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Theory and practice of constitutional government

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Liberty Library of Constitutional Classics
Description/subject: "The following is a list of the classic books and other works on constitutional government, which we either include in our collection, or plan to add."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Constitution Society
Format/size: html, pdf , Word etc.
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: List of cantonal legislatures of Switzerland
Description/subject: "This is a list of cantonal legislatures of Switzerland. Each canton of Switzerland has a democratically-elected cantonal legislature, as well as electing members to the Federal Assembly. The largest legislatures, in Zurich and St. Gallen, have 180 members each, whilst the smallest, in less-populous Appenzell Innerrhoden, has only 49 members. Appenzell Innerrhoden is also the only legislature that is non-partisan. All other legislatures operate party political systems. The Swiss People's Party (SVP) are the largest party in ten legislatures, whilst FDP.The Liberals and the Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP) are the largest in seven each and the Social Democratic Party (SP) are the largest in one legislature. Two cantons, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus, hold Landsgemeinden as their highest legislative body. Under this system, a form of direct democracy, all adult citizens may attend an annual general assembly, where they may vote on laws. A permanent legislature also sits more frequently, but sovereignty resides with the Landsgemeinden. For the purpose of this article, the permanent legislature is considered the cantonal legislature..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2016


Title: Parliamentary Procedure
Description/subject: "Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies, and other deliberative assemblies. In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other English-speaking countries it is often called chairmanship, chairing, the law of meetings, procedure at meetings, or the conduct of meetings. In the United States, parliamentary procedure is also referred to as parliamentary law, parliamentary practice, legislative procedure, or rules of order. At its heart is the rule of the majority with respect for the minority. Its object is to allow deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and to arrive at the sense or the will of the assembly upon these questions.[1] Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions—usually by vote—with the least possible friction. Rules of order consist of rules written by the body itself (often referred to as bylaws), but also usually supplemented by a published parliamentary authority adopted by the body. Typically, national, state, and other full-scale legislative assemblies have extensive internally written rules of order, whereas non-legislative bodies write and adopt a limited set of specific rules as the need arises..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2016


Individual Documents

Title: Calls for More Women in Peace Process on European Study Tour
Date of publication: 02 May 2016
Description/subject: "...Bringing more women into Burma’s peace process and construction of a federal state is crucial, several of the country’s female leaders said during a training tour in Europe last month. The women have played various roles in Burma’s peace process and were invited to Switzerland and Norway to learn more about federalism, peace and security issues, and women’s empowerment. Both European countries are staunch supporters of conflict resolution in Burma. The participants reflected on how a political dialogue could be conducted in Burma and how federalism could enrich the country’s young democracy. Naw Zipporah Sein, the vice chair of the Karen National Union (KNU), an ethnic armed organization that signed the nationwide ceasefire agreement with the government last year, said: “A federal system is best-suited to Burma to ensure equality and democratic rights.” “Our public needs to understand how to share power, resources and tax revenue,” she said. “Participation from the people in these core aspects of the federal state is essential.” Meanwhile, Burma’s State Counselor Aung San Suu Kyi said last Wednesday that the government was planning to hold a 21st century “Panglong-style” conference within the next two months, referring to a 1947 agreement Suu Kyi’s father, Gen. Aung San, forged with several major ethnic minorities..."
Author/creator: Nyein Nyein
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 02 May 2016


Title: Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation
Date of publication: 18 April 1999
Description/subject: Preamble: "In the name of Almighty God! The Swiss People and the Cantons, mindful of their responsibility towards creation, resolved to renew their alliance so as to strengthen liberty, democracy, independence and peace in a spirit of solidarity and openness towards the world, determined to live together with mutual consideration and respect for their diversity, conscious of their common achievements and their responsibility towards future generations, and in the knowledge that only those who use their freedom remain free, and that the strength of a people is measured by the well-being of its weakest members; adopt the following Constitution..."
Language: Français, French, English
Source/publisher: Swiss Confederation
Format/size: pdf (370K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19995395/index.html
https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19995395/201506140000/101.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2016


Title: Federal Assembly (Switzerland)
Description/subject: "The Federal Assembly (German: Bundesversammlung, French: Assemblée fédérale, Italian: Assemblea federale, Romansh: Assamblea federala), is Switzerland's federal legislature. It meets in Bern in the Federal Palace. The Federal Assembly is bicameral, being composed of the 200-seat National Council and the 46-seat Council of States. The houses have identical powers. Members of both houses represent the cantons, but, whereas seats in the National Council are distributed in proportion to population, each canton has two seats in the Council of States, except the six 'half-cantons' which have one seat each. Both are elected in full once every four years, with the last election being held in 2015. The Federal Assembly possesses the federal government's legislative power, along with the separate constitutional right of citizen's initiative. For a law to pass, it must be passed by both houses. The Federal Assembly may come together as a United Federal Assembly in certain circumstances, including to elect the Federal Council, the Federal Chancellor, a General (Swiss generals are only selected in times of great national danger), or federal judges. The Federal Council (Bundesrat) is effectively the cabinet of ministers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2016


Title: Parliament (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: "This article is about the legislative institution. For other uses, see Parliament (disambiguation). The chamber of the House of Commons of the British Parliament in the City of Westminster, London. The Federal Assembly of Switzerland. Session Hall of Parliament of Finland. The Israeli Knesset chamber. In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government (i.e., hearings, inquiries). Although some restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, it is also commonly used to describe the legislature in presidential systems (i.e. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies (i.e. the mediaeval parlements)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2016


Title: Switzerland's Direct Democracy
Description/subject: "...The Swiss constitution defines in some detail all areas subject to federal legislation. Anything not explicitly mentioned is left to the legislation of the cantons (federal states). Therefore it is necessary to update the constitution from time to time to take account of changes in society and technology that demand for standardised solutions throughout the country. The Swiss constitution may be changed only if an overall majority of the electorate agrees in a referendum and if the electorate of a majority of the cantons agrees, too. The latter is sometimes just a little more difficult because it means that the rather conservative electorate of smaller rural cantons must be convinced as well. Nevertheless, minor changes to the Swiss constitution are quite frequent without affecting the basic ideas nor the stability of Switzerland's Political System. To the contrary: Direct Democracy is the key to Switzerland's famous political stability..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: DIRECT-DEMOCRACY.GESCHICHTE-SCHWEIZ.CH
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2016