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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma: agreements and statements

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Ethnic groups in Burma: agreements and statements

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: The Panglong Conference - Wikipedia page
Description/subject: Includes a lot of reference llinks
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2008


Individual Documents

Title: Burma's Ethnic Ceasefire Agreements (Burmese)
Date of publication: 31 January 2012
Description/subject: "Since implementing recent political reforms, the Thein Sein government has attempted to make a number of state level ceasefire agreements with both previous ceasefire groups and other anti-government forces. On the 13 January 2012, the Burmese government signed an intial peace agreement with the Karen National Union. The agreement, the third such agreement with ethnic opposition forces within two month, signals a radical change in how previous Burmese governments have dealt with ethnic grievences. Up until the recent negotiations and the outbreak of hostilities in Kachin State, there had been three main ethnic groups with armies fighting against the government. These armies are the Karen National Liberation Army, which has between three and four thousand troops, the Shan State Army – South, which has between six and seven thousand troops, and the Karenni Army, fielding between eight hundred to fifteen hundred troops. In addition to the three main groups there are also the Chin National Front (Chin National Army) with approximately two hundred troops3 and the Arakan Liberation Army with roughly one hundred troops.4 Under previous military regimes, the ethnic question had been dealt with as a military matter and not as a political or constitutional issue. Consequently, the failure of the Burmese government to recognize the true nature of the ethnic struggle resulted in constant civil war. As a result, over a hundred and fifty thousand refugees have been forced to shelter in neighbouring countries due to a conflict that has been charecterized by it myriad human rights abuses. Recent negotiations have changed significantly due to the fact that the Thein Sein government has dropped a number of requirements that previous regimes had made in relation to setting conditions for talks. One of the most important was the fact that a ceasefire must be agreed to prior to discussions taking place. Recent talks have taken place without this condition and unlike previous attempts at peace the Burmese authorities have not demanded weapons to be surrendered first. Another previous condition was the insistence that all talks must take place inside Burma. This was also recently negated with exploratory talks taking place in Thailand with the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army – South (RCSS/SSA), The Chin National Front (CNF) and the Karen National Union (KNU) and also in China with the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO). According to media reports5 the Burmese government has set the following conditions in relation to conducting agreements with the ethnic groups:..."
Author/creator: Paul Keenan
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 1)
Format/size: pdf (184K)
Date of entry/update: 07 February 2012


Title: Burma’s Ethnic Ceasefire Agreements (English)
Date of publication: 31 January 2012
Description/subject: "Since implementing recent political reforms, the Thein Sein government has attempted to make a number of state level ceasefire agreements with both previous ceasefire groups and other anti-government forces. On the 13 January 2012, the Burmese government signed an intial peace agreement with the Karen National Union. The agreement, the third such agreement with ethnic opposition forces within two month, signals a radical change in how previous Burmese governments have dealt with ethnic grievences. Up until the recent negotiations and the outbreak of hostilities in Kachin State, there had been three main ethnic groups with armies fighting against the government. These armies are the Karen National Liberation Army, which has between three and four thousand troops, the Shan State Army – South, which has between six and seven thousand troops, and the Karenni Army, fielding between eight hundred to fifteen hundred troops. In addition to the three main groups there are also the Chin National Front (Chin National Army) with approximately two hundred troops3 and the Arakan Liberation Army with roughly one hundred troops.4 Under previous military regimes, the ethnic question had been dealt with as a military matter and not as a political or constitutional issue. Consequently, the failure of the Burmese government to recognize the true nature of the ethnic struggle resulted in constant civil war. As a result, over a hundred and fifty thousand refugees have been forced to shelter in neighbouring countries due to a conflict that has been charecterized by it myriad human rights abuses. Recent negotiations have changed significantly due to the fact that the Thein Sein government has dropped a number of requirements that previous regimes had made in relation to setting conditions for talks. One of the most important was the fact that a ceasefire must be agreed to prior to discussions taking place. Recent talks have taken place without this condition and unlike previous attempts at peace the Burmese authorities have not demanded weapons to be surrendered first. Another previous condition was the insistence that all talks must take place inside Burma. This was also recently negated with exploratory talks taking place in Thailand with the Restoration Council of Shan State/Shan State Army – South (RCSS/SSA), The Chin National Front (CNF) and the Karen National Union (KNU) and also in China with the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO). According to media reports5 the Burmese government has set the following conditions in relation to conducting agreements with the ethnic groups:..."
Author/creator: Paul Keenan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Peace and Reconciliation (Briefing Paper No. 1 January 2012)
Format/size: pdf (558K)
Date of entry/update: 31 January 2012


Title: Mae Tha Raw Tha Statement and Agreement
Date of publication: 14 January 1997
Description/subject: "We, the ethnic nationalities of the Union of Burma held a seminar from January 7 to 14, 1997 at Mae Tha Raw Hta in the base area of the Karen National Union (KNU). The seminar was attended by 111 delegates and observers from the ethnic nationality organizations mentioned below...we unanimously adopted and affirmed the resolutions as follows...We, leaders of Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen Karenni, Mon, Pa-O, Palaung, Lahu, Shan and Wa ethnic nationalities, representing the various organizations as well as the nationalities, attended the seminar held from January 7 to 14, 1997 at Mae Tha Raw Hta in Kawthoolei. We, leaders of nationalities mentioned above, after frank and cordial discussions in depth, have agreed upon the following terms..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Seminar (Mae Tha Raw Hta)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Panglong Agreement, 1947
Date of publication: 12 February 1947
Description/subject: Text of the Agreement signed at Panglong on the 12th February, 1947 by Shan, Kachin and Chin leaders, and by representatives of the Executive Council of the Governor of Burma.
Language: English
Source/publisher: India Office Records M/4/2811
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003