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Industrial Zones

Websites/Multiple Documents

Description/subject: "This compendium focuses on recent articles related to the development of industrial estates in the major urban centres of Myanmar. Although the clustering of traditional craft industries was common in towns and cities throughout Burma in the colonial era, it was not until the 1950s that modern industrial complexes such as those in the Pyay district of central Burma and in several parts of Rangoon began to take shape. The displacement of urban core residents and small enterprises that took place in the late fifties also led to the development of industrial sites in satellite towns on the east side of the capital. But it was only in the 1990s, following the opening to privately owned industries by Burma’s military government, that the push to develop industrial zones throughout the country began in earnest. Today there are more than fifty industrial parks scattered throughout the country, about half of them in the area around the national capital. Some, like the new complexes at Indagaw near Bago and the two near Kyaukse in Upper Myanmar are exclusively reserved for state-owned factories. Others are being developed with foreign capital for foreign-owned enterprises or foreign companies that have entered into joint-venture agreements with holding companies of the military government. Most of the new industrial estates are being developed by the Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development of the Ministry of Construction specifically for privately owned industries. Over 6,000 of the 50,000 privately owned manufacturing enterprises in the country are now accommodated in these zones. Recently, several privately owned land development companies have begun their own industrial parks in the Yangon area in collaboration with the DHSHD. The articles in the compendium are arranged in chronological order with the most recently published at the top of the list. The articles have been selected on the basis that they are representative of initiatives and challenges faced in the rapidly developing industrial zones of Myanmar. Internet search engines such as Google will yield many more references on any one of the many zones named here. Researchers should bear in mind that place names in Myanmar are frequently spelled in a variety of ways in English. Thus, the use of different spellings as search words may result in a considerable increase in the amount of information generated."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
Format/size: html (445K), Word (558K), pdf (786K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005

Individual Documents

Title: Industrial zones in Burma and Burmese labour in Thailand
Date of publication: January 2007
Description/subject: Conclusion: "Massive migration of Burmese workers into Thailand affects both countries. On one hand, it depletes the availability of skilled workers in Burma, which is a clear loss for a developing country, while on the other hand, Thailand benefits from such a reservoir of cheap manpower. Burma receives the monthly remittances of its expatriate workers, but Thai entrepreneurs capitalise on the value added to their export-oriented productions by the work of the Burmese migrants. Each country is aware of the size of the phenomenon and its impact on their economy, but each reacts differently. The Myanmar junta chooses to ignore the huge emigration taking place, because it reduces the potential of social, if not political, demands building up within society. The Thai government plays down the boost given to its economy by the widespread use of cheap Burmese workers by its industries, and prefers to play up the supposed or real social disorders said to be brought by Burmese immigrants: increase of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis industrial zones in burma 181 and HIV; the drain on hospital resources to care for sick Burmese;45 the expansion of prostitution; and murders and thefts. The dual attitude of the Thai authorities is politically useful to hide their own social and health shortcomings from their own population. The contribution of migrants to the Thai economy is still unrecognised officially, although a ‘new vision’ towards migrants is beginning to appear in government circles, probably out of necessity and to be in accordance with the Economic Cooperation Strategy illustrated by the launch of the first economic and industrial zone in Myawaddy-Mae Sot. For their part, Burmese authorities, until now ignoring the plight of their expatriate workers, recently realised the potential political benefits of monitoring such a huge workforce in Thailand."
Author/creator: Guy Lubeigt
Language: English
Source/publisher: 2006 Burma Update Conference via Australian National University
Format/size: pdf (760K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs4/BU-2006-Lubeigt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2008

Date of publication: 17 January 1997
Description/subject: "...Sources say the industrial zones are creating another headache: forced relocations of villagers. The source says that farmers have been forced to give up their prized land in Mingaladon north of Rangoon to make way for Mitsui's industrial park. "There is no negotiation between the farmers and the government. The govenrment simply puts up a sign saying, 'Everybody must move by this date.' Everybody must obey it or else. Villages are silently angry but they don't dare protest." Adds another local resident, explaining the public mentality about reallocations, "We have to obey the king. When the king says move, we have to move."..."
Author/creator: B.J. Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Nation"
Format/size: html (22K)
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2007