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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Shan (cultural, political, historical) > Shan (cultural, historical, political) articles

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Shan (cultural, historical, political) articles

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "Shan Herald Agency for News" (S.H.A.N.)
Description/subject: Versions in Shan, English, Chinese, Thai and Burmese Archive back to 1994.
Language: Shan, English, Chinese, Thai and Burmese
Source/publisher: S.H.A.N.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: https://web-beta.archive.org/web/20090210190554/shanland.org (old version, via archive.org)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Freunde der Shan/Friends of Shan
Description/subject: Übersetzung wichtiger Berichte von SWAN/SHRF Hintergrundinformationen über Geschichte, Geographie, Kultur und einer Reihe zusätzlicher Links. This site carries a German translations of the important SWAN/SHRF reports, "License to Rape" - "Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung", plus a couple of related articles, and will no doubt have more in the future.
Language: Deutsch, German (+some English)
Alternate URLs: http://archive.is/http://friends-of-shan.de/
http://www.friends-of-shan.de/
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: FSSN: Forum of Shan State Nationalities
Description/subject: " This is an open discussion forum of "Nationalities of Shan State". Here, we might be discussion on various topic on the affairs of Shan State. Aim of this Dicussion Group : - * To Cooperate and build strong relationship within Ethnic Nationalities of Shan State in the ground of Politics, Social and Culture. * To restore Federal Democracy in Burma as well as self-determination in Shan State. * To promote Nationalities of Shan State in any ground in order to equalize with other Nationalities of Burma. * To help the people participation in Constitution making process of Shan State."... NEWS
Language: English
Source/publisher: FSSN
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 December 2005


Title: Shanland
Description/subject: Contains pages from the Shan Human Rights Foundation, Shan Herald Agency for News, Shan State Army, The Shan Democratic Union. Lots of historical and constitutional docs on the site
Language: English
Alternate URLs: http://english.panglong.org/page/15/?author=0
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VL-chnoPE5o
http://www.shanland.org
http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/index.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: Cross-border Migration and Revitalization of Shan Buddhist Practices in Myanmar-Thai Border Area
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This presentation aims to examine how the new Shan migrants help revitalize Shan Buddhist practices in Myanmar-Thai border area in Northern Thailand. This area has a long history of the ceaseless migrations of the Shan and other ethnic groups; the flow of people has continued even after the border demarcation in the early 20th century. Recently, we could find two contradictory processes- a rigid border control by the state administration and a fluid border crossing of people, goods and information. The border crossing of people may be characterized by a one-way flow from Myanmar to Thailand and its steady increase in quantity. By focusing on the flow of Shan lay Buddhist readers/reciters in Mae Hong Son, the northern Thai-Myanmar border area, this presentation analyzes the important role of the border crossing migrations for revitalizing Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand."...Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tadayoshi Murakami
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (88K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Gender Gap and Women’s Political Participation in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Women's political participation and representation vary dramatically within and between countries. This paper selectively reviews the literature on gender gap and women's participation in politics, focusing on women's formal political participation particularly from 2010 general election in Burma/Myanmar. The paper discusses, however, various barriers and challenges including traditional, religion, lack of education, experience in public discussion, participation and more importantly the military drafted 2008 constitution for women's political participation and representation in Burma/Myanmar. It also explains significance of women's political participation as well as the role of international mechanisms and gender quotas particularly the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Electoral Quotas System for empowering women’s participation in politics. Then, it explores the gap between the 2008 Constitution and the CEDAW standards. Throughout the review, the paper demonstrates a very low level of women's political participation from secondary data as well as in-­‐depth interviewed with women parliamentarians explained the challenges and difficulties for women participation in politics of decision-­‐making. It also reveals the most common mechanism for increasing women’s political participation-­‐quotas and in order to have an effective the gender electoral quotas system it is explicitly important both men and women attend training and skills development. Importantly, the paper also asks what degree and under what conditions elected women actually do represent women and contribute to gender equality, democracy and whether women are distinctive—does having more women in office make a difference to public policy?".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sang Hnin Lian
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (181K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Heritage Conservation of Historic Built Environment in Pyin-­Oo-­Lwin Town, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin has the high quality built environment of the area, with its wealth of historic buildings, conservation areas and historic monuments, represents an important social, cultural, recreational and educational resource as well as helping to make it an appealing place to live, work and visit. This research is focus on conserving of the historic buildings and its surrounding environments in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. As there is physical degradation because of the impact of urban development, the conservation of these areas will include their development and harmonious adaption to contemporary life‟ (UNESCO 1987). During 19th Century, British made well plan with impeccable signs of urban planning and local architecture and built the many famous buildings in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. These colonial buildings are standing now as heritage buildings and structures so that targeting conservation resources towards particularly vulnerable group of sites and environments. Because of elevation, situation, climate and verdant environment, it be comes prominent as a famous highland town. In urban areas, increased attention must be paid by the institutions for its conservation; new issues have to be addressed, due to the dramatic changes occurring. It suffers from physical and functional decay and seems to have been seriously affected by inconsistent development. The historic architectural and urban features of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin deserve a careful survey and assessment, in order to be protected as a substantial part of Myanmar heritage. It involves actively caring for the heritage, maintaining it in good physical condition, making it readily accessible for study, enjoyment, recreation, and tourism. In this research, it is thoroughly documented the existing conditions of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town and identified the possible heritage areas to be conserved with the development of this town. Then, the study on the principles and methods of conservation and criteria for conservation are presented as literature study to support this research. Finally, this research intends to give general guidelines for existing historic buildings and new buildings built harmoniously in the environment and to create encouragement and promote heritage awareness on historic built form of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin Town.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Than Htay Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Kyaing Tong in Transition (c.1850 -­‐1950)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Kyaing Tong is the largest and oldest state of Trans -­‐ Than Lwin Region. It is known in history with such variety of names as Gon (Khun) (Than Tun, 2004), Kom, Kyaing Tong (Hman-­‐nan, 2008), Khema Vara and Khema Rahta Jayajotitonkarapur (Scott and Hardiman, 1901). The first people who migrated into Kyaing Tong were Wa or La-­‐wa. They also settled in the other areas of eastern Shan States and Lan Na in northern Thailand (Conway, 2006). There were followed by Gon (Khun) and Lu people. The date of the migration of these people is attributed to the early first millennium AD even though local chronicles mentions the date of early settlements to twelfth century AD (Mangrai, 1981). Later the ethnic group from the neighbouring states of Thailand and Laos comprising Tai Hkun; Tai Lu, Tai Lem, Tai Neu, Tai Yuan, Tai Lao and Tai Htai came to settle in the Trans-­‐Thanlwin Region including Kyaing Tong area (Sai Aung Tun, 2009). They established communities which later developed chiefs known as saophas or sawbwas (in Myanmar) which means lord of the sky. A legend says that Kyaing Tong was firstly founded by a hermit named Tong. The state therefore was named after its founder Keng Tong or Kyaing Tong. However Kyaing Tong chronicle mentions that the first two sawbwas of Kyaing Tong; Mang Kom and Mang Yè belonged to Wa Tribe. They were replaced by Khun sawbwas who ruled the region from the mid-­‐thirteenth century A.D to 1959 when sawbwas relinquished their autonomous rule (Than Tun, 2004).".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Soe Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (180K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Warlords ’ s Learning Curve: A Case Study of the Pa-O Self Administrated Zone
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "With 135 ethnic groups divided into eight major national ethnic races,1 Myanmar2 is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. The Panglong Agreement in 1947 tried to set the path for the integration of these nationals into one state. However, with the assassination of the architect of the Panglong Conference General Aung San and the subsequent military takeover of the country, the curtain of ethnic struggles was drawn. Among ethnic groups fighting for their self-adetermination is the Pa-O3. The research focused on the period from 1988 to 2012 because this is the period when most of the ceasefire agreements were signed, which allowed some forms of law and order to return to the local community. The research methodology is mainly qualitative, using. Yet, amid the chaos after the democracy movement in 1988, the military regime managed to sign over 20 ceasefire agreements with various armed groups, among them were with the Pa-O National Organization (PNO) and the Shan State Nationalit ies People’s Liberation Organization (SSNPLO). PNO agreed to ceasefire in 1991 and SSNPLO followed in 1994. Therefore, theoretically, the Pa-O area has been pacified since the 1990s. Indeed, the Pa-O populated region known as Area 6 was granted the status of Self Administrated Zone (SAZ) in 2011. This paper attempts to look into what ceasefire means to the Pa-O people from the perspective of the development of the political economy in the SAZ. Developing on the theory put forward by Mancur Olson (Olson, 2000) that a stationary bandit should provide better development prospects to the local people than a roving bandit, this paper argues that the benevolence of the stationary bandit is not given per se, it needs competition to bring it forward. Since signing the ceasefire agreement and receiving lucrative economic concessions from the central government, the PNO have effectively become a stationary bandit with an informal mandate to rule over the Pa-O area. In a way agreeing with Charles Tilly (Tilly, 1985) that the state is no different from the Mafia, in that they both tax their people in return for providing protection, Olson argued that a roving bandit will only concern about h is short-term gains whereas a stationary bandit will actually try to provide genuine development for the people in order to perpetuate the control over the area. Effectively, the PNO have become a stationary bandit after signing the ceasefire agreement, bu t whether they have performed their duties like Olson has predicted is the subject of this investigation...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ricky Yue
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (131K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2015


Title: Myanmar's long road to peace
Date of publication: 02 March 2014
Description/subject: "Despite a ceasefire signed in 2011, clashes continue between ethnic Shan rebels and government troops....Like many other armed ethnic groups, the SSA-S signed a ceasefire after Myanmar transitioned to a nominally civilian government in 2011. Deadly clashes between SSA-S forces and the Myanmar military, however, continue despite the agreement. Accordingly, Myanmar's government is pushing the country's armed ethnic groups to sign a new nationwide ceasefire this year..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


Title: Die Tai des Shan Staats
Date of publication: 22 June 2007
Description/subject: Obgleich der Shan Staat geographisch betrachtet zu Burma gehört, unterscheiden sich die Shan im Hinblick auf ihre Abstammung und Sprache von den anderen Bevölkerungsgruppen in diesem Land. So stammen beispielsweise die Mon und die Burmesen von Bevölkerungsgruppen ab, die einst aus der tibetischen Hochebene eingewandert waren, während die Shan - d.h. die heutigen Tai - und Laoten von den Tai abstammen. The Tai of the Shan-State;
Author/creator: Nel Adams (alias Sao Noan Oo)
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Burma Riders / Freunde der Shan
Format/size: html (23kb)
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


Title: A Shan Kaleidoscope - a review of "The Shan: Culture, Art and Crafts"
Date of publication: March 2007
Description/subject: The Shan: Culture, Art and Crafts, by Susan Conway. River Books, Bangkok, 2006. P212... Factual errors fail to mar a beautiful book about a Burmese ethnic minority culture... "This is the ideal book for anyone interested in Shan textiles, paintings and architecture. It also contains a wealth of unique historical photographs, many taken at the turn of the last century. Susan Conway, a research associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, has done a wonderful job presenting traditional Shan art and culture, and the outcome is a beautiful, coffee-table-style book, which in many ways is the first of its kind about the Shan peoples of upper and northeastern Burma. The book covers Shan history, princes and palaces, arts, crafts and even trade, and it contains detailed descriptions of Shan male and female dress and textile patterns..."
Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 May 2008


Title: The Politics of Representation
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Media has helped bridge the gap between ethnic cousins the Thais and Burma's Shan minority, but old suspicions linger on
Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


Title: Boom Town Spectacular
Date of publication: February 2006
Description/subject: The China/Burma border town where a minority rules... "...Thousands of Shan people are packed into the temple grounds, singing at a volume so intense, that the notes reverberate through the nearby hills...It’s the Shan New Year celebration and I am in Muse, across from the Chinese town of Ruili, on the famous Burma Road. Like many border towns, it’s a strange place full of trading houses, karaoke joints and brothels. It is also the most important border crossing between Burma and China..."
Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Uncertainty Reigns in Shan State
Date of publication: November 2005
Description/subject: Conflicting claims, suspicion and arrests create confusion... "Although the Rangoon regime insists that Shan State is stable, one armed opposition group, the Shan State Army (South), continues to hold out against government pressure to disarm. Relations between Shan groups and the regime are also strained because of the arrest in February of several ethnic leaders, including 82-year-old activist Shwe Ohn. Complicating the situation still further in Shan State is the status of the United Wa State Army, which maintains a de facto ceasefire with the regime while allegedly continuing to engage in a drugs trade protected by their own armed forces. The first ceasefire agreements between Shan ethnic groups and the regime were signed in 1989. The original agreements granted the groups business concessions, particularly in logging, and tax collection autonomy. They also allowed the groups to remain armed—but from early this year the regime has been pressing them to disarm under a program dubbed “Exchange Arms for Peace.”..."
Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: Mobile Identity
Date of publication: October 2005
Description/subject: Modern technology is helping keep Shan tradition alive... "When Sai Lek, an ethnic Shan living in Chiang Mai, bought his first mobile phone—an outdated, oversized Nokia—he wasn’t too bothered about it being cutting edge. Practicality was the key: if life in Burma can go on without a mobile phone, it’s a different story in Thailand, where mobile communication is not just de rigueur, it’s a way of life. So, it was something of an irony to discover that this portable symbol of freedom and prosperity could actually be used as a tool to preserve, of all things, Shan identity. While the default languages on Sai Lek’s phone were the standard Thai and English, he soon discovered that by using the drawing function, he could reproduce the entire Shan alphabet..."
Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung- "Licence to rape"
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: Deutsche Übersetzung des Artikels "Licence to rape" Die in Nordthailand im Exil ansässige Menschenrechtsorganisation "Shan Women's Action Network" (SWAN) erstellte im Mai 2002 einen umfassenden und detaillierten Bericht über die weitverbreitete Anwendung sexueller Gewalt gegen Frauen und Mädchen im Shan Staat (im Nordosten des burmesischen Staatsgebiets). Dieser Bericht trägt den schockierenden Titel: "License to Rape" - Lizenz zur Vergewaltigung Der Report belegt detailliert, dass das burmesische Militär in systematischer Weise Vergewaltigungen als Mittel der Kriegsführung gegen das Volk der Shan benutzt Inhalt Vergewaltigung als "Kriegswaffe" geduldet Militarisierung verursacht zunehmende Gefährdung durch Vergewaltigung Zwangsarbeit Die Überlebenden Sexuelle Gewalt als internationales Verbrechen
Author/creator: Shan Herald Agency for News- Deutsche Übersetzung: Freunde der Shan
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Freunde der Shan
Format/size: HTML
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2006


Title: Raising the Setting Sun
Date of publication: June 2000
Description/subject: Shan State has played a pivotal role in Burma's modern political history, but its culture and people have been under siege since the spirit of the historic Panglong Agreement was killed along with Aung San and other assassinated independence leaders in 1947, writes Irrawaddy culture editor Min Zin. Once known as the "land of the Sunset Kings", the homeland of the Shan is now struggling to emerge from the shadow of Burmese cultural hegemony.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol.8. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Shan States of Burma: Toyotas, Traders and Tribes
Date of publication: 01 March 1999
Description/subject: Article -- travelling in Shan State. Photos
Author/creator: Leslie Nevison
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Things Asian"
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: KANBAWSA --- A MODERN REVIEW -- Articles on Shan State
Date of publication: 1955
Description/subject: Originally published as "28 articles on the Shan States of Burma in the newspaper "Nation" in the early 1950s. It was a unique time in the history of the Shan States --- Burma had just gained independence, and in the process the Shans, represented by their various chiefs, or Sawbwas, had willingly formed a union with the rest of Burma. However, unlike the rest of democratic Burma, the Shan States were still ruled by the Sawbwas just as in the days of British rule, and even before that, as in the days of the Burmese Kings. But this was just a brief period, for by 1958, the Sawbwas had relinquished their powers."...Preface; Introduction; Kentung; Hsipaw; Hsenwi; Tasungpeng; Mongmit, South Hsenwi & the Rest of the North; The Central and True Shan States; Mognai and the Southeast; Three River Valleys...and Nine States; Yawnghwe; The Myelat Area...The Alternate URL contains the original division into 28 articles. The main URL is to a version which brings them into a single document -- easier for reading and printing out. The date of publication I have given is as near as I could get to "the 1950s"
Author/creator: Mi Mi Khaing.
Language: English
Format/size: html (243K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/seasia/xshan.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003