese, English
      Source/publisher: Aichi University in Japan
      Format/size: html, jpg
      Date of entry/update: 16 March 2005


    • Memoirs and accounts of Burma by missionaries

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Burmese Empire a Hundred Years Ago
      Date of publication: 1893
      Description/subject: First published: 1833....CONTENTS: INTRODUCTION; LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS REFERRED TO; PREFACE BY MR. JARDINE; PREFACE BY CARDINAL WISEMAN; DESCRIPTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE... BURMESE COSMOGRAPHY: I. Of the Measures and Divisions of Time commonly used in the Sacred Burmese Books; II. Of the World and its Parts; III. Of the Beings that live in this World, of their Felicity or Misery, and of the Duration of their Life; IV. Of the States of Punishment; V. Of the Destruction and Reproduction of the World; VI. Of the Inhabitants of the Burmese Empire.... BURMESE HISTORY: VII. Origin of the Burmese Nation and Monarchy; VIII. Abridgment of the Burmese Annals, called Maharazven; IX. Of the present Royal Family, and of the Principal Events that have taken place under the Reigning Dynasty.... CONSTITUTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE: X. Of the Emperor, and of his White Elephants; XI. Officers of State and of the Household, Tribunals, and Administration of Justice; XII. Revenue and Taxes; XIII. Army and Military Discipline.... RELIGION OF THE BURMESE: XIV. The Laws of Godama; XV. Of the Talapoins; XVI. The Sermons of Godama; XVII. Superstitions of the Burmese.... MORAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE: XVIII. Character of the Burmese; XIX. Manners and Customs of the Burmese; XX. Literature and Sciences of the Burmese; XXI. Natural Productions of the Burmese Empire; XXII. Calendar of the Burmese. Climate and Seasons of the Burmese Empire; XXIII. Of the Currency and Commerce of the Burmese Empire.... BURMESE CODE: XXIV. Abstract of the Burmese Code entitled Damasat; or the Golden Rule
      Author/creator: Father Vincenzo Sangermano
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Archibald Constable & Co.
      Format/size: pdf (8.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://ia341340.us.archive.org/0/items/cu31924023243904/cu31924023243904.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      Title: The gospel in Burmah: the story of its introduction and marvelous progress among the Burmese and Karens
      Date of publication: 1860
      Description/subject: Subjects: Missions Burma Missions, American History / Asia / Southeast Asia... CHAPTER I. Establishment of the American Board of Missions; the Missionaries reach India; Mission commenced in Rangoon; the first Convert, Moung Nan; unsuccessful Visit to Ava; first Burmese War; heroism and death of Mrs. Judson. Pages 19-36 CHAPTER II. The first Karen Convert, Ko-tha byu; Visit to the Karens of Dongyan; their Desire for God's Book; the Karen Alphabet formed; Earen Mission in Ta- voy; singular Worship of an unknown Book; L abors, success, and illness of Mr. Boardman; Enquirers and Converts; Mr. Boardman's Death. Tages 36-52 CHAPTER in. Arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Mason at Tavoy; Mrs. Boardman's excellent schools; the Sgau Karens and their chief; Mrs. Mason's classes and schools; Mrs. Helen Mason's illness and death; her habits of devotion. Pages 53-66 CHAPTER IV. Ko-thah-a, a distinguished Burman Convert, baptized and ordained; the Rangoon Mission re-established; translation of the Burman Scriptures; crowds of Visitors from the Interior; Mr. Wade at Mergui; Labors of Mr. Kincaid: (3) his journey to Ava; Persecution of the Burman Converts in Pegu; Bap- tisms at Maubee; the Christian Governor of Bassein; enlargement of the Mission; Mr. Kincaid's Journey beyond Ava; his perils and deliverance. Pages 67-82 CHAPTER V. The Mission in Arracan; its commencement and early growth; death and char- actejof Ko-thah-byu; Mr. Abbott at Sandoway; immigration of Christian Karens, driven by persecution from Burmah; death of Mrs.Abbott; Akyab; the Mountain Chief; trials of the Mission; Death of Missionaries; " Six Men for Arracan;" Review of the various Missions in Burmah. Pages 83-94 CHAPTER VI. Illness of the Judsons; the Burmese Dictionary; Mrs. Judson's Works; her Missionary Labors; Mrs. Judson's illness, voyage, and death; Dr. Judson's return; progress among the Kemmees;vain attempt to re establish the Rangoon Mission; last illness, death, and character of Dr. Judson. Pages 95-108 CHAPTER VII. Nomination of Native Pastors; Wah Dee; the village of Thay Rau; Native Labors; Pastors in Tavoy; Tavoy Association; its rules of conduct and of worship; Persecution in Pegu; Martyrdom of Thagua; Progress in Bas- sein; wonderful history of Myat Kyau; his labors, character, and death. Pages 109-127 CHAPTER VIII. Return to Rangoon; Visit from a Priest; Trials of the Karen Converts; Visit to a Monastery; War with the English; conduct of the Governor; his con- sternation; message from the Commodore; the Governor consults Mr. Kin- caid; tyranny of the Governor; disorders in the city; arrival of the new Governor; the English deputation insulted; the King's ship captured: the English retire; Battle of the Stockades; interview of the Missionaries with Lord Dalhousie; Pegu annexed; Prospects of the future. Pages 128-151 CHAPTER IX. The Tenasserim Provinces; Matah; a Sabbath at Matah; the teachers Klana and Kolapau; Mrs. Mason's journey to Longpung; thence to Chongquait and its heathen people; Visit to Falatot; discussions with the heathen; results of the journey. Pages 152-170 [merged small][ocr errors] CHAPTER X. Mr. Ingall's labors at Rangoon; progress there; a strange Blacksmith; numerous Converts; the History of Moung Shway Fau; his conversion and baptism; Ko-thah-a and Mau Sa; Peace under the English rule; Mr. Ingalls' last journey, illness and death; Losses in the Mission. Pages 171-194 CHAPTER XI. Dr. Mason's first journey to Toungoo; the town of■'Shwaygyeen; death of the first Mrs. Harris; the city of Toungoo; its important position; the Mission commenced; Visit from the Taubeah Chief; Thako Mosha; the Chiefs Verses; Visit from a Toungoo Lady; Conversation with her; Visits from other Ladies; their religious difficulties; their anxiety to learn; zeal of A Shapau. Pages 195-211 CHAPTER XII. The history of Sau Quala; his parents; his boyhood; his conversion; his Mother's conversion, and death; residence with his brother; their earnest studies; his public profession; his first efforts for others; he is present at Mr. Board- man's death; studies under Dr. Mason and Dr. Judson; collects the Karen Traditions; and assists in the translation of the Bible; writes Karen books; his marriage; his preaching and discussions; his frequent journeys; he becomes a pastor; progress among the Karens in the Tenasserim Province; Dr. Mason's opinion of Sau Quala; Revivals at Pyeekhya and Kewville; Quala is ordained; Story of Dumoo; Dumoo and Quala set off for Toun- goo; Quala's marvellous successs; his devoted labors; offer of Government employ; the offer declined. Pages 212-245 CHAPTER XIII. Sau Quala and his assistants; earnest spirit of these native Missionaries; Mr. Whitaker at Toungoo; Mr. and Mrs. Harris at Shwaygyeen; Death of Mrs. Harris; remarkable progress at Toungoo; earnestness of the people; Pwaipau's success; Dr. Mason's return; jungle travelling; his visit to the mountain Churches; support of the native teachers; the Bghai Association of Churches; number of the Converts and their families; ability of the Preachers; extraordinary liberality of the Churches; marvellous progress; the Bghai tribes; their ancient feuds; the independent Bghais; Border tribes; Much land to be possessed; Shapau's success; Mrs. Mason at Toungoo;the Female Normal School founded; its plan; the first scholars; letters from [blocks in formation] the people promising to support it; lawlessness of the tribes; Quala's letter;letter to the American Churches; progress of the Normal School; the teacher Sauka; his visit to the Sgaus; lawlessness of the tribes; many become Christians; murders among them; blood - revenge; Pwaipau ordained in Toungoo; his history; enquiries of the young teachers; Shapau ordained; wide doors of usefulness; Mrs. Mason visits the jungles; goes into the mountains; Mopgha house; timber collected; Christian village at Toungoo; Bghai public spirit; their improved manners; report of the Toungoo Mission for 1857; statistics; contributions. Pages 24C-2S4 CHAPTER XIV. Position of the Missionaries: Tavot native Pastors; the origin of evil illustrated; a Karen convert; disappearance of the Priests; a Bunnan village: Maul- Hain; the Theological Seminary; the Karen Churches: Shwatgteen: Bassein; Report of the Karen Churches; their liberality; desire for the Bible; grounds of discouragement; the Burmans of Bassein; the northern Karens; native Missionaries sent to them: Henthada; progress made; native assistants; the Henthada Normal School; increase of Converts: Pbohe; conversion of a young Burman priest; general progress in the district: Rangoon; the Burman preacher, Moung-thet-nau; his conversion and baptism; death of Mr. Vinton; his numerous Churches; growth of the Mission; openings for usefulness, and his earnest appeals; his character, influence, and zealous labors; his last journey, illness, and sudden death; mourning of the Karens; conclusion; Apostolic preaching, plans, and pre- cedents, followed by Apostolic success. Pages 295-332
      Author/creator: Mrs. Macleod Wylie
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Sheldon & Co.
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books/download/The_gospel_in_Burmah.pdf?id=fLRFAAAAIAAJ&output=pdf&...
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      Title: Rivers in the desert, or, Missionn-scenes in Burmah
      Date of publication: 1858
      Description/subject: "...The following Memoir of the Burmah Mission has been prepared at the suggestion of various friends, who, on account of the Mission's extraordinary results, desiderated such a brief but comprehensive narrative of its workers and work as might stimulate the Church of Christ, in these portentous days, to fresh zeal and faith in winning souls. The materials of the Memoir lie scattered over a variety of publications; such as the Lives of Dr. Judson, of Boardman, of Ann Judson, of Ko-thah-byoo, of Sarah Judson, and of Emily Judson; "the Church Missionary Intelligencer;" " the Missionary Magazine of the American Board of Missions;" and sundry other works. It has been the Author's aim to weave the varied fragments into one connected whole..."
      Author/creator: John Baillie
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Seeley, Jackson and Halliday
      Format/size: pdf (6.38)
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books/download/Rivers_in_the_desert_or_Mission_scenes_i.pdf?id=s0AAAAAAMAAJ...
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      Title: Memoir of Ann H. Judson: Missionary to Burmah
      Date of publication: 1846
      Description/subject: CHAPTER I.Mrs. Judson's Birth,Education, and Conversion... CHAPTER IT.Mrs. Judson's Connexion with Mr. Judson,... CHAPTER III Embarkation -- Voyage -- Arrival in Calcutta... CHAPTER IV.Difficulties with the Bengal Government -- Mr. and Mrs. Judson and Mr. Riee, become Baptists... CHAPTER V.Mr. and Mrs. Judson and Mr. Rice sail for the Isle of France -- Mrs. Newell's Death -- Mr. Rice sails for America -- Mr. and Mrs. J. sail for Madras -- Arrival at Rangoon,... CHAPTER VI.Sketch of the Geography, History, Religion, Language, &tc. of the Burman Empire,... CHAPTER VII.Establishment of the Mission at Rangoon,... CHAPTER VIII .Letters of Mrs. Judson -- Birth aad Death of a Son -- Arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Hough,... CHAPTER IX -- Mr. Judson's Visit to Chittagong -- Persecution of Mr. Hough and his Departure for Bengal -- Return of Mr. Judson -- Arrival of Messrs. Colman and Wheelock,... CHAPTER X.-- Mr. Judson commences Preaching -- First Convert baptized -- Death of Mr. Wheelock,. . CHAPTER XI.-- Visit to Ava -- Unsuccessful Interview with the King... . CHAPTER XII.-- Arrival in Calcutta -- Return to Rangoon -- Dr. Price joins the Mission -- Mrs. Judson sails for America, CHAPTER XIII-- Mrs. Judson's Visit to America -- Mr. Wade joins the Mission -- Sail for Calcutta,... CHAPTER XIV.-- Messrs. Judson and Price visit Ava -- Mrs. Judson and Mr and Mrs. Wade arrive at Rangoon,... CHAPTER XV.-- Mr and Mrs. Judson visit Ava -- War with the British,... CHAPTER XVI.-- Account of the Scenes at Ava during the War,... CHAPTER XVII.-- Narrative continued -- Removal of the Prisoners to Oung-pen-la -- Mrs. Judson follows them -- Release of the Prisoners,... CHAPTER XVIII-- Removal to Amherst -- Mrs. Judson's Death -- Epitaph -- Obituary Lines -- Address to the Ladies of America....N.B. GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
      Author/creator: James Davis Knowles
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Google Books
      Format/size: pdf (6.4MB) 374 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=QyI3AAAAMAAJ (13.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


      Title: The Journal of Lovell Ingalls, 1838-1839
      Date of publication: 1840
      Description/subject: Note: "The following extracts from the journal of Mr. Lovell Ingalls, a member of the American Baptist Mission to Burma are compiled from various entries in different numbers of the Baptist Missionary Magazine (earlier entitled the American Baptist Missionary Magazine). These numbers include issues 19.10 (October 1839), 20.1 (January 1840), and 20.4 (April 1840). The initial entry provides an introduction to Ingalls’ residence: In the autumn of 1838, Mr. Kincaid being desirous to return to his labors at Ava at the earliest favorable period, his place at Mergui was supplied by Mr. Ingalls, who had been designated as a permanent occupant of that station. Mr. Ingalls arrived at Mergui on the 29th of October, accompanied by three assistants." M. W. C.
      Author/creator: Lovell Ingalls
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005,
      Format/size: pdf (130K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Missionary Letters from Burma, 1828-1839
      Date of publication: 1839
      Description/subject: Note: In December 1832, a contingent of American Baptist misisonaries, including Reverend Nathan Brown, Mrs. Brown, Mr. Webb, and Mrs. Webb, departed from Boston to join missionaries already at work in Burma. Five months later, they had only gone as far as Calcutta, from whence they would commence their final sea journey to British Tenasserim and it is from this point that correspondence from Nathan Brown begins. The following letters, sometimes in full and occasionally as extracts, were originally published in the American Baptist Missionary Magazine during the 1830s. M. W. C.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2005
      Format/size: pdf (285K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070930165556/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/3_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


      Title: Memoir of George Dana Boardman: late missionary to Burmah
      Date of publication: 1835
      Description/subject: CONTENTS: Page. CHAPTER I. Including a sketch of Mr. Boardman's early history. 9 CHAPTER II. Mr. Boardman pursues his studies at Waterville—He indulges a hope in Christ, and makes a profession of religion—The happy state of his mind. 14 CHAPTER m. Waterville college—Mr. Boardman enters it—His progress in study—Graduates, and is appointed tutor. 28 CHAPTER IV. His domestic afflictions—Progress and result of his exercises on the subject of missions—He offers himself to the Board and is accepted—Leaves college. 37 CHAPTER V. He pursues his studies at Andover—Correspondence—His la- bors for the Clarkson Society in Salem—He visits Maine and receives ordination. 57 CHAPTER VI. Mr. Boardman's travels West and South—His marriage, em- barkation, and voyage. 76 CHAPTER VII. Mr. Boardman's arrival and residence at Calcutta—Description of schools and native churches. 89 CHAPTER VIII. Mr. Boardman announces the close of the war with Burmah— He is requested by the English Baptists to remain still longer in Calcutta. 104 CHAPTER IX. Mr. Boardman leaves Calcutta and arrives at Amherst—Estab- lishes a new station at Maulmein—He is in imminent peril of his life, and suffers loss by robbers. 123 CHAPTER X. Mr. Boardman is joined at Maulmein by Messrs. Judson and Wade—He opens a school for boys—Conversation with his two Burman scholars—Review of the past year, and reso- lutions for the future—His letter on the death of Mr. C. Hol- ton—An interesting extract from his diary. 135 CHAPTER XI. The thermometer at Maulmein—Mr. Boardman's religious dis- course with his pupils—Death of Dr. Price—He leaves Maul- mein and establishes a new station at Tavoy—Prospects of the mission at that place. 151 CHAPTER XII. Historical sketch of the Karens—Their apparent readiness to receive the Gospel—Description of Tavoy, with its temples and images. 164 CHAPTER XIII. Uncourteous demeanor of a few natives—Interesting case of a Chinese youth—Hopeful conversions and baptisms—Mr. Boardman's method of spending the Sabbath. 177 CHAPTER XIV. Plan of enlarged operations in the department of native schools —The deified book of the Karens. 191 CHAPTER XV. Mr. Boardman's first tour into the Karen jungle—Baptisms— Visit to the prison in Tavoy—Execution of a bandit. 210 CHAPTER XVI. Voyage of health to Mergui—Description of Mergui—Death of little Sarah—Review of the past year. 297 CHAPTER XVII. Revolt of Tavoy—Mrs. Boardman repairs to Maulmein—Mr, Boardman follows, but soon returns to Tavoy and resumes his labors. 239 CHAPTER XVIII. Dangerous illness of Mrs. Boardman—Visit to the Karen settle- ments south of Tavoy—Mrs. Boardman leaves for Maulmein.»259 CHAPTER XIX His letters to Mrs. B. at Maulmein—Leaves Tavoy to take charge of the station at Maulmein—His health declines— Returns to Tavoy—Success of the mission. 274 CHAPTER XX. Mr. Boardman's last letter to his relatives in America—Mr. and Mrs. Mason join the mission—Mr. Boardman dies amid the mountains of Tavoy. 293 Conclusion CHAPTER XXI.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln
      Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs09/Memoir_of_George_Dana_Boardman-red.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 21 September 2010


      Title: A Description of the Burmese Empire, Compiled chiefly from Native Documents.
      Date of publication: 1833
      Description/subject: "The following work was drawn up by F. Sangermano, partly during his residence as a missionary in Ava, and partly after his return to Europe. He was sent out as a missioner in 1782, and in the July of the following year arrived at Rangoon, whence he proceeded directly to the city of Ava. But shortly after he was remanded to Rangoon, which was the scene of his future missionary labours....The following note found among F. Sangermano's papers, after the work was partly translated, indicates the original documents he has principally followed. "1. The Burmese cosmography has been extracted almost entirely from a book expressly composed for the elder brother of the reigning monarch, by a Zarado or master of the Emperor, wherein he succinctly describes the system of the world, as taught by Godama, according to the expositions and opinions of the most celebrated Burmese Doctors. 2. All that is related of the ancient Burmese monarchs, and of the foundation and subsequent history of this kingdom, has been faithfully copied from the Maharazaven, that is, the great history of the kings. 3. In what I have said of the superstitions, astrology, religion, constitutions of the Talapoins, and the sermons of Godama, I have not followed the tales and reports of the common people, but have carefully consulted the classical writings of the Burmese, known by the name of Kiam......PREFACE: Description of the Burmese Empire . 1 Burmese cosmography. CHAP. I. Of the measures and divisions of time commonly used in the sacred Burmese books�. CHAP. II. Of the world and its parts� CHAP. III. Of the beings that live in this world; of their felicity or misery, and of the duration of their life..... CHAP. IV. Of the states of punishment..... CHAP. V. Of the destruction and reproduction of the world�CHAP. VI. Of the inhabitants of the Burmese Empire � BURMESE HISTORY: CHAP. VII. Origin of the Burmese nation and monarchy� CHAP. VIII. Abridgement of the Burmese annals, called Maharasaven�. CHAP. IX. Of the present royal family, and of the principal events that have taken place under the reigning dynasty�CONSTITUTION OF THE BURMESE EMPIRE: CHAP. X. Of the Emperor, and of his white elephants..... CHAP. XI. Officers of state and of the household, tribunals, and administration of justice.... CHAP. XII. Revenues and taxes� CHAP. XIII. Army and military discipline� RELIGION OF THE BURMESE: CHAP. XIV. The laws of Godama� CHAP. XV. Of the Talapoin� CHAP. XVI. The Sermons of Godama� CHAP. XVH. Superstitions of the Burmese� MORAL AND PHYSICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE RURMESE EMPIRE: CHAP. XVIII. Character of the Burmese� CHAP. XIX. Manners and customs of the Burmese .... CHAP. XX. Literature and Sciences of the Burmese ... CHAP. XXI. Natural productions of the Burmese Empire� CHAP. XXII. Calendar of the Burmese. Climate and Seasons of the Burmese Empire� CHAP. XXIII. Of the currency and commerce of the Burmese Empire�BURMESE CODE. CHAP. XXIV. Abstract of the Burmese Code entitled Da-masat, or the golden rule......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
      Author/creator: Father Vincentius Sangermano, Trans. William Tandy
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Google Books
      Format/size: pdf (6MB) 224 pages
      Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=9XJ6TqBfoFIC (pdf 8.5MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


      Title: JESUIT LETTERS ON PEGU IN THE EARLY SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
      Date of publication: 1625
      Description/subject: Editor’s Note: In his Haklutus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes, Samuel Purchas collated a number of Jesuit letters relating to events in India and Southeast Asia under the title of “Indian Observations Gathered out of the Letters of Nicolas Pimenta, Visiter of the Jesuites in India, and of many others of that Societie, Written from divers Indian Regionas; principally relating the Countries and accidents of the Coast of Coromandel, and of Pegu.” The main source cited by Purchas are the letters of Nicolas Pimenta, whose own letters related other letters of Portuguese priests who visited Pegu from 1599, shortly after the fall of Nan-dá-bayin (r. 1581- 1599), the last ruler of the First Taung-ngu Dynasty. Pimenta’s letters and most of these materials appear to have been extracted by Purchas from Padre Fernão Guerreiro’s Jesuit Anual published in the first nine years of the seventeenth century under the title of Relação Annual das Coisas que fizeram os Padres da Companhia de Jesus nas suas Missões… Nos Anos de 1600 a 1609. The following text includes only those materials relevant to Southeast Asia and particularly to Burma. Minor printer’s errors have been corrected. The letters have also been re-sorted chronologically and some paragraph breaks, as well as the section headers, have been added...Voyage to Goa in December 1597... Pimenta’s Relation of Fernandes Letter of January 1599... Pimenta’s Further Observations... Emanuel Carvalius’s Letters from Melaka in January 1599... Boves Letter of March 1600... Pimenta’s Relations of Pegu... Pimenta’s Further Summary of Boves’ and Fernandes’ Letters.
      Author/creator: Nicolas Pimenta & Others
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Autumn 2004
      Format/size: pdf (38K)
      Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070612024156/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2_2.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


    • Philately

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma & Myanmar philately
      Description/subject: "Who Was Who in Burma Philately" an annotated biographical index for researchers ..... "Chalo Delhi" - The real story: a complete reexamination of the origins of the "Chalo Delhi" Azad Hind stamps produced in Burma in 1944 and a refutation of the current consensus regarding originals and forgeries
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Philatelic Study Circle
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


      Individual Documents

      Title: WHO WAS WHO IN BURMA PHILATELY
      Date of publication: July 2008
      Description/subject: "An annotated biographical index for researchers" ..... INTRODUCTION: [This is the first edition of this ongoing online work. As new information becomes available it will be revised. The contents may be downloaded for personal use, cited or briefly quoted with proper acknowledgement, but should not be reproduced in any way without the permission of the author and compiler.] In the final analysis, philately is as much about people as it is about stamps. Among the papers of the late Gerald Davis (now in the keeping of the Burma [Myanmar] Philatelic Study Circle), I came across two or three pages of unpublished biographical notes labelled “People who have made an impact on [the] philately of Burma”. The two dozen or so entries contain both the living and the dead, and, besides philatelists, include such figures as Thomas Archer, artist engraver at Nasik, and two Governors of Burma. Most are British, and there is only one Burmese name.
      Author/creator: Richard Warren
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma & Myanmar Philately
      Format/size: pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmastamps.homecall.co.uk/
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


      Title: Stamping Out History - a review of "Stamps of Burma" by Min Sun Min
      Date of publication: January 2008
      Description/subject: "Burmese postage stamps record the country’s official history, therefore the pro-democracy movement goes unrecognized...Postage stamps are more than just small, adhesive pieces of paper that people put on envelopes, the author of this book argues. In the case of Burma, they are “a colorful visual record of its unique history, from the British colonial government through the Japanese occupation, the British military administration, Burma’s independence, the revolutionary council, and the Burmese Way to Socialism.” But, as there are no stamps depicting the pro-democracy uprising of 1988, the author fills this void by designing his own stamps to commemorate this struggle for freedom, and, who knows?— one day they may be sold in post offices in his home country?..."
      Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 1
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Überwachung der Post in Myanmar
      Date of publication: April 2003
      Description/subject: "...Der folgende Tex ist eine Zusammenstellung der wenigen Fetzen an Informationen, die ich zu diesem Thema zusammtragen konnte. Ich schreibe dies als Philatelist und Posthistoriker,dennoch dürfte dies auf weiteres Inter- esse stoßen...."
      Author/creator: „Pyinsa Yupa“ , Deutsch von Heiko Schäfer
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Burma & Myanmar philately!
      Format/size: pdf (289K)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


  • Historical maps

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Historical maps
    Description/subject: Maps of Burma and Asia back to 1808
    Language: English
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Historical research

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Research Electronic Discussion Group (BuRe)
    Description/subject: "This list is intended for discussion related to research on Burma/Myanmar. We do not include political discussions per se, only insofar as they relate to the state of research in the field. You must be signed in and a member of this group to read its archive."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BURMA (MYANMAR) RESEARCH: THE SECONDARY LITERATURE
    Date of publication: December 2004
    Description/subject: "“The ‘Living’ Bibliography of Burma Studies: The Secondary Literature” was first published in 2001, with the last update dated 26 April 2003. The SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research has been expanded to include a special bibliographic supplement this year, and every other year hereafter, into which additions and corrections to the bibliography will be incorporated. In the interim, each issue of the SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research will include a supplemental list, arranged by topic and subtopic. Readers are encouraged to contact the SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research with information about their publications, hopefully with a reference to a topic and sub-topic number for each entry, so that new information can be inserted into the bibliography correctly. References should be submitted in the form followed by the bibliography, using any of the entries as an example. Please note that any particular entry will only be included once, regardless of wider relevance. Eventually, all entries will be cross-listed to indicate other areas where a particular piece of research might be of use. This list has been compiled chiefly from direct surveys of the literature with additional information supplied by the bibliographies of numerous and various sources listed in the present bibliography. Additional sources include submissions from members of the BurmaResearch (including the former Earlyburma) and SEAHTP egroups, as well as public domain listings of personal publications on the internet. Please also note that newspaper and newsletter articles, encyclopedia articles, conference papers, and papers in progress will not be included in this list, as most are short pieces or extracts from already, or eventually to be, published works." M. W. C.
    Author/creator: Michael Charney
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research Bibliographic Supplement (Winter, 2004) ISSN 1479-8484
    Format/size: pdf (1.1MB), jpg (95K); 264 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Bib.sup.cover..jpg (Cover)
    http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/6241/1/Bibliography_of_secondary_literature--2004.pdf
    http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Bibliography_of_secondary_literature--2004.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2005


    Title: Destruction of Documents About Our Ancient Traditions
    Date of publication: 1968
    Description/subject: 1. Military, Politics, Social and Historical papers of Col. Ba Shin. 2. Bagan Sar-oke, No. 153. "This article was written under the pen-name Sann Aung. About ancient artifacts destroyed by careless people. Some Burmese lack knowledge about the importance of preserving our cultural heritage, so they needlessly destroy many Myanmar antiquities."
    Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Bagan Sar-oke Taik
    Format/size: PDF (790K) 10 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/author/BA%20SHIN/?page=4&fromlistpage=1
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: Myeik or Maryiek
    Date of publication: 1968
    Description/subject: Military, Politics, Social and Historical papers of Col. Ba Shin. 2. Bagan Sar-oke No. 153 Subject&nbspTerms:Myeik Place/Publisher :Bagan Saroke Taik Ed. Date:1968 Pagination:p. 295 - 308. ��Myeik�� is a famous city in Tenimtharyi division. But the term Myeik is different from ��Maliek�� and ��Marate��. In Shan language the word Marate means ��Ma�� horse, while ��rate�� means pillar, therefore Marate means Horse Pillar. Literary people called Myeik ��Maleik��. According to Bagan inscriptions the original word Maleik came to mean Myeik."
    Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: ANU Library: Burmese Digital Library Pilot
    Format/size: pdf (1083K) 15 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/detail/author/BA%20SHIN/?page=9&fromlistpage=1
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


  • Historically Important Figures (profiles, speeches and other documents)

    • Several biographies

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Biographies
      Description/subject: Short biographical profiles of: U Aung Gyi, Gen. Aung San, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Gen. Khin Nyunt, Gen. Maung Aye, Dr. Maung Maung, Min Ko Naing, Gen. Ne Win, U Nu, Gen. Saw Maung, Gen. Sein Lwin, Gen. Than Shwe, U Tin Oo [NLD], Gen. Tin Oo...
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Research Pages
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • General Aung San

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: General Aung San
      Description/subject: This site contains some of Aung San's speeches
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Aung San’s lan-zin, the Blue Print and the Japanese occupation of Burma.
      Date of publication: 2007
      Description/subject: Chapter 8 in Kei Nemoto (Ed). 2007 Reconsidering the Japanese military occupation in Burma (1942-45). Tokyo: ILCAA, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, pp 179-224. This includes an English-Burmese bibliograpy of Aung San’s communications (pp 213-224)...Opinions are divided on the impact the Japanese occupation on Burma and on Southeast Asia more widely. Harry Benda summed up the Japanese occupation as 'a distinct historical epoch in Southeast Asian history' (Benda 1972:148-49). He viewed it as introducing discontinuity from the past colonial order, and as facilitating important changes, including in particular the mobilization of youth and the disruption of traditional patterns of authority (Benda 1969:78). In his useful work, Yoon (1971a:293) summed up its significance specifically for Burma saying that ‘the Japanese occupation directly affected and greatly accelerated the realization of Burmese independence’. Guyot (1974: iv, 43, 55, 222) viewed the Japanese occupation of Burma as marking ‘an important threshold in Burma’s political evolution’, since it ‘created the political elite’; in particular, it empowered a young generation of students, Burmanized the army, and helped rally and unify Burmans against British rule..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Gustaaf Houtman
      Format/size: pdf (664K)
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: Independence Hero Aung San: His Integrity is Sorely Needed
      Date of publication: June 2004
      Description/subject: "On July 19, 1947, independence hero Aung San and eight others were gunned down by a rival faction at the Secretariat. Aung San’s honesty and straightforwardness are missed by friends and colleagues who knew him. However, current military leaders in Burma want to take his name out of history books..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


      Title: Our Fraternal Greetings to the Siamese people
      Date of publication: May 2002
      Description/subject: "This speech was delivered by Burmese independence hero Aung San at the Orient Club, Rangoon, on April 17, 1947�three months before his assassination. Aung San founded the Burma Independence Army in Bangkok on Dec 26, 1941."
      Author/creator: Aung San
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • General Khin Nyunt

      Individual Documents

      Title: Video of Ex-Spy Chief Baffles Burma Watchers
      Date of publication: 27 November 2010
      Description/subject: "A video circulating on the Internet of a meeting between Burma's former spymaster Khin Nyunt and the country's current police chief has political observers wondering about its source and significance. The 16-minute video, which has no audio and first appeared on the social networking website Facebook on Friday night, shows Khin Nyunt in discussion with a group of police officers led by police chief Khin Yi at two separate locations. Aung San Suu Kyi, Than Shwe and Khin Nyunt in a rare meeting in 1994. The 70-year-old Khin Nyunt was Burma's feared military intelligence chief and first prime minister of the ruling regime until he was placed under house arrest in October 2004 after being ousted in a power struggle with junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe..."
      Author/creator: Ba Kaung
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
      Format/size: html,
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2012


      Title: Is Burma's former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt to be freed soon?
      Date of publication: 26 January 2009
      Description/subject: New Delhi (Mizzima) – Rumours that Burma's military junta will soon free its detained officers above the rank of Colonel to involve them in the ensuing election, is making the rounds in military circles in Burma, a source in the military establishment said. The source said the junta is planning to release former Military Intelligence (MI) officers of ranks above Colonel, who were arrested, charged and detained along with the MI chief and former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt. "Some family members of former MI officials are expecting their release," the source told Mizzima. The source added that the release is likely to include the former MI chief Khin Nyunt, who is currently under house arrest.
      Author/creator: Salai Pi Pi
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Mizzima
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://khin-nyunt-news.newslib.com/
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


      Title: The downfall of Gen Khin Nyunt
      Date of publication: 31 October 2004
      Description/subject: Burma's Senior General Than Shwe had plenty of good reasons to remove Prime Minister Khin Nyunt, but in doing so he may have hastened the collapse of his regime, Though not unexpected, the Oct 18 removal of 65-year-old Burmese Prime Minister Khin Nyunt may exacerbate the infighting within Burma's ruling elite, with undesirable consequences for its neighbours. Thailand, for its part, must be more cautious, but sincere, in its offer to help Burma attain a national reconciliation and solve its longstanding political problems. Prior to the arrest of General Khin Nyunt, many Burma watchers had been predicting for weeks an impending showdown between him and the hardliners within the governing State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Burma's state-controlled radio and television announced his removal in a terse, brief statement the next day, saying that General Khin Nyunt was "permitted to retire for health reasons." Only a few people believe that this was the real reason, as this phrase has often been used in the past after the forced ouster of ministers and senior officers. Commented one Burmese exile: "If this is the reason for dismissal, then whoever appointed him should have been dismissed six years ago for the same reason."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Bangkok Post
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


      Title: "Romeo and Juliet" Love Dooms Son
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: Burma's strong man and intelligence chief, has publicly announced that he has disowned his son. Lt Gen. Khin Nyunt and his wife Dr Daw Kin Win Shwe placed an advertisement in state-run New Light of Myanmar announcing that their son "Dr Ye Naing Win was disowned by the parents for his inexcusable deed".
      Author/creator: Yurdle
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6. No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • General Kyaw Zaw

      Individual Documents

      Title: Red Star on a Stormy Journey
      Date of publication: February 2008
      Description/subject: "A legendary Communist leader recalls his life from farm boy to the Thirty Comrades to revolutionary commander... Living history” is a good way to describe retired Brig-Gen Kyaw Zaw, who has published his memoirs at age 88. The book, as a firsthand account of a lifelong Burmese revolutionary, will be invaluable to scholars..."
      Author/creator: Ko Ko Thett
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 2
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


      Title: Unfinished Struggle - An Interview with Gen Kyaw Zaw
      Date of publication: December 2003
      Description/subject: Gen Kyaw Zaw, 84, alias Thakin Shwe, is one of the founders of the Tatmadaw, or Burma’s armed forces. He is one of the Thirty Comrades who went to Japan for military training in 1941. He joined the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in 1944 and was elected to the Central Committee a year later. In 1956, he was accused of leaking news to the CPB and forced to leave the army. He served as Vice Chief of General Staff of the CPB until the 1989 mutiny. In written correspondence with The Irrawaddy, Kyaw Zaw discussed Burma’s past and the lessons it holds for the country’s future.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


    • General Ne Win

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Talk of the Town Turns Ninety
      Date of publication: May 2001
      Description/subject: With the talks between Burma's military rulers and the democratic opposition still under wraps in Rangoon, the talk of the capital has turned to the latest public appearance by former dictator Ne Win.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4 (Intelligence section)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The King Who Never Dies
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: Ne Win, the mastermind behind Burma's decline as a modern nation, has emerged from the shadows for the first time this century.
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Broadening the Breach
      Date of publication: July 2000
      Description/subject: In November 1977, Burmese dictator Ne Win made a visit to Cambodia, then under the control of the Khmer Rouge. Prompted by a request from China, the trip also helped Ne Win to neutralize the influence of the Communist Party of Burma by exploiting a growing rift between the conservative CPB leadership and reformers rising to power in Beijing. Bertil Lintner examines this revealing episode in Ne Win's political career.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol..8 No. 7
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Back in the Limelight
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: Burma's former leader Ne Win arrived in Jakarta for a three-day visit amid speculation that Indonesian President Suharto was to ask the Burmese patriarch to influence Rangoon's military junta to open dialogue with opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Speculation began to circulate in Jakarta two months ago that Suharto was inviting Ne Win to come discuss the issue of democratisation in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Rise and Fall of General Ne Win
      Date of publication: September 1997
      Description/subject: Bio-chronology 1947-1988
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No.6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Letter to General Ne Win from U Aung Gyi
      Date of publication: August 1997
      Description/subject: Rangoon May 1, 1992 Through a series of open letters to Ne Win and former members of the Revolutionary Council written between 1988 and 1992, U Aung Gyi criticized the economic policies and human rights abuses of the government. The following excerpts are from one of these letters.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol.. IV, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Queen Supayalat

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Last Queen of Burma
      Date of publication: July 2003
      Description/subject: Burma’s Queen Supayalat was a ruler to be feared and revered... "I have a confession to make. I am infatuated with a dead queen, who among other appalling acts of cruelty ordered that between 80 and 100 of her husband’s relatives be murdered in ways said to include the dashing of children against walls. I revere her for that, because the massacre—or "clearing", as it was called—was intended to destroy all potential rivals to the throne. But my infatuation derives from a portrait of her found in Terence R Blackburn’s The British Humiliation of Burma. In it she is prostrate; she seems to be staring right at me. One of her hands is under her chin, the other dangles lazily. Her enigmatic and enticing smile is nearly a smirk, and it originates less from her mouth than from her eyes. Her jet black hair is pulled up into a topknot. She is wearing earrings. She is petite. And she is beautiful. Her name was Supayalat. She was the last queen of Burma. Supayalat was born in 1859. Or 1860: both dates are used. She was the middle daughter of Sinpyumashin, widow to Mindon, whose son Thibaw was Burma’s last king, her husband, and therefore also her half-brother. At the time of the massacre, which took place over a few days in February 1879, Supayalat was only around 20 years old. She died in 1925, and was buried in Rangoon...
      Author/creator: Kenneth Champeon
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 11, No. 6
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    • Sr. General Than Shwe

      Individual Documents

      Title: The Long Goodbye
      Date of publication: October 2010
      Description/subject: Open questions hang over Than Shwe’s post-election intentions... "The delegation that accompanied Burmese junta chief Snr-Gen Than Shwe to China in September included, apart from members of his family and trusted aides, several representatives of a new generation of military officers—prompting suggestions that he introduced Burma’s future government leaders to Beijing. He left some questions hanging, however. Who, for instance, is likely to be Burma’s next commander-in-chief and president? More importantly, what lies ahead for Than Shwe himself?..."
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 10
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 July 2012


      Title: The Simple Soldier
      Date of publication: March 2010
      Description/subject: Snr-Gen Than Shwe was once an unknown rising through the ranks of the armed forces—the sort of person it may now take to remove him from power.
      Author/creator: Aung Zaw
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 3
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 17 March 2010


    • U Kyaw Nyein

      Individual Documents

      Title: An introduction (to "Burma: A Special Supplement")
      Date of publication: February 1958
      Description/subject: Burma: A Special Supplement: An introduction: by The Honorable U Kyaw Nyein, Deputy Prime Minister of the Union of Burma...Burma is a small country of eighteen million people, sandwiched between the two sub-continents of India and China and sheltered by a ring of high mountain ranges. In spite of occasional unsuccessful Chinese invasions, it stood as an independent kingdom for two thousand years, until 1885 when it was annexed by the British. It was at the height of its prosperity under the Pagan dynasty in the eleventh century, and the magnificent monuments and pagodas of that period which still stand intact at Pagan are a living testimony to the glory that was Burma..."
      Author/creator: U Kyaw Nyein
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Atlantic"
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


    • U Law Yone

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma's Socialist Democracy - Some problems of practical politics
      Date of publication: February 1958
      Description/subject: "The new state of the Union of Burma which was established early in 1948 is professedly founded upon two basic concepts - socialism and democracy. The constitution provides for all the fundamental freedoms, and for a system of parliamentary government, based largely on the British pattern, with an elected legislature and the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers. The Government has taken a further step toward extending democratic procedures by selling a Ministry for Democratization, whose task is to institute and operate a system of local government in which all those who rule, from the village level upward, shall be elected. This system is still experimental, and over the major portion of the country, centralized rule, that is through Government-nominated civil servants, continues side by side with parliamentary practice. The growth of true democracy has undeniably been hampered by the strife-torn period which has existed without break from the very earliest clays of our independence. When the insurrection was at its height, the Rangoon Government was unable to find men or arms to send to a hundred threatened towns and villages and was forced to find its friends wherever it could. More often than not these friends were simply thugs and desperadoes. But because they were prepared to fight the insurgents, the Government armed them and supported them. In those days of chaos, the country quickly reverted to a more primitive form of political organization than democracy—the rule of the strongman. In their petty domains, these strongmen became little kings, with power of life and death over the people. Soon, the people began to hate the tyrants, and once their usefulness was exhausted, even the Government became ashamed of them. Gradually, they were dispensed with, pensioned off, and disarmed. But there still remained the vacuum of power which could not be filled democratically by an unenlightened electorate, ill-used to the sensation of governing themselves..."
      Author/creator: U Law Yone
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Atlantic"
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/print/1969/12/burma-apos-s-socialist-democracy/6815/
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


      Title: BIOGRAPHY of Edward Michael Law Yone
      Description/subject: EDWARD MICHAEL LAW YONE was born February 5, 1911 at Kamaing, Myitkyina District (now Kachin State), Burma. Educated at St. Peters' School, Mandalay, at 16 he went to work as a clerk in the Burma-China border frontier service. He joined the Burma Railways in 1930 as a probationer and by 1938 was in charge of the rates and commercial section, traveling in that year over the recently-constructed Burma Road to survey the route proposed for linking the Burma and Yunnan-Indochina Railways.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Roman Magsaysay Award Foundation
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.rmaf.org.ph/Awardees/Citation/CitationLawYoneEdw.htm
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    • U Razak

      Individual Documents

      Title: 'A Leader of Men'
      Date of publication: September 2007
      Description/subject: The Muslim schoolteacher who joined Burma's martyrs... "Being a Muslim in a country where 87 percent of the population is Buddhist, and where the military government regularly practices ultra-nationalism and uses religion as a political tool, means joining the underprivileged at the bottom of the pile. The fight for liberty is the fight for peace. And like peace, liberty is indivisible —U Razak, June 1947 Muslims in Burma regularly suffer social and religious discrimination. Burmese Buddhists commonly call them, Kala, a derogatory term for South Asians and also used insultingly to describe westerners. While some consider the term abusive and degrading, there's general acceptance that it takes on a sense of honor, respect and lovingkindness when it's used in the form Kalagyi (Big Kala), to describe independence hero Abdul Razak. U Razak rose from the position of headmaster of Mandalay Central National High School to become minister of education and national planning in Burma's pre-independence government. His career was brought to a brutal end at the age of 49, when he was gunned down by assassins on July 19, 1947, together with independence leader Gen Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. The nine murdered leaders are commemorated annually on the country's Martyr's Day. Mandalay, where U Razak taught, is a center of Burmese Buddhist faith and culture. Yet U Razak, of ethnic Indian-Burmese origin, was fully accepted by the community..."
      Author/creator: Yeni
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol 15, No. 9
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=8463
      Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


      Title: U Razak of Burma: A Teacher, a Leader, a Martyr
      Date of publication: July 2007
      Description/subject: "As a primary school student, I read about Sayagyi (a great teacher or a principal) U Razak and fellow martyrs in school textbooks and in remembrance booklets of Martyrs' Day, (19th July, 1947), the day he was assassinated along with U Aung San and seven other cabinet members and colleagues. Later in my twenties and thirties, I read the few available writings by U Razak, and articles written about him by his former students, and talked with people who knew him well. From this exposure, I learned about U Razak's deep love for Burma, his courage to fight for our country's independence, his respect for diversity, his desire for unity and his far-sighted wisdom. As a leader, his vision carried beyond our country and highlighted the principles of humanity, integrity, knowledge, courage, freedom and peace. The points U Razak, as Burma's Minister for Education and National Planning, emphasized in his 1947 speech at the First South East Asian Regional Conference of International Student Service in Madras, India, are still valid if not more pronounced in 2007. In times of intolerance and divisiveness, such as today, his vision and gentle yet persistent approach sought to unite diverse groups through education for the common goal of freedom and development should be referenced and explored further as we seek practical actions for long-lasting peace, security and prosperity..." CONTENTS: I. Preface; II. A Tribute to Sayagyi U Razak By Dr. Nyi Nyi; III. Freedom Movements As Peace Movements By Honorable U Razak; IV. The Burman Muslim Organization By A. Razak, B.A.; V. Translator's Note... 1. Sayagyi U Razak And Mandalay University By M.A. Ma Ohn; 2. Our Selfless Sayagyi By Colonel Khin Nyo; 3. Sayagyi Didn't Care For High Offices By U Saw Hla; 4. Our Sayagyi U Razak; By Thakin Chan Tun; 5. Affection Just As One Has For One's Mother By Pinnie; 6. A Partial Profile Of Sayagyi U Razak By Aung Kyi; 7. Just Like A Father By Thuriya Than Maung; 8. Our Marvellous Sayagyi By Maung Maung Mya; 9. In Fond Memory Of Sayagyi U Razak By Colonel Wai Lin; 10. Sayagyi U Razak And I By Theikpan Hmu Tin.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Private publisher
      Format/size: pdf (895K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.scribd.com/doc/19167977/Dr-Nyi-Nyi-U-Razak-of-Burma
      Date of entry/update: 18 July 2007


      Title: Burma’s National Hero and Martyr U Razak/ "မန္တလေးတွင်ထွန်းတောက်သော အစ္စလမ် ကြယ်ပွင့် များ"
      Date of publication: 1999
      Language: Burmese/ မြန်မာဘာသာ
      Source/publisher: မန္တလေးမြို့လုံးဆိုင်ရာ မဟာတမန်တော်နေ့ စိန်ရတုမဂ္ဂဇင်း
      Format/size: jpeg
      Alternate URLs: http://sanooaung.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/scan0001.jpg
      http://sanooaung.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/scan0002.jpg
      http://sanooaung.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/scan0003.jpg
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    • U Thant

      Individual Documents

      Title: Building a Nation
      Date of publication: February 1958
      Description/subject: "Today a whole new nation is being built in Burma — politically, socially, and economically. Part of the task is physical: to repair war damage and create enough industrial capacity to improve living standards and make out country self-sustaining; an even greater part is social and psychological: to educate a people long held down by colonialism in the ways of democracy and self-development. Because there is very little private capital in Burma, the major responsibility has inevitably fallen upon the Government. Its greatest efforts are now being applied to such fields as these..."
      Author/creator: U Thant
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The Atlantic
      Format/size: pdf
      Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


      Title: U Thant, Profile
      Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U_Thant
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Military History
    See also the Military/Tatmadaw Section

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Campaign
    Description/subject: "The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was fought primarily between British Commonwealth, Chinese and United States forces against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Commonwealth land forces were drawn primarily from British India. The Burmese Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against the British forces....Contents: 1 Japanese conquest of Burma: 1.1 Japanese advance to the Indian frontier; 1.2 Thai army enters Burma... 2 Allied setbacks, 1942–1943... 3 The Balance Shifts 1943–1944: 3.1 Allied plans; 3.2 Japanese plans; 3.3 Northern and Yunnan front 1943/44; 3.4 Southern front 1943/44... 4 The Japanese Invasion of India 1944... 5 The Allied Reoccupation of Burma 1944–1945: 5.1 Southern Front 1944/45; 5.2 Northern Front 1944/45; 5.3 Central Front 1944/45; 5.4 Race for Rangoon; 5.5 Operation Dracula... 6 Final operations... 7 Results... 8 See also... 9 Notes... 10 References... 11 Further reading... 12 External links: 12.1 Associations; 12.2 Museums; 12.3 Media; 12.4 Primary sources; 12.5 History.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: Burma Star Association
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Star Association
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Burma Campaign
    Description/subject: "Capt. Dinesh Hukmani's Military History Site" ..... These pages contain order of battle information for the Burma Campaign, 1941-1945, historical details and other items of interest.
    Author/creator: Capt. Dinesh Hukmani
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: WWII: China-Burma-India Theater of Operations
    Description/subject: This site covers various aspects of the WWII campaigns in Burma, largely from a US military perspective. Chronological account, in cluding # Burma, 1942: 7 December 1941--26 May 1942 # India-Burma: 2 April 1942--28 January 1945 # Central Burma: 29 January--15 July 1945 as well as maps, bibliographies, photographs.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: HyperWar Foundation
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Constructing an intelligence state: the development of the colonial security services in Burma 1930–1942.
    Date of publication: January 2010
    Description/subject: Abstract: "My doctoral research focuses on the development and operation of the intelligence services in British colonial Burma during the years 1930 to 1942. This involves an examination of the causes of intelligence development, its progress throughout 1930-1942, its rationale and modus operandi, and the pressures it faced. This time period permits us to assess how intelligence development was a product of the colonial government's response to the 1930 peasant uprising which came as such a shock to colonial security and how thereafter intelligence helped prevent popular hostility to the government from taking the form of an uprising. As a result, intelligence information was increasingly used to secure colonial power during the period of parliamentary reform in Burma in 1937. The thesis further examines the stresses that riots and strikes placed on colonial security in 1938, the so-called ‘year of revolution’ in Burma. The thesis then proceeds to consider how intelligence operated in the final years of colonial rule before the Japanese occupation of Burma in 1942. This study is significant not only because very little work on the colonial security services in Burma exists for the period under review, but also because it reveals that intelligence was crucial to colonial rule, underpinning the stability of the colonial state and informing its relationship with the indigenous population in what remained, in relative terms at least, a colonial backwater like Burma. The argument that intelligence was pivotal to colonial governmental stability in Burma because of its centrality to strategies of population control departs from conventional histories of Burma which have considered the colonial army to have been the predominant instrument of political control and the most significant factor in the relationship between the state and society in colonial Burma. Rather it will be argued here that the colonial state in Burma relied on a functioning intelligence bureau which collected information from local indigenous officials and informers and employed secret agents to work on its behalf. This information was collated into reports for the government which then became integral to policy formulation. The primary source base for this work includes British colonial material from government and private collections predominantly in the British library as well as government papers in the National Archives in Kew."
    Author/creator: Edmund Bede Clipson
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: University of Exeter (doctoral dissertation)
    Format/size: pdf (2MB-OBL version; 12MB-original))
    Alternate URLs: https://eric.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10036/98382/ClipsonE.pdf?sequence=1
    Date of entry/update: 01 July 2012


    Title: Heroes and Villains
    Date of publication: March 2007
    Description/subject: "When the soldiers of the Burma Independence Army, led by the Thirty Comrades, infiltrated Burma from neighboring Thailand in a brave action to oust the British, the modern history of the Burmese armed forces was born. The fragile, inexperienced and ill-equipped army had faced many ups and downs in Burma’s often turbulent political history. A year before independence in 1948, Aung San, the founder of the BIA and Burma’s independence hero, was gunned down by rivals, aided by British army officers. The country descended into turmoil and civil war. The legendary Thirty Comrades were also divided, dominated by two political factions. Gen Ne Win led and united the army, while his comrades went into hiding in the jungle, joining “multi-color insurgent groups” aiming to topple the government. Ne Win, also a prominent member of the Thirty Comrades, o­nce proudly said that the Burmese army was founded by farmers, workers and other people of Burma, not by mercenaries. But he later fell victim of his own words, when he quelled street protests and dissent in the country by ordering troops to shoot and kill just to prolong his rule. So it’s no surprise to hear Burmese people saying that the armed forces were Ne Win’s pocket army. When the country was rocked by nationwide protests in 1988, Ne Win warned the nation in a state television address: “If in future there are mob disturbances, if the army shoots, it hits—there is no firing into the air to scare.” Historians note that Ne Win and Aung San had entirely different views o­n the army, with the latter wanting to steer it away from politics. Thus, throughout the history of the army, we have learned that things are not black and white. There are military leaders who adhered to the wishes of the people and sided with them. Burmese will definitely remember and admire them. In this issue, we have singled out a number of the country’s fine, professional soldiers who were admired by the people. There are many more unnamed and unknown heroes who sacrificed themselves for the country and its people—too many for us to name all. We have also chosen some military leaders who have stubbornly stuck to their guns, driving the country into limbo. They definitely fall into the category of the villainous. However, all in all, we hope you will enjoy this special feature, marking the 62nd anniversary of Burma’s Resistance Day, now officially called Armed Forces Day..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


    Title: Notes on Cavalry Employed in Upper Burma From October 1886 to October 1887
    Date of publication: 1889
    Description/subject: Editor’s Note: Colonel Heyland’s observations on army horses and cavalry regiments in the final stages of the Third Anglo-Burmese War was originally published as a chapter (XVII) in History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887, in 1889. The organization of transport and mobile field forces was a significant problem for British forces in the early months of the war. In December 1885, for example: “[S]ome 199 royal elephants and 300 ponies from the Manipur Cavalry in Mandalay were brought into the Transport Department of the Field Force, but of these half the elephants were without mahouts or only half trained, and half of the ponies were unserviceable.
    Author/creator: Colonel Heyland 1st Bo. Lancers
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887 via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
    Format/size: pdf (388K)
    Alternate URLs: http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/10213/
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


    Title: NARRATIVE OF THE BURMESE WAR, DETAILING THE OPERATIONS OF MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL'S ARMY, FROM ITS LANDING AT RANGOON IN MAY 1824, TO THE.CONCLUSION OF A TREATY OF PEACE AT YANDABOO, IN FEBRUARY 1826.
    Date of publication: 1827
    Description/subject: CONTENTS: . CHAPTER I. Junction of the combined forces from Bengal and Madras, at Port Cornwallis—Capture of Rangoon, and release of the British and Americans, who were made prisoners by the enemy….. CHAPTER II. Description of Rangoon, and the situation of the Army after landing there ….. CHAPTER III. State and position of the Burmese forces at the period of our landing in Pegu, and exertions of the court of Ava in calling out the military resources of the country—First encounter with the Burmese troops….. CHAPTER IV. Arrival at Rangoon of two Deputies from the Burmese camp—Continuation of the military operations, and situation of the army up to the first of July….. CHAPTER V. Feeble attack of the enemy on the British lines—Attack and capture of his fortified camp at Kummeroot — Expedition sent against Mergui and Tavoy on the Coast of Tenasserim….. CHAPTER VI. The King's two brothers, the Princes of Tonghoo and Sarrawaddy, with Astrologers, and a corps of Invulnerables, join the army—Operations of the British Force up to the end of August….. CHAPTER VII. Recal of Maha Bandoola and the Burmese army from Arracan—Continuation of hostilities at Rangoon— Their effect upon the court of Ava….. CHAPTER VIII. Friendly assurances of the Siamese—Their preparations for war, and probable line of policy—Capture of Martaban and Yeh….. CHAPTER IX. State of the force at the conclusion of the rains— Reinforcements and equipment for taking the field sent from India—Approach of the grand army under Maha Bandoola….. CHAPTER X. Actions in front of Rangoon, from the first to the seventh of December….. CHAPTER XI. Attack on the enemy's fortified camp at Kokeen.on the 15th December, and his final retreat to Donoobew….. CHAPTER XII. Plan of operations—Force equipped for field service….. CHAPTER XIII. Journal of the march from Rangoon to Donoohew….. CHAPTER XIV. Operations before Donoohew—Its evacuation by the enemy—Journal of the march to Prome….. CHAPTER XV. March of a detachment towards Tonghoo, and close of the Campaign….. CHAPTER XVL Winter-quarters at Prome—State of the country— Conduct of the inhabitants; with some remarks on their character and government….. CHAPTER XVII. Renewed exertions of the Burmese, government, in preparations for the prosecution of the war—Meeting of the British and Burmese Commissioners at Neoun-ben zeik, and their ineffectual efforts to conclude a peace….. CHAPTER XVIII. Strength and position of the British and Burmese armies—Defeat of the enemy in front of Prome ….. CHAPTER XIX. Preparations for an advance'upon Ava—Plan of the campaign….. CHAPTER XX. Journal of the march from Prome to Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXI. Conclusion of a treaty of peace—Is not ratified by the king—And the Burmese army, in consequence, is again defeated, and driven from Melloone ….. CHAPTER XXII. Continuation of the march upon Ava—Renewal of negotiations—Battle of Fagahm-mew—Conclusion of a definitive treaty of peace.... CHAPTER XXIII. Concluding Remarks.... APPENDIX......N.B. THE GOOGLE NOTE, PAGES AND COVERS PRECEEDING THE TITLE PAGE HAVE BEEN MOVED TO THE END OF THE TEXT. FOR THE ORIGINAL ORDER, SEE THE ALTERNATE URL.
    Author/creator: MAJOR JOHN JAMES SNODGRASS,
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: JOHN MURRAY via Google Books
    Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://books.google.com/books?id=NYs2AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Burmese&as_brr=1#PPR3,M1 (pdf 10MB)
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008


    Title: The China-Burma-India Theater
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: China-Burma-India WWII
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


  • Regional/Border History

    • Burmese-Thai history

      Individual Documents

      Title: Ayutthaya and the End of History
      Date of publication: August 2000
      Description/subject: Thai views of Burma revisited... The spectre of Ayutthaya and a century of nation-building still cast long shadows over Thailand's perception of its neighbor, even as the notion of the nation-state faces obsolescence in the global marketplace.
      Author/creator: Min Zin/Chiang Mai
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Social and Cultural History

    Individual Documents

    Title: The Cult of the 'Thirty-Seven Lords'
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "The cult of the 'Thirty-Seven Lords', known in Burma as the thirty-seven 'naq' is commonly viewed as being a remnant of practices prevalent before Buddhicization, that is to say, as superstitions having their origins in the obscure period predating the establishment of Burmese civilization. This article will argue against this assumption and will assert that this cult cannot be properly understood if it is not considered as a part of the Burmese religious system still evolving with Buddhist society. The socio-religious structure of the 'naq' cult shows that it is neither a pre-Buddhist remnant, nor is it borrowed from India. Close analysis of the actual cult, of its legends of foundation, and of the historical evidence, clearly shows that it is a construct of Burmese Buddhist kings or, in other words, a produce of the localization of Buddhism in Burma..."
    Author/creator: Benedicte Brac de la Perriere
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Strangers in a Changed Land
    Date of publication: April 2001
    Description/subject: "Returning to Burma after a four-year absence, a visitor discovers that change has brought only a deepened sense of estrangement, not optimism, to ordinary Burmese..."
    Author/creator: Thalia Isaak
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Soul of a People
    Date of publication: 1899
    Description/subject: "For the first few years of my stay in Burma my life was so full of excitement that I had little care or time for any thought but of to-day. There was, first of all, my few months in Upper Burma in the King's time before the war, months which were full of danger and the exhilaration of danger, when all the surroundings were too new and too curious to leave leisure for examination beneath the surface. Then came the flight from Upper Burma at the time of the war, and then the war itself. And this war lasted four years. Not four years of fighting in Burma proper, for most of the Irrawaddy valley was peaceful enough by the end of 1889; but as the central parts quieted down, I was sent to the frontier, first on the North and then on the East by the Chin mountains; so that it was not until 1890 that a[Pg 2] transfer to a more settled part gave me quiet and opportunity for consideration of all I had seen and known. For it was in those years that I gained most of whatever little knowledge I have of the Burmese people..."
    Author/creator: H. Fielding
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Macmillan and Co. Ltd. via Project Gutenberg
    Format/size: text/html (191K) 350 pages
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2010