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Archaeology - General, multiple periods

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar archaeology* (video)
Description/subject: About 1,750 results
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2017

Title: Association of Myanmar Archaeologists website
Description/subject: Well-produced site established by Myanmar Archaeology Students in 2009. Many colour photos, text in English and Burmese, maps etc.
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Association of Myanmar Archaeologists w
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014

Title: Selective Works on Myanmar History, Culture, Archeology and Literature after Independence
Description/subject: 98 papers (full text pdf files) on the history and archeology of Burma, most in Burmese, some in English, by: U Aung Thaw; Col. Ba Shin; Burma. The Directorate of Archaeological Survey; Daw Kyan; U Lu Pe Win; Takathou Maung Maung Gyi; Thiripyanchi U Mya; U Myint Aung; U Pe Maung Tin; U Sein Maung Oo; Taik Soe; U Than Swe; Dr. Than Tun; Henry Wotten; Dr. Yi Yi; Saya Zaw Gyi; Zeyya.
Language: Mostly Burmese. Some English
Source/publisher: Seattle, Wash. : University of Washington Libraries, 2001-
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: April 2003

Individual Documents

Date of publication: September 2006
Description/subject: "Environmental change was as much part of the ancient landscape as it is of the present. The landscape, however, is often described as a static ‘other’ beneath our feet rather than the world which is all around us.2 In cataloging the rivers and streams where sites and artefacts of first millennium AD Myanmar are located, we draw attention in this paper to the constant alteration to both built and natural elements. Our understanding of these sites and the cultures from which they emerged is distorted, for by and large only a small portion of the country's river system has been systematically surveyed. Nonetheless, eloquent testimony of human response to environmental inconstancy remains in most regions of Myanmar. Traces of this relationship can be seen in the 'archaeological scars' which are part of today's landscape.3 Aung Myint, who coined this term, likened it to the process of scar tissue forming over to a deep cut when large quantities of soil are displaced adjacent to natural and manmade features such as in-gyi or seasonal lakes and walls made of earth, laterite and brick.4 We refer often to such features, but also to smaller signs, from stone implements to terracotta urns and tiles. After an overview of the multiple water networks along which sites and artefacts have been recorded, we detail a range of changes, beginning in Lower Myanmar and ending at Tagaung. We devote the final section of the paper to this site, to highlight the use of the natural setting as well as the fresh scope offered by artefacts for understanding patterns of interaction during the first millennium AD..."
Author/creator: Elizabeth Moore & U Win Maung (Tampawaddy)
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.2 (Autumn 2006)
Format/size: pdf (8.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 April 2008

Title: Thoughts on some chronological markers of Myanmar archaeology in the pre-urban period.
Date of publication: February 2005
Description/subject: "Archaeologists deal with material that was deposited, discarded, lost or deliberately buried over long and often difficult-to-discern periods of time. This paper presents some ideas for periodising Myanmar archaeology and interpreting archaeological evidence that may reduce our reliance on the old-style European terminology of “Neolithic”, “Bronze Age” and “Iron Age”. The development of technology in preurban Myanmar has involved increasing complexity and an increasing diversity in the materials used (as Tan discusses in detail in his paper elsewhere in this volume) rather than the sudden replacement of one material by another as might be implied in the notion of a sequence of “ages”. The addition of copper/bronze and iron to a technological repertoire that before the arrival of metals included highly skilled drilling and polishing of stone tools and ornaments can be put into a broad timescale. But we can also look for other indicators of the passing of time..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2005 Yangon University Archaeology Journal, 10th anniversary commemorative volume
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://acl.arts.usyd.edu.au/~hudson/BHpaperFeb05.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2005

Title: THE ART AND CULTURE OF BURMA (Table of Contents)
Date of publication: 2002
Description/subject: "The purpose of this on-line study-guide and course-outline is to make text and visual materials on the arts of Burma readily and inexpensively available, in particular to students and teachers. These materials assume college level reading skills so that the contents may be used for independent study courses, as a resource for teachers in secondary schools, as well as anyone interested in expanding and enriching their knowledge of the Arts and Cultures of Burma. Because the text is written for a general audience it does not contain the detail or footnotes that are found in scholarly publications. A select bibliography is provided at the end of each section for those who wish to pursue topics previously discussed. The illustrations are digitized from my own collection of color slides with the several exceptions are noted..." TOC: Overview: Purpose, Extended Contents, Acknowledgements, and Geographical Overview; Art History of Burma: Synoptic Overview; Chapter 1 - Prehistoric and Animist Periods c. 1100 BC to c. 200 AD: Paleolithic and Neolithic sites, Animism, and Karen Bronze Drums; Chapter 2 - The Pre-Pagan Period: The Urban Age of the Mon and the Pyu c.200 to c.800 AD: Mon and Pyu City states: Thaton, Beikthano, Halin, and Srikshetra; Chapter 3 - the Pagan Period c. 800 AD to 1287 AD; Part 1 - Introduction and City Plan of Pagan; Part 2 - Architecture 1 - General Characteristics and Stupas; Part 3 - Architecture 2 - Temples and Monasteries Part 4 - Sculpture, Conclusion, and Bibliography; Chapter 4 - The Post Pagan Period; Part 1 - Introduction and the Ava Period; Part 2 - The Konbaung Period: Amarapura; Part 3 - Mandalay Period; Special Section: 80 Scenes of the Life of Buddha.
Author/creator: Richard M. Cooler
Language: English
Source/publisher: Northern Illinois University
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Ancient Myanmar Cities
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: Contents: (1) Ancient Beikthano City, by U Aung Thaw; (2) Ancient Hanlin City, by U Myint Aung; (3) Ancient Srikhetra, by U Sein Maung Oo; (4) Excavation of ancient Tagaung city, by U Than Swe; (5) New supporting evidence of Pyu culture, by U Aung Thaw..... Famous Myanmar archaeologists and research officers describe Pyu cities. "Ancient Beikthano City" was an excavation report written by U Aung Thaw, retired Director - General of Dept. of Archaeology. It describes Beikthano (Vishnu) as being near Taungdwingyi in Magwe Division, and flourished from about 1st century A.D until it was destroyed in the 5th century A.D. It was a very important early Pyu city. "Ancient Hanlin City", by U Myint Aung, research officer, Dept of Archaeology. Hanlin was a Pyu city 10 miles from Wetlet in Shwebo District, Mandalay Division. Hanlin city flourished between the 4th and 9th century A.D. Their coins had symbols and they are were literate. Buddhism developed early in Hanlin, but image worship was not evident. Hanlin city was burnt and destroyed in 9th century A.D. "Ancient Srikshetra", by U Sein Maung Oo, is an excavation report. The author led the excavation team and presents details about Srikshetra. Srikshetra was also an ancient Pyu city located just five miles southeast of Pyay (Prome). It flourished between the 5th and 10th centuries. Srikshetra shows association and contact with South India. The earliest inscriptions in Myanmar found thus far are at Srikshetra. Two gold plates were found in a villager, Maung Kan's field, and twenty gold leaves were discovered in a mound in Khin Ba's field. Buddhism flourished and image - worship developed. In the 10th century Srikshetra fell, to be replaced by the Burman state of Bagan in 11th Century. "Excavation of Ancient Tagaung City", by U Than Swe , research officer, is an excavation report of ancient Tagaung city located 127 miles north of Mandalay on the left bank of the Ayeyawady River. The excavation yielded evidence that Tagaung rose to become an important fortified city during Anawrahta's reign in the early Bagan period..."New Evidence of Early Pyu Culture", by U Aung Thaw is a report about new inscriptions from Hanlin and Srikshetra..... Subject Terms: 1. Archaeological Survey 2. Beikthano (Ancient Pyu city) - History 3. Culture - Pyu 4. Hanlin - Ancient Pyu City - history 5. Myanmar - history - early period 6. Pyu Civilization 7. Srikshetra- ancient Pyu city - history 5th - 10th century 8. Takaung- ancient Myanmar city - history.....(This document was placed on the Washington University site in 8 sections. OBL has consolidated these sections into an 8.7MB file. The original sections with the Washington.edu URLs are given as here Alternate URLs)
Author/creator: U Than Shwe, U Sein Maung Oo, U Aung Thaw, U Myint Aung
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ; (Metadata: English, Burmese)
Source/publisher: Ministry of Information, News and Periodicals Enterprise
Format/size: pdf (8.7MB-consolidated text)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001a.pdf (2.6MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001b.pdf (2MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001c.pdf (2.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001d.pdf (2MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001e.pdf (3.6MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001f.pdf (1.8MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001g.pdf (2.3MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/AR0001h.pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Votive tablets of Burma, Part I
Date of publication: 1961
Description/subject: Among the first evidence of Burmese culture are carved Buddha images and the brith stories of Buddha on clay, stone, metal and wood. The height of the the votive tablets are five to eight inches. Early votive tablets were found in Srikshetra, Tagaung, Bagan, Thaton, Hpa-an and Rakhine State. The votive tablets studied are housed in the Department of Archaeology, Yangon. They are: (1) Votive tablets of King Anawrahta, p. 3-16... (2) Votive tablets donated by Bagan people, p. 16-26... (3) Votive tablets of Sawlu Min , p. 26-28... (4) Votive tabletsof King Kyansittha, p. 28-31... (5) Votive tablets of King Alaungsithu, p. 32-33... (6) Votive tablets of the Buddha's life, p. 33-40... (7) Votive tablets from Tagaung, p. 48-51... (8) Votive tablets from Katha, p. 51... (9) Votive tablets from Minbu, p. 52... (10) Votive tablets from Thazi, p. 53... (11) Votive tablets from Sagaing, p. 54... (12) Votive tablets from Thaton, p. 54-56... (13) Votive tablets from Pathein, p. 56-57... (14) Votive tablets from Tavoy, p. 57-60... (15) Votive tablets from Yangon (Botataung Pagoda), p.61... (16) Votive tablets from Yangon (Tatalay), p.61... (17) Votive tablets from Bago, p. 62-63... (18) Votive tablets from Sittway, p.63-64...Subject Terms: 1. Votive Tablets... 2. Buddhism - Myanmar
Author/creator: Mya, U, Thiripyanchi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: Department of Archaeology via Univeristy of Washington
Subscribe: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/Mya_U_(Thiripyanchi)-1961-Votive_tablets_of_Burma,%20Part-I-comb-red.pdf
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB-combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0001a.pdf (3.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0001b.pdf (2.9MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0001c.pdf (3.0MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0001d.pdf (1.9MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0001e.pdf (2.0MB)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014

Title: Votive tablets of Burma, Part II
Date of publication: 1961
Description/subject: In Part II the author writes about the Pyu of Srikshetra and the rich discovery of votive tablets found there. The article includes many illustrations.....Subject Terms: 1. Votive tablets... 2. Buddhism - Myanmar
Author/creator: Mya, U, Thiripyanchi
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: Department of Archaeology via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced, combined)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0002a.pdf (3.4MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0002b.pdf (2.8MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0002c.pdf (1.9MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/UM0002d.pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2014