|Title:|| ||Institutional Models for a Future Recognition and Registration of Customary (Communal) Tenure in Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY, The World Bank - Washington DC, March 14-18, 2016
The paper is based on the study on customary tenure for LCG in Chin and Shan States 2013-2015 in brief periods. The relevance of the topic was grounded in a wish to 1) identify statutory means to protect the livelihood of ethnic upland communities in Myanmar from losing, in particular, their shifting cultivation fallow land to agribusiness concessions; 2) based on results from fieldwork, to guide the Government towards recognizing customary (communal) tenure in the drafting of the National Land Use Policy (NLUP) with the ultimate aim of recommending procedures for customary (communal) land registration in a future new Land Law and associated Rules 3); to define how to recognize boundaries of shifting cultivation parcels in a customary system of fair but variable annual local land sharing.
"... In Myanmar land issues are of paramount importance after years of land grabbing by the military and business cronies. A rapid anthropological study 2013-14 in Chin and Shan State for the Land Core Group was carried out to inform the post 2011 government. The study recorded the internal rules of customary communal tenure and identified possible statutory means of protecting untitled land, including fallows, against alienation. The Land Core Group guided the Government Committee during 2014-15 to recognize customary tenure in drafting of the National Land Use Policy, not yet endorsed. The study recommended conversion of the community into a legal entity/organization registering all its agricultural land, while keeping separate and intact its customary internal rules. The study construed a reading of existing regulatory framework in support. The study proved, though, that precise mapping of large tracts of shifting cultivation land is difficult due to annual diversity of fuzzy boundaries...
Key Words: land rights, communal tenure, mapping, land registration, indigenous peoples..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Kirsten Ewers Andersen|
|Source/publisher:|| ||The World Bank|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1.4MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||11 April 2016|
|Title:|| ||Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
|Date of publication:|| ||23 February 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar
marked a historic milestone in the country’s political
and economic transition that began in 2011.
Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the
baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for
a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series
of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote
dialogue on critical development challenges and
on options for policies and reforms that can contribute
to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar.
Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential.
Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the
past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought
in new investments, and increased productivity from
a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s
economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per
year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable
to other high performing countries in their initial
phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further
removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to
maintain a strong pace of growth.
Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring
that growth is also inclusive. This not only means
sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so
through a diversified economy that can absorb the
labor force into higher productivity sectors. The
agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity,
contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual
real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over
half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and
construction sectors on the other hand, which have
the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only
10-15 percent of the labor force.
Policies that can enable a structural shift to more
productive and labor intensive activities could make
a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar.
These would include expanding access to essential
public services. This could enable a bigger share of
the population to benefit from the agglomeration of
economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles,
namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for
roughly 35 percent of national GDP.
The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural
resource wealth are also critical to inclusive
growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP
is derived from natural resources, though some estimate
unofficial trade in natural resources at more than
20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates
wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands
of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created
vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and
Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote
inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s
people can take advantage of new opportunities
and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections
from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural
resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize
public spending towards critical economic and social
service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment
liberalization have opened up economic opportunities
and the space for investment beyond a small group of
highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency
and decentralization have started to gradually
bring the state closer to the people.
Given this context, how can Myanmar advance
reforms to close the disparities across its geography,
ethnic communities, and income groups; and to
promote productivity and competitiveness? This is
the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard!
Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to
generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is
meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on
a positive journey.
The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas
that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity
(figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access
to social services for improving Myanmar’s human
development outcomes. This could help to strengthen
the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current
and future labor force, which is the critical input to
inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all
the other areas. The second policy note is on growing
together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies
to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the
delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they
lag the most, could help to supply the much needed
labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial,
manufacturing and service sectors.
Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely
to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness
and a dynamic environment for private
sector growth across the country, which are discussed
in the third policy note. These include policies that are
targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and
engaging in international trade. The relative impact
of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing
private sector investments, expanding access to economic
opportunities for rural and urban populations,
and diversifying the sources of growth.
Enabling these to drive major structural transformations
in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two
important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks
at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the
future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial
system. This is important not only for channeling savings
to large private investments, but also to finance public
sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the
expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer
of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy
note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to
sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy
will need more energy than is currently supplied – not
only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of
public services across the country."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Habib Rab + team|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)|
|Source/publisher:|| ||World Bank|
|Format/size:|| ||html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
|Date of entry/update:|| ||01 March 2016|
|Title:|| ||MYANMAR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK: Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options
|Date of publication:|| ||2014|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents
between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the
labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or
depend on agriculture for their income. Moreover, it is estimated that agriculture products
generate between 25 and 30 percent of total export earnings. Given agriculture’s important
contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the
economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar.
Looking forward, Myanmar’s agricultural potential is enormous given the country’s rich natu-
ral resources and favorable geographical location. Myanmar’s diverse topography, climates,
water resources, and eco-systems offer farmers and investors the opportunity to produce a
wide range of cereals, pulses, horticultural products, fruits, livestock, and fish. Because of its
strategic location between the two enormous regional markets of India and China, and easy
access to buoyant markets in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),
Myanmar’s agriculture sector is well positioned to grow, develop a dynamic agribusiness
industry, and provide people with the opportunity to improve their living standards......
1.Diagnostic of MADB:
1.1 Overview of the Agriculture Sector and the Role of MADB...
1.2 MABD’s Mission and Policy Mandate...
1.3 Lending Operations:
Seasonal Crop Production Loan (SCPL) and Term Loan (TL),
Breakdown of the Loan Portfolio,
Loan Amount per Farmer...
1.4 Credit Policies...
1.5 Pricing and Funding...
1.6 Risk Management...
1.7 Corporate Governance:
Internal Control System,
External Audit System...
1.9 Legal, Regulatory, and Supervisory Regime...
1.10 Accounting and Financial Reporting...
2.Options for the Transformation of MADB...
2.1 Strengthening MADB in the Short Term...
2.2 Issues to Consider for MADB’s Long-Term Transformation.....
3.Lessons from International Experience...
3.1 Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives...
3.2 Bank Rakyat Indonesia...
3.3 Financiera Rural of Mexico.....
|Source/publisher:|| ||The World Bank Group|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||08 September 2015|