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Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Imperial Burma: Pagan Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty
Description/subject: "Pagan gradually grew to absorb its surrounding states until the 1050s–1060s when Anawrahta founded the Pagan Empire, the first ever unification of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan Empire and the Khmer Empire were two main powers in mainland Southeast Asia.[50] The Burmese language and culture gradually became dominant in the upper Irrawaddy valley, eclipsing the Pyu, Mon and Pali norms by the late 12th century. Theravada Buddhism slowly began to spread to the village level although Tantric, Mahayana, Brahmanic, and animist practices remained heavily entrenched. Pagan's rulers and wealthy built over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone alone. Repeated Mongol invasions (1277–1301) toppled the four-century-old kingdom in 1287."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


Title: Pagan (Bagan) period [849-1287 AD]
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


Individual Documents

Title: An Analytical Study of Ancient Temples in Myingun, Magway Region, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myingun stands about twenty three miles from Magway, Central Myanmar and is located at 20°1'0" north of the equator and 95°1'59" east of the Prime Meridian. Its area is 800 square miles (GUBSS 1901: 536). It was called Malekun in ancient time. When the cavalry of King Sawlu of Bagan (1077‐1084) stationed at there, it was named as Myinnkun. In Burmese language, Myinn means horse and kun means a stationed place. Thus Myinnkun means a place where cavalrymen stationed. But some say that Myin means see and gun means stupa with square tower. Therefore this place was called Myingun where can see the temple with sikhara. According to some inscriptions found in Myingun area, this region is located at there since the time of Bagan Period. Oral history says that King Sawlu of Bagan built this city for staying temporarily when he defended the rebel Ngayamakan.1 (Magway Township Record 1969: 139) The remnants of City wall, moat and temples can be seen still today. Myingun was an important place in the reign of Myanmar Kings. In successive era, the people of Myingun constructed to donate many religious edifices where the Buddha images were kept. Numerous temples were built and many images were carved. There are about sixty temples and stupās in Myingun. The art and architecture of these religious edifices show that some temples constructed since 12th Century. It is found that there have twenty seven temples with Bagan style of art and architecture in Myingun.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Thidar
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: Intra-dynastic and Inter-Tai Conflicts in the Old Kingdom of Moeng Lü in Southern Yunnan
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: "...Power struggles within ruling houses are a classic problem causing the weakening of dynasties and inviting foreign invasions. The Tai polities in pre-modern Asia were no exception. This recurrent problem is documented not only in contemporary Chinese sources, but also in the various versions of the Tai chronicles that the present writer has investigated. The present article focuses on the example of the Tai Lü polity, namely Moeng Lü (better known as Sipsòng Panna), which was founded in the twelfth century in present-day southern Yunnan along what Jon Fernquest has called the “Tai Frontier.”2 When waging fratricidal wars or committing fratricide to gain the throne was concerned, the traditional Tai polities in this frontier between China and the large lowland polities of mainland Southeast Asia were no better than the ruling houses of medieval Europe and China...The Chronicles of Moeng Lü (CML) is replete with killings and civil wars. Recorded above are seven major conflicts involving disputes related to succession to the throne of Saenwi Fa. The CML’s coverage of the successive reigns is not equal. The records of about one third of the reigns are very brief but that does not mean that there was no fighting during these reigns. Moeng Lü or Cheli was not a unified Tai kingdom. As recorded in the “Basic Annals” of the History of the Yuan Dynasty (Yuanshi), as early as around 1297/98 there were the Greater Cheli and Lessser Cheli. Moeng Lü was partitioned into two by the Mekong River long before Burmese expansion in the sixteenth century."
Author/creator: Foon Ming Liew-Herres (Hamburg)
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS BULLETIN OF BURMA RESEARCH VOL. 5, 2007
Format/size: pdf (518K)
Date of entry/update: 01 October 2010


Title: Pagan and Early Burma
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "Pagan, today a small town of perhaps 2,000 inhabitants, was the capital of the first Burmese kingdom for about 250 years between the mid-eleventh and the end of the thirteenth centuries. During this period, more than 2,500 religious monuments, mostly Buddhist temples, stupas and monasteries, were constructed in and around the city. At the end of the thirteenth century, the city ceased to be a political center, having falled victim to demographic disruptions, economic exhaustion, and military pressure from the Mongols, though it kept its status as a sacred center and a place of learning until the end of the last Burmese kingdom..."
Author/creator: Tilman Frasch
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Ancient Bagan City and Me
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Ancient Bagan city and its pagodas reveal how Myanmar people were organized. Pagan was constructed very well, and its remarable pagodas and temples-- Shwezigon, Ananda, Thatpyinnyu, and Gadawpalin--are powerful symbols of the city's wealth. It also demonstrates the sophisticated culture of its people as well as their faith in Buddhism.....Subject Terms: 1. Bagan - description and travel... 2. Shwezigon Pagoda (Naungoo)... 3. Ananda Pagoda (Bagan)... 4. Sapada Pagoda (Naungoo)
Author/creator: Zawgyi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Collected Works of Saya Zawgyi", Vol.1, pp64-69, 1993, Union of Myanmar Literary and Journalist Organization via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (242K-reduced version; 887K-orginal)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/ZG0009.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2014


Title: Buddhist Painting in Bagan
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Buddhist art developed in Pagan. Scenes from the life of the Buddha were drawn on the walls of Kubyaukgyi, Abheyadana and other temples in Bagan. These Buddhist paintings are the beginning of Myanmar texts on the life of Buddha, such as "Marlarlingarya" and Zinattha Pakathani.....Subject Terms: 1. Painting-Myanmar-Bagan period... 2. Buddhist Art..... Key Words: Bagan
Author/creator: Zawgyi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Collected Works of Saya Zawgyi", Vol.1, pp9-14, 1993, Union of Myanmar Literary and Journalist Organization via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (234K-reduced version; 876K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/ZG0002.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Mahayana Painting in Bagan period
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Interior walls of Abheyadanar, Kubyaukgyi and Nandamanya pagodas were painted with scenes from the Buddha; they were influenced by Mahayana Buddhism. Paintings of Boddisatvas were mainly Mahayanist.....Subject Terms: Painting... Key Words: Mahayana Painting
Author/creator: Zawgyi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Collected Works of Saya Zawgyi", Vol.1, pp15-18, 1993, Union of Myanmar Literary and Journalist Organization via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (199K-reduced version; 742K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/ZG0003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Nature of Painting in Bagan
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Painting in Bagan developed because the kings and wungyi valued and rewarded the painters. Buddhism developed in Bagan and Buddhist art stimulated the development of Bagan painting.....Subject Terms: Paintings-Myanmar-Bagan period..... Key Words: Art... Pagan
Author/creator: Zawgyi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Collected Works of Saya Zawgyi", Vol.1, pp3-8, 1993, Union of Myanmar Literary and Journalist Organization via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (258K-reduced version; 948K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/ZG0001.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: The Pwa Saws of Bagan/ ပုဂံခေတ် ဖွားစောများ
Date of publication: 1982
Description/subject: Paper read at the first Union of Burma Literary and Social Sciences Conference held on 23rd March 1966. In the Bagan period three queens named Pwa Saw were well known. They were important advisors to the kings who ruled during their lives. The author observes that Bagan inscriptions document several queens named Saw; three Pwa Saws were described: (1) Min Waing Pwa Saw (2) Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw, and (3) Thitmathi Pwa Saw. They were clever and participated in the administration of the country..... 1. Pwa Saw, 1st (Min Waing Pwa Saw) 1230 - 1287; 2. Pwa Saw, 2nd (Saw Hla Wun Pwa Saw) 1262 - 1296; 3. Pwa Saw, 3rd (Thitmathi Pwa Saw) 1295 - 1334; 4. Myanmar - History - Bagan period, 1044 - 1287.
Author/creator: Col. Ba Shin/ ဗိုလ်မှူးဘရှင်
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: Burma Historical Research Dept. via U. Waashington Library Library
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB-reduced version; 2.85MB-original) 35 pages
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0002.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: Thamudriz Min
Date of publication: April 1976
Description/subject: About a legendary king of early Bagan. Uses three main historical sources: U Kala's Mahayazawin gyi, Hmannan Yazawin and Twin thin Yazawinthit. They offer nothing definitive about the early Bagan period, other than noting that the Bagan dynasty started in 1044 AD. These three source are not validated.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-history-Bagan period, 1044-1287
Author/creator: Yi Yi, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Shumawa", Vol. 29, No. 347, pp115-118, 1976-04, via University of Washingon
Format/size: pdf (153K-reduced version; 692K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/YI0009.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: History of Burma: AD 1300-1400
Date of publication: December 1959
Description/subject: The author chronicles the kings and rulers of later Bagan and explains and how they described the Myinsaing, Sagaing and Pinya dynasties. The many references used for this article are all drawn from the inscriptions. This period is described as the most troubled in the Myanmar history. Nonetheless, forest dwellers (monks) and the kings of the later period laid the foundation for the political and cultural progress Myanmar made in the 15th and 16th centuries.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - Bagan period, 1044-1287... 2. Myanmar-History-Pinya period, 1312-1324... 3. Myanmar-History-Sagaing period, 1315-1364... 4. Myanmar-History-King Kyawswar, 1287-1298... 5. Myanmar-History-King Sawhnit, 1298-1312... 6. Myanmar-History-King Thihathu, 1312-1324... 7. Myanmar-History-King Ngarsishin, 1343-1350... 8. Myanmar-History-King Narathu, 1359-1364... 9. Myanmar-History-King Uzana, 1364
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 42, Part 2, December 1959, pp119-133, via Washington University
Format/size: pdf (753K-reduced version; 1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/TT0010J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


Title: Religion in Burma, AD 1000 -1300
Date of publication: 1959
Description/subject: This paper was read at the Kanthaseinlai Group meeting on 13th July 1958. It argues that the Myanmar (Burmans) were Buddhist long before King Anawrahta's (Aniruddha) conquest of lower Burma. They did not practise Theravada Buddhism, rather they observed a form of Mahayana Buddhism much influenced by Vaishnavism and native Naga (serpent) worship. With the conquest of Thaton in 1057 AD by King Anawrahta Theravada Buddhism was introduced to Central Burma. According to the excavation of Srikshetra and Hanlin the Pyu already believed in Buddhism. This paper is based on Bagan inscriptions which reveal the spread of Buddhism between AD 1000-1300.....Subject Terms: 1. Religion-Myanmar... 2. Buddhism-Myanmar-Bagan period... 3. Buddha and Buddhism... 4. Arahan, Shin... 5. Tipitaka (Buddhist Scriptures)..... Key Words: 1. Theravada Buddhism... 2. Vishnavism... 3. Brahmanism... 4. Jatakas... 5. Sasana (Buddist Religion)... 6. Paiyatti (Buddhist Religion)... 7. Pitaka (Buddhist scripture) 8. Vinaya... 9. Anawrahta, King (AD 1044-1077)... 10. Kyansittha, King (AD 1084-1112)
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 42, Part 2, pp47-69, 1959 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1MB-reduced version; 1.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/TT0014J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014


Title: Social life in Burma, AD 1044 -1287
Date of publication: 31 December 1958
Description/subject: Analyzes social life and customs of the Bagan people during the period AD 1044 - 1287. The vocations of the Bagan people were: agriculture, including cowherds; food suppliers; craftsmen; musicians; and such diverse work as midwifery, launderess, boatmen, palanquin carriers, oil producers, water carriers and canal diggers. The slaves (kywan) in those days was different from later periods as individuals voluntarily turned themselves into slaves of religious establishments. A pagoda slave did not sink in the social scale, rather he gained merit and respect from his family and community.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-social life and custom... 2. Myanmar - history..... Key Words 1. Slaves (Kywan).....undated
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 42, Part 2, pp47-69, 1959 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (538K-reduced version; 866K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/TT0015J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014


Title: Notice of Pugan, the Ancient Capital of the Burmese Empire.
Date of publication: 04 July 1835
Description/subject: "...The celebrated Venetian traveller, MARCO POLO, (see MARSDEN'S edition of his Travels, pages 441 to 451,) has given us an account of the war between the Tartars and the people of Mien (the Chinese name for Burmah), which occurred some time after 1272, and led the former to take possession of the then capital of the latter nation. SYMES and CRAWFORD, in the Journals of their Missions to Ava, as well as HAVELOCK and TRANT in their accounts of the late war, have described the extensive remains of Pagan, the former capital of the Burmese empire, lying between Prome and Ava, with its innumerable ruins of temples and columns. Perhaps the following account of the destruction of that city, translated from the 5th volume of the large edition of the Royal Chronicles of the Kings of Ava, (Maha Yazawen wen dan gyee,) may be deemed curious..."
Author/creator: Lieut.-Col. Henry Burney, H. C.'s Resident In Ava
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 4 (vol. 4, July, 1835, pp. 400-404) via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, Autumn 2003
Format/size: pdf (38K)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20070609092430/web.soas.ac.uk/burma/vol__i,_no__2.htm
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2004