VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Economy > Sanctions

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Sanctions
See also the International Labour Organisation (under Labour Rights in Human Rights) and "Debate on Investment in Burma" under Economy > Foreign Investment

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility
Description/subject: Interfaith investment funds, Shareholder action, corporate responsibility, corporate accountability, selective purchasing, sanctions, business in Burma, divstment, companies, corporations, Halliburton, Unocal, Total, MOGE etc... search for Burma, Unocal etc.
Language: English
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Trillium Asset Management
Description/subject: Socially responsible investment, selective purchasing, shareholder action, corporate withdrawal, disinvestment etc.
Language: English
Format/size: Search for Burma
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Burma: Joint Letter from NGOs to U.S. Administration
Date of publication: 15 May 2012
Description/subject: "We are writing to request a meeting with you in the next week to share our strong concern regarding Secretary Clinton’s announcement that the U.S. financial services and investment bans on Burma may be lifted in the very near future. We understand that President Obama’s extension of E.O. 13047 will expire on May 20, 2012. We urge you to extend E.O. 13047 until proper safeguards are put in place. We urge the Administration to comprehensively update the Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) list before relaxing any business-related sanctions on Burma. While companies are eager to gain a foothold in Burma’s economy, we believe that the goal of promoting positive political reforms in Burma will be jeopardized if new investments or other business activities reward individuals implicated in mass atrocities and other human rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch with AFL-CIO, Freedom House, Institute for Asian Democracy, Open Society Foundations, Orion Strategies, Physicians for Human Rights, U.S. Campaign for Burma, United to End Genocide
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 May 2012


Title: US/Burma: Don’t Lift Sanctions Too Soon Safeguards Needed Before Allowing Investment, Financial Services
Date of publication: 15 May 2012
Description/subject: "The US government should not ease sanctions on business activities in Burma until adequate safeguards are in place to prevent new investment from fueling human rights abuses. A US presidential order imposing a ban on investment and financial services in Burma is scheduled to expire on May 20, 2012, unless it is renewed or revised. In early April, in response to Burmese government pledges of reform and electoral gains by Burma’s main opposition party, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that the US government was prepared to relax certain business-related sanctions. A new presidential order easing business restrictions is expected to be issued soon. “The US government should not reward the Burmese government’s nascent and untested changes by allowing an unregulated business bonanza,” said John Sifton, Asia advocacy director at Human Rights Watch. “Tough rules are needed to ensure that new investments benefit the people of Burma and don’t fuel human rights abuses and corruption, or end up strengthening the military’s control over civilian authorities.”..."
Language: Engish
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 May 2012


Title: US sends Transocean a fresh subpoena over Burma conduct
Date of publication: 21 December 2010
Description/subject: "Transocean, the Swiss-American drilling firm being sued by the United States for its role in the recent BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, has received a second subpoena over its activities in Burma, a recent regulatory filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) shows. Actinia Transocean International’s semi-submersible drilling rig, the Actinia. Last year, the Actinia was contracted to drill in Burmese waters licensed to a consortium that includes China’s CNOOC and Singapore-registered firm China Focus Development – owned by junta crony and alleged narcotics money-launderer Stephen Law, aka Tun Myint Naing. Photo: Mizzima The administrative subpoena came from the US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), the branch of the Treasury Department that oversees American trade and financial sanctions..."
Author/creator: Thomas Maung Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2010


Title: Considerations for Future Economic Engagement with Myanmar
Date of publication: 20 November 2010
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "We have come to a critical juncture in international economic engagement with Myanmar. We must recognize that this is an end to an era that has been characterized by two decades of frustration and disappointment with a lack of progress on national reconciliation, human rights, and a democratic transition that is genuinely inclusive. Despite all the criticisms of the new election laws, it seems inevitable the 2010 elections will usher in a new era of national governance, and the next two years will be critical ones for setting new directions for the future. Changes in economic policies and management will matter greatly in this period to build confidence that positive change can be real and sustainable. The international community faces a choice of maintaining distance from the new government by continuing existing “sticks-based” economic engagement policies, or of seeking to make a positive contribution to domestic efforts to implement the new constitution, which does contain elements of economic policy principles that we can broadly endorse and support. The time has come to make a bet on the younger generation and seek to engage in ways that can help move Myanmar in a positive direction in economic policy, in governance, and in the pursuit of broadly-held national aspirations."
Author/creator: Bradley O. Babson
Language: English
Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
Format/size: pdf (112K)
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


Title: Offering Trade Benefits for More Inclusive Elections: EU Trade Sanctions Against Myanmar Hit the Wrong Targets
Date of publication: 02 June 2010
Description/subject: Abstract: "When it comes to sanctions against Myanmar, Western public debate has crystallized broadly into two schools of thought – either in favor of sanctions, as a reflection of a moral position, or against sanctions because of their perceived lack of overall effectiveness. This policy brief suggests a more targeted and evidence-based approach. To begin with it is essential to have a clear and precise understanding of what sanctions should accomplish as well as knowledge of the actual impact of those sanctions on the ground. Equally important is to thereafter promptly dismantle any misguided measures while maintaining and reinforcing those measures that work according to the objectives. Finally, the flow of information to the international community must concern the actual impact of sanctions rather than rhetoric and propaganda."
Author/creator: Agnes Frittin, Niklas Swanström
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute for Security & Development Policy (Policy Brief 32)
Format/size: pdf (694K)
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2010


Title: Intra-European Bargaining and the ‘Tower of Babel’ EU Approach to the Burmese Conundrum
Date of publication: 09 September 2009
Description/subject: Abstract: "Since the 1990 imposition of an arms embargo, the European Union has kept on furthering its sanction policies towards Burma’s military regime in response to its poor record on human rights and authoritarian rule over the country. However, more than a decade after the 1996 EU Common Position on Burma, the European approach to the Burmese conundrum has still failed to achieve its initial objective of facilitating a transition to democracy and of stimulating aid and development in the country. This article seeks to underline the limits of the EU position by highlighting the internal and external obstacles the Europeans have been facing in their policymaking process towards Burma. It is argued that the varied and multiple interests of the 27 EU members; an influential European public opinion favouring an attitude of ostracism; and misunderstandings or miscalculations in appreciating the current state of Burmese affairs have hindered the EU from playing an efficacious role. Moreover these factors also impede its reappraisal." Keywords: Burma - Common position - Engagement - EU foreign policy - Myanmar - Ostracism - Sanctions
Author/creator: Renaud Egreteau
Language: English
Source/publisher: Springer Netherlands ("East Asia", Volume 27, Number 1 / March, 2010)
Format/size: pdf (227K) 19 pages
Date of entry/update: 12 July 2010


Title: INTERNATIONAL TRADE: U.S. Agencies Have Taken Some Steps, but Serious Impediments Remain to Restricting Trade in Burmese Rubies and Jadeite September 2009 GAO-09-
Date of publication: September 2009
Description/subject: "The Burmese jadeite and ruby trades are very different from one another and significantly involve China and Thailand. Burmese-origin jadeite is primarily purchased, processed, and consumed by China. Burmese-origin rubies are reportedly largely smuggled into Thailand, yielding little revenue to the Burmese regime, and are significantly processed there. U.S. agencies have taken some steps but have not shown that they are effectively restricting imports of Burmese-origin rubies, jadeite, and related jewelry while allowing imports of non-Burmese-origin goods. Some U.S. jewelry representatives said import restrictions constrain legitimate ruby imports. Agencies published an interim final rule, but DHS has not developed specific audit guidance or conducted any postentry reviews of importers’ records. In addition, there is little guidance to importers on what constitutes verifiable evidence of non-Burmese-origin. Although agencies have begun to collect data on ruby and jadeite imports, further efforts could contribute to an understanding of whether restrictions are effectively targeting Burmese-origin imports..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: CommitteesUnited States Government Accountability Office
Format/size: pdf (2.87MB)
Date of entry/update: 15 October 2009


Title: Burma/Myanmar after Nargis: Time to Normalise Aid Relations
Date of publication: 20 October 2008
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS: "The massive devastation caused by cyclone Nargis has prompted a period of unprecedented cooperation between the government and international humanitarian agencies to deliver emergency aid to the survivors. The international community should seize this opportunity to reverse longstanding, counterproductive aid policies by providing substantial resources for recovery and rehabilitation of the affected areas and, gradually, expanding and deepening its engagement in support of sustainable human development countrywide. This is essential for humanitarian reasons alone, but also presents the best available opportunity for the international community to promote positive change in Myanmar. The government's initial response to the cyclone, which hit Myanmar on 2 May killing over 100,000 people in the Ayeyarwady delta, shocked the world. International agencies and local donors were stopped from delivering aid, putting the lives and welfare of hundreds of thousands of people in jeopardy. But internal factors, along with international and particularly regional pressure and diplomacy, had their effect, and developments since then show that it is possible to work with the military regime on humanitarian issues. Communication between the government and international agencies has much improved. Visas and travel permits today are easier and faster to get than before. Requirements for the launch of new aid projects have been eased. By and large, the authorities are making efforts to facilitate aid, including allowing a substantial role for civil society. In late July, UN Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes declared, "This is now a normal international relief operation". The lead given by ASEAN in coordinating and fronting international aid efforts has been, and will continue to be, of particular importance. Political reform remains vital and should continue to be the subject of high-level international diplomacy and pressure. But it is a mistake in the Myanmar context to use aid as a bargaining chip, to be given only in return for political change. The military rulers have shown repeatedly that they are prepared to forego any aid that comes with political strings attached. Aid should rather be seen by international policymakers as valuable in its own right as well as a way of alleviating suffering, but also as a potential means of opening up a closed country, improving governance and empowering people to take control of their own lives. It will take years, and sustained international support, for the worst-hit areas to recover. Moreover, the massive damage to Myanmar's food bowl will worsen the already dire humanitarian situation in the country at large. Growing impoverishment and deteriorating social service structures have pushed millions of households to the edge of survival, leaving them acutely vulnerable to economic shocks or natural disasters. If not addressed, the increasing levels of household insecurity will lead to further human suffering, and could eventually escalate into a major humanitarian crisis. Government repression, corruption and mismanagement bear primary responsibility for this situation. But Western governments – in their attempt to defeat the regime by isolating it – have sacrificed opportunities to promote economic reform, strengthen social services, empower local communities and support disaster prevention and preparedness. Their aid policies have weakened the West's ability to influence the changes underway in the country. As the regime moves ahead with its "seven-step roadmap", there is an acute danger that the international community will remain relegated to a spectator role. Twenty years of aid restrictions – which see Myanmar receiving twenty times less assistance per capita than other least-developed countries – have weakened, not strengthened, the forces for change. Bringing about peace and democracy will require visionary leaders at all levels, backed by strong organisations, who can manage the transition and provide effective governance. These are not common attributes of an isolated and impoverished society. As the country's socio-economic crisis deepens and its human resources and administrative capacity decline, it will become harder and harder for any government to turn the situation around. While "humanitarian" aid is a reasonable response to a temporary emergency, the deepening structural crisis in Myanmar demands a response of a different type and magnitude. The international community should commit unequivocally not only to helping Myanmar recover from the destruction of Nargis, but also to making up for years of neglect and helping move the country forward. This means much more aid. Equally importantly, it means different aid, aimed at raising income and education as well as health levels, fostering civil society, improving economic policy and governance, promoting the equality of ethnic minorities and improving disaster prevention and preparedness. This shift will not be easy. The military leadership will need to be convinced that increased international development efforts do not threaten national sovereignty and security; donors must be ensured that aid is not abused or wasted; and implementing agencies will have to substantially enhance their capacity for development work, something for which the current aid structure in country is ill-equipped. Myanmar is not an easy place to do aid work. Government restrictions and intrusiveness, red tape and corruption hamper activities, as in many developing countries. But agencies with a longstanding presence on the ground have proved that, despite the difficulties, it is possible to deliver assistance in an effective and accountable way. If the current opening can be used to build further confidence and lay the basis for a more effective aid structure, it may be possible not only to meet the immediate needs, but also to begin to address the broader crisis of governance and human suffering. Aid alone, of course, will not bring sustainable human development, never mind peace and democracy. Yet, because of the limited links between Myanmar and the outside world, aid has unusual importance as an arena of interaction among the government, society and the international community."
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group
Format/size: pdf (818K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/161-burma-myanmar-after-na...
Date of entry/update: 09 August 2010


Title: Burma: cyclone, aid and sanctions
Date of publication: 27 May 2008
Description/subject: Wylie Bradford The debate over how to help Burma's people after cyclone Nargis must take account of the character of the country's military regime, says Wylie
Author/creator: Wylie Bradford.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Open Democracy via Burma Economic Watch blog
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.opendemocracy.net/node/44755/pdf
Date of entry/update: 29 November 2008


Title: De la neutralité à la conditionnalité politique des relations communautaires avec les pays en voie de développement: ... Quelles sont les effets de la politique européenne de sanctions à l’égard du My
Date of publication: September 2007
Description/subject: La conditionnalité, de par sa nature essentiellement politique, a souvent été étudiée par des politologues plutôt que par des juristes. Ce constat est attribuable à l´absence d´une réglementation juridique internationale relative à la conditionnalité, et à sa mise en oeuvre de nature essentiellement ad hoc, et non systématique. Tous les Etats n´appliquent pas la conditionnalité politique, ni ne l´appliquent-ils tous de manière homogène; et encore moins y sont-ils tous soumis équitablement. La conditionnalité est toujours subordonnée à des exigences géopolitiques, stratégiques, commerciales et économiques.1 Beaucoup d´arguments peuvent être mobilisés contre la conditionnalité: le principe de non ingérence, la critique du néocolonialisme, le relativisme culturel, etc. Toutefois, la nécessité de protéger et de promouvoir les droits de l´homme peut suffire à la légitimer, pour le moins d´un point de vue conceptuel. D´un point de vue juridique, reste encore à prouver la légalité de cette pratique dans le droit international. L´argument principal à cet effet réside dans l´article 2.1. du Pacte International sur les Droits civils et Politiques, ratifié par la communauté internationale, lequel suggère que tous les Etats parties prennent des initiatives, notamment par l´intermédiaire de l´aide internationale et de la coopération, pour parvenir à la réalisation complète des droits reconnus dans le Pacte.2 La Communauté européenne, au sortir de la Guerre Froide, adopte une nouvelle conception du développement et de sa mise en oeuvre ; une conception plus libérale, et qui engage davantage la responsabilité des PVD dans le processus de développement. Dans ce contexte surgit la notion de conditionnalité politique de l’aide : désormais, l’aide est délivrée à condition que les pays récipiendaires s’engagent à respecter les droits fondamentaux et les principes démocratiques. L’aide au développement communautaire n’a pas toujours impliqué cette notion de mérite ; nous le verrons dans la première partie. Les bases juridiques sur lesquelles a été conçue la politique d’aide au développement communautaire jusque dans les années 1990 datent du Traité de Rome. Les relations avec les « pays et territoires d’outre mer » constituaient à l’époque une partie substantielle du Traité, de manière à assurer la pérennité des relations entre les métropoles européennes et leurs colonies une fois leur indépendance acquise. La conception des relations entre les PVD et la CEE a donc été durablement marquée par les dispositions du Traité de Rome. Géographiquement, cela signifiait des relations zélées avec les pays ACP (regroupant, plus ou moins, les ex PTOM ), dans le cadre des Conventions successives de Lomé ; et des relations tardives et modestes avec les PVD non associés, selon la terminologie révélatrice de la réglementation communautaire. Politiquement, les Conventions de Lomé réglaient la coopération au développement communautaire avec les pays ACP sur base d’une relation neutre, sans condition politique ou économique préalable. L’échec de cette politique apparaît de plus en plus flagrant après la crise de la dette et l’incapacité des économies en développement, surtout des pays ACP, à s’insérer dans le système économique mondial globalisé. A la même époque, la fin de la Guerre Froide voit les démocraties libérales occidentales triompher. L’Union Européenne est créée en 1992 sur base des principes libéraux d’économie de marché, de bonne gouvernance, de démocratie et de respect des droits de l’homme. Désormais, ces principes imprègneront la politique extérieure communautaire définie dans le cadre de la PESC. Les relations communautaires avec les PVD doivent être revues dans cette optique libérale. La nouvelle politique des droits de l’homme va être mise en oeuvre à travers la conditionnalité politique de l’aide au développement. Désormais, la politique de développement ne doit plus être considérée de manière isolée mais comme un élément de la politique extérieure communautaire.3 Nous l’ observerons, en analysant les relations régionales eurasiatiques, dans la deuxième partie. Le partenariat avec l’ANASE a une portée allant de la coopération commerciale, économique et politique à la coopération au développement. Le dialogue intergouvernemental au sein de l’ASEM (qui réunit les 27 membres de l’UE et 16 pays asiatiques dont la Chine, le Japon, l’Inde, la Corée du Sud et les pays membres de l’ANASE ) a aussi un dessein multidimensionnel, confrontant les différentes parties relativement à leurs politiques étrangère, économique et financière. Dans la quatrième partie, nous étudierons le cas de la conditionnalité politique appliquée à la Birmanie, gouvernée depuis 40 ans par une junte militaire devenue la bête noire de la communauté internationale. Depuis 1997, la Birmanie ne bénéficie plus de préférences tarifaires pour ses exportations vers l’UE. Pas plus ne dispose-t-elle aujourd’hui de l’aide communautaire au développement. Apres une présentation générale du pays et son histoire contemporaine, nous tenterons d’évaluer les effets de la stratégie communautaire dans le cas birman et l’opportunité d’appliquer la conditionnalité politique (et les sanctions qu’elle implique) pour mener un pays à se réformer et à se développer.
Author/creator: Louise Culot
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Université Libre de Bruxelles
Format/size: pdf (481K)
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2007


Title: Pro-Aid, Pro-Sanctions, Pro-Engagement - Position Paper on Humanitarian Aid to Burma
Date of publication: 28 July 2006
Description/subject: "Over the years there have been attempts to portray key Burma campaign organisations and indeed Burma’s National League for Democracy (NLD) as opposed to humanitarian assistance to Burma. This position paper, supported by the undersigned, has been drafted so that no further confusion should arise. This amounts to clarification of a long-held policy position and does not signify any change in policy on the part of the undersigned. ‘Agencies’ is used throughout this document to refer collectively to United Nations (UN) agencies, Donor Governments and national/international non- Government Organisations (NGO/INGOs). Summary We the undersigned share the concerns of the United Nations (UN) and the international community regarding the humanitarian situation in Burma. We are concerned about the long-term consequences for the country and believe the situation needs immediate attention. Recognising the urgency of the situation, especially with regard to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria, in addition to high malnutrition and child mortality rates and emerging health threats such as avian influenza, we support and encourage the provision of humanitarian assistance to Burma. There must however be transparency, accountability and monitoring of all aspects of the provision of this assistance in order that it reaches intended recipients and does not benefit the military authorities. (See ‘The Right Kind of Aid’ below). In addition, Burmese nationals employed by agencies operating in the country, must be afforded protection from any reprisals by the regime for working on assistance or development programmes. In supporting humanitarian assistance we emphasise that it is the lack of accountable governance in Burma that is at the heart of the current crisis. It is therefore imperative that humanitarian assistance complements and does not replace or undermine political pressure for democratic change. Both are essential and must be pursued simultaneously. Although not always appropriate for the same actors to pursue both strategies (for the UN and Donor Governments this is imperative), it’s vital that all agencies recognise the political roots of the humanitarian crisis. We ask agencies to be vigilant in avoiding indirect and inadvertent contribution to the root of the problem and to be respectful to the perspectives of those working towards political solutions. Mutual respect for and support of both strategies is of paramount importance. We encourage all agencies to creatively explore opportunities for supporting the promotion of democracy both directly and across their projects. A democratic society in Burma is vital to ensuring truly effective humanitarian assistance that directly benefits all Burma’s people. 5 We support the suspension of all non-humanitarian and development aid to Burma with certain exceptions (See ‘Non-Humanitarian and Development Aid’ below). The principles that should be adopted for administration of effective aid in these exempted areas should mirror those proposed for strictly humanitarian assistance. Our position on humanitarian aid complements our policy on effectively targeted economic sanctions. We continue to advocate for ‘smart’ sanctions as called for by the National League for Democracy - that target the regime and its support base but not ordinary Burmese people. We do not support the introduction of former Iraqi-style sanctions that would impact negatively on Burma’s people. Nor do we call for the broader isolation of Burma. Our position on humanitarian assistance reflects that of the National League for Democracy, National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), Ethnic Nationalities Council (Union of Burma) and 88 Generation Students..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Burma Campaign UK
Format/size: pdf (570K)
Date of entry/update: 28 July 2006


Title: Sanktionen zur Förderung von Frieden und Menschenrechten? Fallstudien zu Myanmar, Sudan und Südafrika
Date of publication: 2006
Description/subject: Eine kontroverse Diskussion zur Wirksamkeit internationaler Sanktionen (UNO; USA; EU; ILO) in Burma/Myanmar nach den Aufständen von 1988; der Einfluss Aung San Suu Kyis; die Rolle westlicher NGOs; Fallstudien zu Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, Südafrika A study on the efficacity of intnernational sanctions after the protests of 1988; the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi; the role of western NGOs; case studies of Burma/Myanmar, Sudan, South Africa
Author/creator: Sina Schüssler
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Zentrum der Konfliktforschung der Philipps-Universität Marburg
Format/size: PDF (890k)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/11354
Date of entry/update: 21 September 2007


Title: The Impact of United States Sanctions on the Myanmar Garment Industry
Date of publication: December 2005
Description/subject: Abstract: "The United States imposed trade sanctions against the military regime in Myanmar in July 2003. The import ban damaged the garment industry in particular. This industry exported nearly half of its products to the United States, and more than eighty percent of United States imports from Myanmar had been clothes. The garment industry was probably the main target of the sanctions. Nevertheless, the impact on the garment industry and its workers has not been accurately evaluated or closely examined. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the sanctions and to further understand the present situation. This is done using several sources of information, including the author’s field and questionnaire surveys. This paper also describes the process of selection and polarization underway in the garment industry, an industry that now has more severe competition fueled by the sanctions. Through such a process, the impact was inflicted disproportionately on small and medium-sized domestic firms and their workers."
Author/creator: Toshihiro KUDO
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Discussion Paper No. 42
Format/size: pdf (246K)
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006


Title: Sachs on Sanctions
Date of publication: October 2004
Description/subject: "Jeffery Sachs is the Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and a Special Advisor to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan on the UN Millennium Development Goals, a poverty reduction initiative. He has advised several governments on economic reforms and was voted by Time magazine recently as one of the 100 most influential world leaders. In July, he published an article titled “Myanmar: Sanctions Won’t Work”. He spoke with Irrawaddy Editor Aung Zaw and Deputy Editor Shawn L. Nance about alternative methods to promote political reform in Burma..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 12, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Garmenting Games
Date of publication: July 2004
Description/subject: "Burma’s garment industry has suffered as a result of US sanctions, but not nearly as badly as regime apologists have claimed. Exports to Europe and elsewhere continue unhindered while misleading labeling is used to sell to the US..."
Author/creator: Samantha Green
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" vol. 12, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


Title: Can’t Live With ‘Em, Can’t Live Without ‘Em
Date of publication: June 2004
Description/subject: "Are sanctions working? Depends who you ask..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 October 2004


Title: Beating the Sanctions
Date of publication: April 2004
Description/subject: "The tight American sanctions that came into effect last year make international trading in Burma more complicated and expensive. But, with help from at least one Singaporean bank, Rangoon’s entrepreneurs have found ways around them..."
Author/creator: Bruce Hawke
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


Title: Burma/Myanmar: Reconciliation without Capitulation (a critique of the NBR report)
Date of publication: 31 March 2004
Description/subject: "The recent report by the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR), Badgley, J.H. (2004) “Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma”[3 March 2004], presented a shamelessly one-sided set of arguments for changing United States policy towards Myanmar. This paper tries to redress the balance, and to present both sides of the argument concerning what is, after all, a complex and heated issue. Two “core arguments” of the NBR report are identified and discussed, and in contrast the author develops two “core counter-arguments” for maintaining, with modifications, the existing U.S. policies with respect to Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Adam McCarty
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mekong Economics Ltd.
Format/size: html (83K),Word
Alternate URLs: http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au/pdf/staff/acde/paul_burke/mccarty_burke_myanmar_burma_reconciliation...
http://www.mekongeconomics.com/details_team.php?id=4
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Statement by Chairman Elton Gallegly
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Human Rights... Statement of Chairman Elton Gallegly... Developments in Burma... March 25, 2004.
Author/creator: Elton Gallegly
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg66780/html/CHRG-112hhrg66780.htm
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Statement by Representative James A. Leach
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives... Statement by Representative James A. Leach, Chairman, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific... Joint Subcommittee Hearing on Developments in Burma... March 25, 2004
Author/creator: James A. Leach
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Daw San San
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives... House International Relations Committee Joint Hearing Between Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific And Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights... TESTIMONY BY DAW SAN SAN ELECTED MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR DEMOCRACY, BURMA... March 25, 2004.
Author/creator: Daw San San
Language: English
Source/publisher: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Lorne W. Craner
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Testimony by Assistant Secretary Lorne W. Craner Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Bureau U.S. Department of State At a hearing entitled Developments in Burma By the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights March 25, 2004
Author/creator: Lorne W. Craner
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/h/tst/2004/
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Matthew P. Daley
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Matthew P. Daley, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs Testimony before the House International Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights Washington, DC March 25, 2004
Author/creator: Matthew P. Daley
Language: English
Source/publisher: http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/h/tst/2004/
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2004/30789.htm
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Tom Malinowski
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Human Rights and U.S. Strategy in Burma... Testimony by Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director, Human Rights Watch.
Author/creator: Tom Malinowski
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Burma, 25 March 2004: Testimony by Veronika Martin
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Testimony by Veronika A. Martin Policy Analyst, U.S. Committee for Refugees... Developments in Burma... Before the House Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and The Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Non-proliferation and Human Rights... March 25, 2004... Myanmarese Refugees in Thailand and The Human Rights Situation in Eastern Myanmar.
Author/creator: Veronika A. Martin
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 April 2004


Title: Testimony on Human Rights Problems in Burma
Date of publication: 25 March 2004
Description/subject: Statement before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and the Subcommittee on International Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Human Rights at a hearing entitled "Developments in Burma"
Author/creator: Lorne W. Craner, Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees via Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Reconciling Burma/Myanmar: Essays on U.S. Relations with Burma
Date of publication: 03 March 2004
Description/subject: Free access not available anymore! The document needs to be purchased. Foreword: "An intellectual “tectonic shift” is underway, making a precarious policy even harder to justify. This rather unusual issue of the NBR Analysis does not stem from an NBR-sponsored project or study. Instead, it emerged as an initiative from an extraordinary assemblage of Burma scholars, all of whom regard last year’s announcement of a “road map” for constitutional change, the ongoing progress toward cease-fires with ethnic insurgents, and the worsening impact of sanctions on the general populace, as an opportunity to re-examine U.S. relations with Burma. Recognizing that the current situation may be conducive to taking a fresh perspective, and noting the significance of so many top Burma specialists reaching similar conclusions and working together, we decided to publish their essays. The scholars in this volume represent a range of perspectives. What is especially notable is that they collaborated in this enterprise and concur that the U.S. policy of sanctions is not achieving its worthy objective—progress toward constitutional change and democratization in Burma. Moreover, as some of these authors argue, viewing U.S.-Burma relations solely through this lens, important as it is, may be harming other U.S. strategic interests in Southeast Asia, both in terms of the ongoing war against terrorism and long-term objectives regarding the United States’ role as a regional security guarantor. The desperate humanitarian situation in the country, as detailed in many of these essays, and concerns about possible WMD-related activities only underscore the importance of looking at this issue again. U.S. policymakers in particular ought to consider whether it is now appropriate to take a more realistic, engaged approach, while easing restrictions on humanitarian assistance, programs to build civil society, and the forces of globalization that are needed for the Burmese peoples’ socio-economic progress and solid transition to civilian government and democracy..." Richard J. Ellings, President, The National Bureau of Asian Research... "Strategic Interests in Myanmar" - John H. Badgley; "Myanmar’s Political Future: Is Waiting for the Perfect the Enemy of Doing the Possible?" - Robert H. Taylor; "Burma/Myanmar: A Guide for the Perplexed?" - David I. Steinberg; "King Solomon’s Judgment" - Helen James; "The Role of Minorities in the Transitional Process" - Seng Raw; "Will Western Sanctions Bring Down the House?" - Kyaw Yin Hlaing; "The Crisis in Burma/Myanmar: Foreign Aid as a Tool for Democratization" - Morten B. Pedersen;
Author/creator: John H. Badgley (Ed.); Robert H. Taylor, David I. Steinberg, Helen James, Seng Raw, Kyaw Yin Hlaing, Morten B. Pedersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: "NBR Analysis" Vol.15, No. 1, March 2004 (The National Bureau of Asia Research)
Format/size: pdf (261K)
Date of entry/update: 29 February 2004


Title: The European Union and Burma: The Case for Targeted Sanctions
Date of publication: March 2004
Description/subject: Executive Summary: The political stalemate in Burma will not be broken until the military regime considers it to be in its own self-interest to commence serious negotiations with the democratic and ethnic forces within the country. This paper outlines how the international community can bring about a political and economic situation which will foster such negotiations. Burma is ruled by a military dictatorship renowned for both oppressing and impoverishing its people, while enriching itself and the foreign businesses that work with it. The regime continues to ignore the 1990 electoral victory of Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy. The regime has shown no commitment to three years of UN mediation efforts. It has failed to end the practice of forced labour as required by its ILO treaty obligations and demanded by the International Labour Organization. It continues to persecute Burma’s ethnic peoples. It continues to detain more than 1,350 political prisoners including Aung San Suu Kyi. Any proposal of a road map to political change in Burma will fail to bring about democracy in this country unless it is formulated and executed in an atmosphere in which fundamental political freedoms are respected, all relevant stakeholders are included and committed to negotiate, a time frame for change is provided, space is provided for necessary mediation, and the restrictive and undemocratic objectives and principles imposed by the military through the National Convention (ensuring continued military control even in a “civilian” state) are set aside.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Campaign UK
Format/size: pdf (120K)
Date of entry/update: 28 March 2004


Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
Date of publication: 20 November 2003
Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


Title: Doing Something about Black Friday
Date of publication: 19 September 2003
Description/subject: "...Sanctions as a blunt instrument are doing more harm than good. Those who support them seem to combine moral indignation with a large amount of wishful thinking, assuming that things will turn out the way they want, provided they continue to do what they already want to do. The situation in Burma is complex and tragic, and we need fresh thinking on how to handle a regime that on May 30 again showed its determination to shed blood in defense of its privileges..."
Author/creator: Donald M Seekins
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: Sanctions Are Working in Burma
Date of publication: 26 August 2003
Description/subject: "This commentary is in response to The Irrawaddy’s interview with David Steinberg ["Sanctions Rarely Work", Vol 11, No3]. Steinberg is the author of several books on Burma and commented on the country’s political situation and US-Burmese relations in the April issue." "Once the truth about the brutal attack on Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League for Democracy (NLD) at Depayin on May 30 was revealed, the almost unanimous passage by the US Congress of the Burma Freedom and Democracy Act imposing a ban on Burmese imports and other sanctions against the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) was a foregone conclusion. Many observers now view the debate about sanctions as over..."
Author/creator: Philip S Robertson, Jr
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: Presidential Executive Order implementing the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003,
Date of publication: 29 July 2003
Description/subject: "...The United States has begun to implement the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003, which immediately prohibits financial transactions with entities of the ruling military junta in Burma and will bar the importation of Burmese products into the United States after 30 days, according to the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). OFAC issued a bulletin July 29 that includes the text of President Bush's July 28 Executive Order regarding the blockage of the Burmese junta's property, the prohibition of financial transactions with entities of the Rangoon regime, and the ban on Burmese imports into the United States. According to President Bush's executive order, such steps are necessary due to the military junta's "continued repression of the democratic opposition in Burma" and the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13047 of May 20, 1997. Following is the text of the OFAC bulletin:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office of Foreign Assets Control via US Dept of State
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2003


Title: Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act -- Text and associated links
Date of publication: 28 July 2003
Description/subject: This legislation was signed into law by the US President on 28 July 2003.
Language: English
Source/publisher: U S Government via Trillium Asset Management
Format/size: pdf (42 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_cong_bills&docid=f:h2330rh.txt.pdf
http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/legal/statutes/bfda_2003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Weighing Sanctions
Date of publication: July 2003
Description/subject: "It’s doubtful Washington’s latest move will cripple the military regime in Burma, but it will likely stir the generals to action..." Various views and analyses on the impact of sanctions on Burma.
Author/creator: Shawn L Nance
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawady" Vol. 11, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


Title: Sanctions Alone Won’t Work (COMMENTARY)
Date of publication: 16 June 2003
Description/subject: "The US Congress is poised to punish the generals in Burma with new sanctions after their recent heavy-handed crackdown on Nobel Peace laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy party. The bill on Capitol Hill, if passed, will impose on Burma the toughest economic sanctions to date. The measure includes a ban on Burmese imports to the US and a freeze on the regime’s US assets, as well as a ban on visas to all top government officials and their families, members of the government-sponsored Union Solidarity Development Association and the managers of state-run enterprises. It sends a strong political message to the despots and is welcomed by many Burmese at home and abroad. But the majority of Burmese, who have suffered under the military regime for decades, want more than just sanctions. They want to see the end of the regime that makes them feel like hostages in their own home. To that end, they want help from the outside..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Irrawaddy: Opinion
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: Sanctioning Isolation: An Interview with John Jackson
Date of publication: June 2003
Description/subject: "John Jackson heads the London-based Burma Campaign UK and is an outspoken proponent of economic isolation for Burma. He spoke to The Irrawaddy about pressing for sanctions and targeting companies doing business with the regime in Rangoon..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2003


Title: Sanctions Rarely Work - An Interview with David Steinberg
Date of publication: April 2003
Description/subject: "...Question: As you travel to Burma occasionally how do you evaluate Burma’s current political and social conditions? Answer: I think Burma’s political and social conditions are very bad, and I have been very disappointed about the lack of progress on both fronts. Since the release of Aung San Suu Kyi on May 6, we had hoped for some modest progress, but as far as I can determine there has been virtually none except for the fact of her release. Even the release of more political prisoners has stopped and this is essential for any real dialogue. Suu Kyi cannot accept indefinitely being released if her associates are still in prison. Q: If sanctions are lifted, do you think Burma will become prosperous, given the economic mismanagement by the generals for almost 15 years? Looking at the current bank crisis, it is evident that the SPDC is not capable of solving the economic woes. A: I have been against sanctions from the beginning, in Burma or almost anywhere because they rarely work (the South Africa case was completely different). That does not mean that Burma would become prosperous without sanctions. The climate for foreign investment and business is very poor. There is the obvious corruption, there is no independent arbitration mechanism, the judiciary is not independent, there is no predictability as the rules change all the time, infrastructure is inadequate, there is government intervention at all levels, and inter-ministerial coordination is minimal at best. Not only would Burma not prosper (in spite of increased foreign exchange earnings), but the country cannot now absorb increases in foreign humanitarian assistance because of regulations and bureaucratic incapacities..."
Author/creator: David Steinberg (Interview)
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: No Dialogue Without Real Pressure
Date of publication: 26 February 2003
Description/subject: "...South Africa under apartheid offers the best example of how sanctions can be effective. International sanctions inflicted a wound so deep that negotiations became the only choice for the South African government. Burma cannot hope for military intervention, as in the case of Iraq or Serbia, for various geopolitical reasons, and the international strategy as to how to deal with the Burmese regime remains divided. But the sanctions, in their various forms, have proven to be fairly effective, especially from countries like the US. Washington has the power and political will to recognize real reform in Burma when it happens and could repeal existing sanctions. But if Rangoon continues its non-compliance concerning international calls for change, Washington could also punish the regime by stepping up sanctions on a variety of fronts, including further economic sanctions..."
Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2003


Title: Banned! Burmese Gems in the Crossfire
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: "Note: On July 28th 2003, US President George W. Bush signed into law the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (H.R. 2330). This act bans the importation into the United States of any article that is produced, mined, manufactured, grown or assembled in Burma. The following piece is actually two: 1. Thoughts on the US Embargo Against Burma by Richard W. Hughes; 2. How Sanctions Can Work by Brian Leber... In these two articles, Richard Hughes and Brian Leber examine the impact of these sanctions on the US gem trade, along with the entire issue of national sanctions, both pro and con."
Author/creator: Richard Hughes and Brian Leber
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ruby-saffire.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: The EU's relations with Myanmar / Burma
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: Overview lists Political Context; Legal basis of EU relations; Trade/Economic Issues; Community Aid, General data. Other sections include: Conclusions of the General Affairs & External Relations Council (GAERC), Updates on the EU position.
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Commission
Format/size: pdf (71.51 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


Title: Das Sanktionsregime hat ausgedient. Interview mit Angelika Köster-Loßack (MdB, Bündnis 90/ Die Grünen)
Date of publication: 12 June 2002
Description/subject: Interview with Member of Parliament (Green) about sanctions and development co-operation with Burma. Nur drei Wochen bevor der neunzehnmonatige Hausarrest von Aung San Suu Kyi aufgehoben wurde, bereiste eine Delegation des Bundesausschusses für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung Indien und Myanmar/Burma. Die Abgeordneten sprachen in Myanmar/Burma mit Politikern aus Regierungskreisen, mit Vertretern der Oppositionspartei Nationale Liga für Demokratie (NLD) sowie ethnischen Minoritäten. Höhepunkt war ein Gespräch mit Aung San Suu Kyi. In den Gesprächen ging es unter anderem um entwicklungspolitische Projekte, die als Teil internationaler Sanktionspolitik seit Jahren größtenteils eingefroren waren. Angelika Köster-Loßack, die die internationale Sanktionspolitik jahrelang mitgetragen hatte, hat nach ihrer Reise nun eine andere Sicht darauf.
Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burmesische Farbenlehre, oder: Wem hilft der Tourismus?
Date of publication: 22 April 2002
Description/subject: Zwei Farben, so spötteln Burmesen, dominieren die Fernsehbilder in ihrem Land: rot und grün. In der Tat zeigen die staatlich kontrollierten Nachrichten in monotoner Abfolge mit Vorliebe prominente Generäle (grün), wie sie buddhistischen Mönchen in ihren roten Roben Respekt erweisen und diese reich beschenken. Zwei Farben charakterisieren auch die kontroverse Diskussion über den Zustand des Landes: gold und rot. Kaum ein Werbeprospekt oder Reiseführer, in dem nicht das Image von Burma als das »Goldene Land« bemüht wird. Das buddhistische Land mit seinen goldenen Pagoden und pittoresken landschaftlichen Szenerien scheint wie von einer anderen Welt zu stammen und fasziniert daher wohl jeden, der sich mit ihm befasst. Rot hingegen sehen die Gegner des seit 40 Jahren regierenden Militärregimes, wenn es um die Schilderung der politischen Lage Burmas geht. Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Tourismusboykott und der Frage, wie man einen nachhaltigen, armutsorientierten Tourismus gestalten kann. A discussion about tourism -boykott and forms of poverty-oriented tourism. Efficacy of sanctions.
Author/creator: Martin H.Petrich
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg. 18, Nr. 1 - Asienhaus
Format/size: html (22K)
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2003


Title: Burmese Feel That Sanctions Must Stay
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: Whatever their impact on Burma's ailing economy, sanctions remain an important expression of solidarity between the international community and the Burmese people.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Manufacturers Sanguine Despite Sanctions
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: Burmese industrialists say that US economic sanctions have had little if any impact on the success of their operations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4 (Business section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Sanctions Revisited
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: After more than a decade, the debate over the use of sanctions to push for political change in Burma remains as contentious as ever.
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar Case Perpetuates False Analogies
Date of publication: 17 April 2000
Description/subject: The case before the U.S. Supreme Court on the right of Massachusetts and several California localities to promulgate regulations on foreign trade—specifically, to impose sanctions on Myanmar, formerly Burma, for human-rights violations—is a clear test of the post-Cold War maxim to "think globally, act locally."
Author/creator: Catharin Dalpino
Language: English
Source/publisher: Brookings Institute
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2000/04/17southasia-dalpino
Date of entry/update: 02 September 2010


Title: Oil Companies Investing in Burma Under Fire in Europe
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: "Representatives of the Mon Unity League and EarthRights International recently visited Europe to attend the shareholder meetings of Total, Premier Oil and IHC Caland. They spoke of forced labor and killings directly connected to the investment of oil companies in Burma, and called on them to withdraw..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 7, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2009


Title: The Massachusetts Burma Law
Date of publication: June 1999
Description/subject: Articles on the Massachusetts Burma Law and selective purchasing laws
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 2
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/BD1999-V06-N02.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: Court Rules Against Massachusetts Burma Law
Date of publication: December 1998
Description/subject: "While a federal judge has ruled that the law is unconstitutional, local law makers have filed an appeal... The Massachusetts Burma Law prohibits state agencies and authorities from contracting companies doing business in Burma unless their bids are at least ten percent cheaper than the closest comparable bid. The law, passed in 1996, was modeled on previous laws used in the successful campaign against the Aphartheid government in South Africa. But recently, the law has been challenged by a US federal court ruling, which has declared the Massachusetts Burma Law unconstitutional because it infringes on the right of the federal government to conduct foreign policy..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 6 No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2009


Title: Panel Established in Government Procurement Dispute
Date of publication: 29 October 1998
Description/subject: The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), on 21 October, established a panel to examine complaints by the European Communities and Japan that a Massachusetts law had violated provisions of the plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement. It decided to revert to three new panel requests at its next regular meeting (scheduled for 25 November): the United States' complaint against Mexico's anti-dumping investigation of US high-fructose corn syrup; Canada's complaint against EC's measures affecting asbestos; and Hungary's complaint against the Slovak Republic's import duty on Hungarian wheat. Canada and the EC gave status reports on the implementation of DSB recommendations with respect to the periodicals and the banana cases, respectively.
Language: English
Source/publisher: WTO NEWS: 1998 NEWS ITEMS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2010


Title: Panel Set to Examine EC's Complaint Against US Tax Treatment for FSCs
Date of publication: 29 October 1998
Description/subject: The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), on 21 October, established a panel to examine complaints by the European Communities and Japan that a Massachusetts law had violated provisions of the plurilateral Agreement on Government Procurement..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: WTO NEWS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010


Title: The Burmese Economy and the Withdrawal of European Trade Preferences
Date of publication: April 1997
Description/subject: in: EIAS Briefing Paper No. 97/02, Brussels, Belgium, 2. Abstract: Both external and internal pressures have built up in terms of the restoration of democracy in Burma. Amongst the external pressures are the US congressional proposals for sanction as well as the recent withdrawal of GSP preferences by The European Union, decided by the EU Council of Ministers on 24th March 1997. This briefing paper analyses the economic impact of such a withdrawal of preferences on the Burmese economy. The paper finds that since Europe's trade with Burma represents less than 3% of Burma's total exports, only 31% of which were eligible for GSP treatment, a temporary withdrawal of GSP-preferences will have a very limited economic effect on Burma's existing reports. There will however, be a political impact, albeit measured: The European Union is sending strong signals to SLORC that the "constructive engagement" approach is no longer supported, and without significant reform, both economic and political, the EU is not prepared to endorse the SLORC regime.
Author/creator: Stefan Collignon
Language: English
Source/publisher: European Institute for Asian Studies
Format/size: pdf (125.06 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.stefancollignon.de/PDF/Burmeseeconomy_1997.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2010