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Home > Main Library > Economy > Burma's economic relations with various countries > Import/Export > Gems

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Gems
The articles in this section are largely technical and/or political. For sites dealing with sale of gems, do an Internet search for gems Myanmar etc (there are more than 40,000)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Burmese Gems
Description/subject: "Burmese Gems is one of the leading purveyors of rare, gem-quality rubies, sapphires, and diamonds. We carry both loose stones and custom-made finished jewelry for our clients. We have been in business for over eight decades and specialize mainly on gems from Burma as they are the most precious and rarest. We cater to customers who desire the best in life and who are unwilling to settle for second best. In essence, we are in the business of making beautiful people more beautiful..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burmese Gems
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


Title: Ganoksin
Description/subject: "The Gem and Jewelry World's foremost Resource on The Internet". A number of articles about gems in Burma (search Library or "Orchid" for Burma)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ganoksin
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Gemological Institute of America
Description/subject: "...Established in 1931, GIA is the world’s largest and most respected nonprofit institute of gemological research and learning. Conceived 73 years ago in the august tradition of Europe’s most venerated institutes, GIA discovers (through GIA Research), imparts (through GIA Education), and applies (through the GIA Gem Laboratory and GIA Gem Instruments) gemological knowledge to ensure the public trust in gems and jewelry. With nearly 900 employees, the Institute’s scientists, diamond graders, and educators are regarded, collectively, as the world's foremost authority in gemology..." A search for "Burma" on the GIA site produced 47 results. For "Myanmar", 63.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gemological Institute of America (GIA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


Title: GRS (Gem Research Swisslab)
Description/subject: Browse the site to find information on Burmese gems
Language: English
Source/publisher: GRS
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Myanmar Gems and Jewellery: Myanmar (Burma) Gems, Jade Jewellery
Description/subject: ... Gems and Complete Database of Gems Emporiums held in Myanmar (Burma) in Yangon (Rangoon) Myanmar myanmar Gems gems, Myanmar myanmar Jade jade, Myanmar myanmar ... Online auction; sections on rubies, jade, pearls etc.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Myanmar Gems Enterprise
Description/subject: Scrutinising and issuing permits for gemstone mining to local private entrepreneurs; manufacturing and marketing of jewelry. ..Not much there apart from a few maps and pictures and contact information.
Language: English
Source/publisher: SPDC/Ministry of Mines
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.mining.gov.mm/MGE/1.MGE/details.asp?submenuID=17&sid=48
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Professional Jeweller
Description/subject: Search for Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Professional Jeweler
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Ruby-sapphire.com
Description/subject: A number of articles on gems and Burma
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ruby-sapphire.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: SSEF (Swiss Gemmological Insitute)
Description/subject: Provides certificates of origin.
Language: English
Source/publisher: SSEF
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


Title: THE GEMSTONE FORECASTER NEWSLETTERS
Description/subject: The newsletters, from 1995, contain a number of articles on Burmese gems, including jade.
Author/creator: Robert Genis
Language: English
Source/publisher: National Gemstone Corporation
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.preciousgemstones.com/index.html#Options
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Individual Documents

Title: Burmas Minderheiten leiden unter Raubbau an Edelsteinen und Gold - Kritik am Schweigen deutscher Juweliere
Date of publication: 15 October 2007
Description/subject: Allein der Handel mit Rubinen und anderen Edelsteinen habe der staatlichen Firma "Myanmar Gems Enterprise" nach offiziellen Angaben zwischen April 2006 und März 2007 Einnahmen in Höhe von 297 Millionen US-Dollars verschafft. Dreimal im Jahr lade Myanmar ausländische Händler zu Edelstein-Auktionen ein. Bei der letzten Versteigerung im März 2007 seien Steine im Wert von 185 Millionen US-Dollars umgesetzt worden. Damit sei die Ausfuhr von Edelsteinen neben dem Handel mit Teak-Holz sowie mit Erdöl und Erdgas, der bedeutendste Devisenbringer des Landes. Gemstones
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: "New bonanza" jilted by specialists
Date of publication: 25 February 2004
Description/subject: "After spending nearly two weeks in October in the mountains where a rubymine was said to have been discovered, a 9-men team of gem specialists dispatched by Rangoon had finally decided that the rock formations there were still to young to be worthwhile, said gem traders close to the local militia. "Samples that the experts obtained melted when they were heated, unlike Monghsu stones," one of the gem traders who also occasionally deal in drugs told S.H.A.N..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: S.H.A.N.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 February 2004


Title: Namya Rubies
Date of publication: 04 February 2004
Description/subject: Just when the U.S. government has halted America’s Ruby market from banning all imports from Burma, dealers are starting to see the best red corundum’s to come from that country in years. These stones were coming in form a promising trickle of good s from a vast untapped area called Namya, which is not too far away from Mogok the world’s most famous ruby district.
Author/creator: By David Federman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Modern Jeweler
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.airesjewelers.com/namya_ruby.htm
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Ready, Aim, Sanction!
Date of publication: 20 November 2003
Description/subject: 1 FOREWORD BY ARCHBISHOP DESMOND TUTU; INTRODUCTION:- 3 FLAWED IMPLEMENTATION; 3 MOVING AHEAD; 4 RESISTANCE; 4 BROKEN PROMISES; 5 NO DELAY; 6 SMART SANCTIONS... PART 2: THE STORY SO FAR:- 7 CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS; 9 ROADMAPS LEADING NOWHERE: * Thai �road map' _ Much Ado About Nothing; * The SPDC Roadmap_ the Perfect Stalling Tactic; * National Convention background; * What's missing from the �road map'; * What the convention does offer; * NLD & ethnic nationality participation not required; 12 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS; 14 BROADER INDIRECT IMPACT OF SANCTIONS; 17 LIMITATIONS OF SANCTIONS: * �Carroty Sticks'; 18 SANCTIONS & THE ECONOMY... PART 3: CURRENT SANCTIONS:- 21 CANADA'S SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 22 EUROPEAN UNION SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 23 JAPAN'S POLICY ON BURMA; 24 UNITED STATES SANCTIONS ON BURMA; 25 SANCTIONS & ACTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT; 25 IMPORT BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 26 BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 28 FOREIGN INVESTMENT RESTRICTIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 30 ARMS EMBARGO / NON-PROVISION OF ARTICLES/SERVICES THAT COULD BE USED FOR REPRESSION * Direct Impacts: * Room For Improvement; 33 ASSETS FREEZE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 34 TRAVEL/VISA BAN: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 35 BAN ON DIRECT FOREIGN ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; * Japan Suspends Aid to Burma; * Drug Eradication Assistance; * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 37 SUSPENSION OF MDB & IFI ASSISTANCE: * Direct Impacts & Room For Improvement; 38 TRADE PREFERENCE SUSPENSIONS: * Direct Impacts; * Room For Improvement; 40 DIPLOMATIC DOWNGRADES; 40 INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO): * A Model For Sanctions; 43 UNITED NATIONS: * SPDC Thumbing Their Nose At The UN; * UN Interventions; * Extreme Violations; * Broad Based Support; 46 WHAT ABOUT THE UNSC? 47 UN SECRETARY GENERAL'S SPECIAL ENVOY TO BURMA: * Turning of the Tide; * A New Strategy; * UN Special Envoy's Mandate; 49 THE UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR'S OBLIGATION: * A Different Tune; 50 UNDERMINING ITSELF; PART 4: RECOMMENDED ACTIONS & SANCTIONS:- 51 �RECIPE FOR RECONCILIATION'; 51 PRINCIPLED ENGAGEMENT: * Nominations for the Burma Diplomatic Squad; * Components of the Recipe; * Reconstruction of Burma; 54 NO MORE TOYS FOR THE BAD BOYS; 54 WIDEN BAN ON REMITTANCES TO BURMA; 55 IMPORT BAN ON GOODS FROM BURMA: * 10% of Exports Profits Directly Fund the Regime; 58 BAN ON CONFLICT RESOURCES: * SPDC Involvement; * Examples of SPDC �unofficial' involvement in logging; * Local Communities – Logging often hurts more than it helps; * Gems; * Environmental Destruction; * Employment; * Forced Labor; * Ethnic Nationalities – Between A Rock & A Hard Place; * Drugs, HIV/AIDS & Money Laundering; * Resource Diplomacy; * Who's Operating? * Some of the Big Boys... 70 BAN ON NATURAL GAS IMPORTS FROM BURMA; 71 RESTRICTION ON FUEL SALES TO BURMA; 72 BAN ON OIL & GAS FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI): * Oil & Gas; * New Pipeline Proposal; * Yadana Partners Strike Again; * Greater Mekong Subregion Project; 74 FULL INVESTMENT BAN: * Major FDI Players; * FDI 2001-2002; * Trade Fairs; * FDI Exposure to Money Laundering; * What About the Workers? 79 SPECIAL FOCUS: TENTACLES 'S HOLD ON THE FORMAL ECONOMY: * The BIG Tentacles – A Snapshot! * Ministry of Defense; * DDP: Directorate of Defense Procurement; * DDI: Directorate of Defense Industries; * MEC: Myanmar Economic Corporation; * UMEH (UMEHL): Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings; * MOGE/MPE/MPPE; * Ministry of Industry I; * Ministry of Industry II; * Myanmar Agricultural Produce Trading (MAPT); * Myanmar Timber Enterprise (MTE); * Myanmar Export-Import Services (MEIS); * Ministry of Post and Telegraphs (MPT); * Ministry of Hotels & Tourism; * Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); * Directorate of Ordnance; * State-Owned/Controlled Banks; 86 A CLOSER LOOK: UNION OF MYANMAR ECONOMIC HOLDINGS LTD (UMEH/UMEHL/UMEHI): * Gems; * Jade; * UMEH Business Ventures; * Keeping It In The Family: Industrial Estates; * It Gets Worse; * Six Degrees Of Separation; * Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA); * Na Sa Ka: Making Human Rights Violations Profitable... 95 WIDEN THE ASSETS FREEZE; 95 IMPLEMENT FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF) RECOMMENDATIONS; 98 WITHHOLD ASSISTANCE FROM IFI/MDBS: * Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); * East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC); * Power Trade Operating Agreement (PTOA); * Technical Assistance; * Withhold GMS Funding For Projects In Burma... 102 SUSPEND JAPAN'S OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) TO BURMA: * Options; 105 PRESSURE ON JAPAN; 105 BOYCOTT AND DIVESTMENT CAMPAIGNS; 108 DELAY TOURISM: * Benefiting Whom? 109 ASEAN TO TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: * The Reality; * Credibility on the Line; 111 INCREASE PRESSURE ON THE REGIME'S KEY PARTNERS; 112 SPORTS EMBARGO; 113 OFFICIAL RECOGNITION FOR THE CRPP; 113 INCREASE CAPACITY OF THE DEMOCRATIC MOVEMENT; 114 PUT SPDC ON PROBATION; 114 TAKE BURMA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC): * Rampant Military Growth; * Known weapons procurement during 2001-July 2003; * Civilian Military Porters; * Child Soldiers; * Drugs; * Civil War; * Displacement of People; * Systematic human rights abuses; * Failure to recognize democratic elections; * Regional Implications... PART 5: MYTHS & REALITIES:- 132 MYTH 1: Sanctions on Burma have not worked.; 133 MYTH 2: The effectiveness of sanctions is too limited to beconstructive; 134 MYTH 3: The SPDC is not influenced by international pressure; 135 MYTH 4: Sanctions can be used as a scapegoat by the SPDC for internal policy failures; 136 MYTH 5: Sanctions will alienate the �moderates' in the regime; 137 MYTH 6: Sanctions take away incentives for the regime to make progress; 138 MYTH 7: Constructive engagement would be successful in bringing reforms in Burma; 139 MYTH 8: Sanctions and principled engagement cannot work as complementary approaches; 141 MYTH 9: Western nations' economic stake in Burma is not large enough for sanctions to be effective; 142 MYTH 10: Sanctions will not impact the regime but will mostly hurt civilians: * Formal and Informal Economy; * Reality Check; * Jobs Lost? 146 MYTH 11: Sanctions are starving the population: * Very Low Nutrition and Life Expectancy Rates; * More Displacement in Ethnic and Central Areas; * Logging and Increased Poverty; * Military Forces and Arms Procurement Have Increased; * More Oppression; * Four-Cuts Program; * Mawchi Township: Impoverished by the SPDC; 151 MYTH 12: Investment and trade has brought better working conditions; 153 MYTH 13: Sanctions destroyed Burma's investment climate: * Mandalay Brewery: A Cautionary Tale; 156 MYTH 14: Sanctions created Burma's current financial crisis; * Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs); 158 MYTH 15: Burmese people do not want sanctions; 159 MYTH 16: International pressure & sanctions will isolate the regime, push it closer to China; PART 6: IRREVERSIBLE STEPS FORWARD:- 162 LESSONS FROM AFGHANISTAN: * A Few Steps Behind; * Engagement & Reward – A Dangerous Game; * Transformation; 164 SANCTIONS FOR CHANGE: * Clear Recipe; * Period of Leverage & Enforcement Actions; * Timing & Strength; * Committee oversight; * Communication; * Moderates?; * Lose-Lose Situation; * Premature Action; 172 EU'S NEW STRATEGY APRIL 2003 – WHY IT DIDN'T MEASURE UP; 174 LESSONS FROM HAITI, NIGERIA, AND SOUTH AFRICA: * Haiti; * Nigeria; * South Africa; 179 RECIPE FOR SUCCESS: * A Non-Zero Sum View of the Conflict; * Sticks as Well as Carrots; * Asymmetry of Motivation Favoring the State Employing Coercive Diplomacy; * Opponent's Fear of Unacceptable Punishment for Noncompliance; * No Significant Misperceptions or Miscalculations; * Democracy Movement's Support For Sanctions; * Support on the Thailand-Burma Border; * What Armed Resistance & Ethnic Nationality Groups Think; * NCGUB; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL; 184 CHECKLIST FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION & OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES; 185 CHECKLIST FOR ASEAN; 185 CHECKLIST FOR CHINA; 185 CHECKLIST FOR JAPAN; 186 CHECKLIST FOR INDIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR AUSTRALIA; 186 CHECKLIST FOR CANADA; 187 CHECKLIST FOR THE UNITED STATES; 187 CONCLUSION; 188 INDEX.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma (ALTSEAN-Burma)
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB) 212 pages
Date of entry/update: 21 November 2003


Title: Capitalizing on Conflict: How Logging and Mining Contribute to Environmental Destruction in Burma.
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: "'Capitalizing on Conflict' presents information illustrating how trade in timber, gems, and gold is financing violent conflict, including widespread and gross human rights abuses, in Burma. Although trade in these “conflict goods” accounts for a small percentage of the total global trade, it severely compromises human security and undermines socio-economic development, not only in Burma, but throughout the region. Ironically, cease-fire agreements signed between the late 1980s and early 1990s have dramatically expanded the area where businesses operate. While many observers have have drawn attention to the political ramifications of these ceasefires, little attention has been focused on the economic ramifications. These ceasefires, used strategically by the military regime to end fighting in some areas and foment intra-ethnic conflict in others and weaken the unity of opposition groups, have had a net effect of increasing violence in some areas. Capitalizing on Conflict focuses on two zones where logging and mining are both widespread and the damage from these activities is severe... Both case studies highlight the dilemmas cease-fire arrangements often pose for the local communities, which frequently find themselves caught between powerful and conflicting military and business interests. The information provides insights into the conditions that compel local communities to participate in the unsustainable exploitation of their own local resources, even though they know they are destroying the very ecosystems they depend upon to maintain their way of life. The other alternative — to stand aside and let outsiders do it and then be left with nothing — is equally unpalatable..." Table of Contents: Map of Burma; Map of Logging and Mining Areas; Executive Summary; Recommendations; Part I: Context; General Background on Cease-fires; Conflict Trade and Burma; Part II: Logging Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Papun Districut (Karen State); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Part III: Mining Case Study; Background on the Conflict; Mogok (Mandalay Division); Shwe Gin Township (Pegu Division); Reported Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts; Conclusion.
Author/creator: Ken MacLean
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI), Karen Environnmental & Social Action Network (KESAN)
Format/size: pdf (939K)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2003


Title: Expedition to the Namya Mines in Northern Burma
Date of publication: August 2003
Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Kanpraphai, Anong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August 2003, p. 1-8.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch/journal/No2/No2.htm
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: New Findings of Painite.
Date of publication: August 2003
Author/creator: Peretti, A.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August, p. 19-20.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Spinel from Namya
Date of publication: August 2003
Author/creator: Peretti, A. and Günther D.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Contributions to Gemology, No. 2, August, p. 15-18.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.gemresearch.ch
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Burmese Gems in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Date of publication: 03 February 2003
Description/subject: Dhaka, 3 February: "The Burmese stall at the ongoing Dhaka International Trade Fair has become well-known for selling the most costly items, according to a stall-owner in the fair. The items to be found in the Burmese gems stall include gold jewellery with precious Burmese stones like emerald, ruby, jade, sapphire and diamonds as well as cultured pearls..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Narinjara news
Format/size: html (9K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Banned! Burmese Gems in the Crossfire
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: "Note: On July 28th 2003, US President George W. Bush signed into law the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 (H.R. 2330). This act bans the importation into the United States of any article that is produced, mined, manufactured, grown or assembled in Burma. The following piece is actually two: 1. Thoughts on the US Embargo Against Burma by Richard W. Hughes; 2. How Sanctions Can Work by Brian Leber... In these two articles, Richard Hughes and Brian Leber examine the impact of these sanctions on the US gem trade, along with the entire issue of national sanctions, both pro and con."
Author/creator: Richard Hughes and Brian Leber
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ruby-saffire.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Life: Between Hell and the Stone of Heaven
Date of publication: 11 November 2001
Description/subject: "More than a million miners desperately excavate the bedrock of a remote valley hidden in the shadows of the Himalayas. They are in search of just one thing - jadeite, the most valuable gemstone in the world. But with wages paid in pure heroin and HIV rampant, the miners are paying an even higher price. Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark travel to the death camps of Burma...Hpakant is Burma's black heart, drawing hundreds of thousands of people in with false hopes and pumping them out again, infected and broken. Thousands never leave the mines, but those who make it back to their communities take with them their addiction and a disease provincial doctors are not equipped to diagnose or treat. The UN and WHO have now declared the pits a disaster zone, but the military regime still refuses to let any international aid in..." jade
Author/creator: Adrian Levy & Cathy Scott-Clark
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Observer (London)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: GEM ADVENTURES: A Journey to Mogok
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: "This article is excerpted by the story written by Ted Themelis, an expert on Myanmar (Burmese) gem deposits, and it was published in the Gemkey Magazine (Dec. 1998-Jan.1999 issue). It was updated in October 2001 incorporating all the latest news and observations gathered during Ted's latest visit to Mogok in September 2001. This article represents the most updated and authoritative account on Mogok available anywhere..."
Author/creator: Ted Themelis
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gemlab Inc.
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://themelis.com/A-journey%20to%20Mogok.htm
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


Title: Out of the black: Burmese gems & politics.
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: Gems, drugs and conflict in Burma
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Guide, Vol. 20, No. 4, Issue 5, Part 1, Sept.–Oct 2001, pp. 8–14.
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Out of the Jungle
Date of publication: 09 July 2001
Description/subject: Out of the Jungle, Part I "Conversation with a Burmese gem smuggler in a Maesai snooker hall: "Can you get a big chunk of jade into Thailand?" "Sure, not a problem." "But we want a really big chunk ..." "It’s okay, the soldiers will deal with getting it across." We pump the smuggler for more information, but he senses that we’re more interested in who "the soldiers" are than in buying jade. He departs without making an arrangement. But you can be sure that along the porous Burmese-Thai border that night, several large pieces of jade and other goods ranging from the sacred to the profane crossed over rivers and through mountain passes into Thailand, to be distributed to the rest of the world..."...FOR PARTS 2 AND 3, CLICK ON "ARCHIVES" AND NAVIGATE.
Author/creator: Damon Poeter, Ted Themelis
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Spleen
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2004


Title: The fluid inclusions in jadeitite from Pharkant area,
Date of publication: 20 October 2000
Description/subject: "Abstract A lot of liquid-gas and liquid-gas-solid inclusions were found in Pharkant jadeitites, northwestern Myanmar and their characteristics, geological setting and porphyroclastic jadeites with inclusions in them were described in detail. The results analyzed by Raman spectrometer showed that the component of liquid-gas phase and solid phase (daughter minerals) in fluid inclusions is H2O + CH4 and jadeite separately. The results indicated that Pharkant jadeitites were crystallized from H2O + CH4 bearing jadeitic melt which may originate from mantle. The P-T conditions in which the jadeitites were crystallized were speculated to be T 650 , P 1.5 GPa..." Keywords: Pharkant Myanmar, jadeitite, jadeite, fluid inclusion, H2O + CH4, jadeitic melt, mantle.
Author/creator: SHI Guanghai, CUI Wenyuan, WANG Changqiu & ZHANG Wenhuai
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chinese Science Bulletin Vol. 45 No. 20 October 2000
Format/size: pdf (406.03 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.springerlink.com/content/32m1m417gn4h3m41/
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Burmese Jade, the Inscrutable Gem
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: Part 1: Burma's Jade MInes...Part 2: Jadeite Trading, Grading and Identification...Abstract: "The jadeite mines of Upper Burma (now Myanmar) occupy a privileged place in the world of gems, as they are the principal source of top-grade material. Part 1 of this article, by the first foreign gemologists allowed into these important mines in over 30 years, discusses the history, location, and geology of the Burmese jadeite deposits, and especially current mining activities in the Hpakan region. Part 2 will detail the cutting, grading and trading of jadeite – in both Burma and China – as well as treatments. The intent is to remove some of the mystery surrounding the Orient’s most valued gem".
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, Olivier Galibert, George Bosshart, Fred Ward, Thet Oo, Mark Smith, Tay Thye Sun, George E. Harlow
Language: English
Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/jade_burma_part_2.htm
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Burma's Jade Mines: An Annotated Occidental History
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: "The history of Burma’s jade mines in the West is a brief one. While hundreds of different reports, articles and even books exist on the famous ruby deposits of Mogok, only a handful of westerners have ever made the journey to northern Burma’s remote jade mines and wrote down their findings. Occidental accounts of the mines make their first appearance in 1837. Although in 1836, Captain Hannay obtained specimens of jadeite at Mogaung during his visit to the Assam frontier (Hannay, 1837), Dr. W.Griffiths (1847) was the first European to actually visit the mines, in 1837 (Griffiths, 1847). The following is his account, as given in Scott and Hardiman (1900–1901):..."
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of the Geoliterary Society (Vol. 14, No. 1, 1999). via ganoksin
Format/size: html (55K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: Summary: "There are two major sources of rubies in Myanmar (Burma)—Mogok (Mandalay Division) and Mongshu (southern Shan State)—and several minor sources Nawarat/Pyinlon (near Namkhan, Shan State); Tanai and Nayaseik (Kachin State); Katpana (Kachin State); and Sagyin and Yatkanzin stone tracts (Madaya township) near Mandalay. Mogok and the smaller deposits are similarly hosted in white marble with considerable diversity among the rubies from each tract and strong similarities among the rubies between the tracts. Mongshu, although associated with metasediments and marbles, yields distinctly different rough and treated stones. Thus, stones from Mongshu are easily distinguished from those found at Mogok and the smaller deposits. These differences can be discerned using an optical microscope. Basic characteristics of stones from the minor sources are described, however further research is required to assess criteria for distinguishing among these sources and Mogok... Methodology: Several hundred rubies from these source areas in Myanmar were examined for features that could be recorded photographically using a Mark 6 Gemolite with a 10X eyepiece normally at maximum magnification (~60x). Images were recorded on 35 mm Ektachrome tungsten film (ASA 160) with an "eye-piece" camera and printed electronically on a FUJIX Pictography 3000 (TDT process printer). Images are presented here at relatively low resolution."
Author/creator: Han Htun, George E. Harlow
Language: English
Source/publisher: The American Museum of Natural History,
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Diamonds from Myanmar and Thailand: Characteristics and Possible Origins
Date of publication: 1998
Author/creator: Griffin, W.L., Win, T.T., Davies, R., Wathanakul, P., Andrew, A. and Metcalfe, I.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Geochemical Evolution and Metallogeny of Continents (GEMOC)
Format/size: html, MS 199 KB
Alternate URLs: http://it.geol.science.cmu.ac.th/gs/courseware/218462/TEXT/Diamond/Diamond%20from%20Myanmar%20and%2...
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: Fracture healing/filling of Möng Hsu Ruby
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: "...Mogok is not the only active ruby mining area in Burma. Stones from the Möng Hsu (pronounced ‘Maing Shu’ by the Shan; ‘Mong Shu’ by the Burmese) deposit, located in Myanmar’s Shan State, northeast of Taunggyi, first began appearing in Bangkok in mid-1992. Since that time they have completely dominated the world’s ruby trade in sizes of less than 3 ct. Indeed, 99% of all the rubies traded today in Chanthaburi (Thailand) are from Möng Hsu..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Australian Gemmologist (1998, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 70–74).
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Heaven and Hell - the quest for jade in Upper Burma
Date of publication: April 1997
Description/subject: "n a remote corner of Upper Burma, thousands are busy, seeking, searching, clawing at a mountain, prying loose boulders from the compact brown soil. Jack hammers pound out a rat-a-tat beat, punctuated by the occasional cymbal crash of pick and shovel, while a choir of coolies stand behind with baskets to carry the debris out of this earthen tomb. As each boulder is turned over, it is quickly examined, then discarded, along with the mounds of dirt that surround it. So the process is repeated. Over and over, again and again, hour after hour, day after day. The operation is a study in patience. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they make mistakes, they miss the prize, they don’t go to heaven. The construction of the Great Pyramids in Egypt was a study in patience; that in Upper Burma today is on no less a scale, but involves deconstruction, the dismantling of entire mountains, step by step, bit by bit, stone by stone, one pebble at a time. Like the builders of pyramids, all involved share a single-minded devotion to the task. Patience, patience – those who hurry lose, they miss something, they don’t go to heaven. Those who hurry don’t find jade..." .
Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Fred Ward
Language: English
Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-toc.htm
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010


Title: "Ruby & Sapphire" - chapter 12, on Burma (Myanmar)
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: In four substantial parts, with text, pictures, maps, tables...
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma2.htm (Part 2)
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma3.htm (Part 3)
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm (Part 4)
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Where the twain do meet: Thailand's border towns
Date of publication: 1997
Description/subject: "...Burma is home to one of the planet’s richest sources of gem wealth. Rubies and sapphires from Mogok, rubies from Möng Hsu, jade from Hpakan, pearls from the Mergui Archipelago, these are but a few of her treasures. But since 1962, Burma has also achieved notoriety of a different sort – home to one of the planet’s most repressive regimes.
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: Momentum magazine (1997, Vol. 5, No. 16, pp. 16–19)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Pigeon's Blood: A Pilgrimage to Mogok - Valley of Rubies
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: "...Long before the Buddha walked the earth, the northern part of Burma was said to be inhabited only by wild animals and birds of prey. One day the biggest and oldest eagle in creation flew over a valley. On a hillside shone an enormous morsel of fresh meat, bright red in color. The eagle attempted to pick it up, but its claws could not penetrate the blood-red substance. Try as he may, he could not grasp it. After many attempts, at last he understood. It was not a piece of meat, but a sacred and peerless stone, made from the fire and blood of the earth itself. The stone was the first ruby on earth and the valley was Mogok..."
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes
Language: English
Source/publisher: ruby-sapphire.com
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Tracing the Green Line - A journey to Burma's jade mines
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: "... This article resulted from the first visit by foreign gemologists to Burma’s jade mines in over thirty years. the mines are described in detail, along with the road to and from the area...For over thirty years, foreigners had petitioned the Burmese government to visit the jade mines. Due to the war which had raged between the central government and successionist rebels, the answer always came back no. But times had changed. The country was now called Myanmar. And the central government had recently made peace with the rebels. So, hat in hand, we went and asked again. And we received. They said we could go..." ... I did not see any publication date for the article, but the journey was in 1996, which I have therefore put as the date of the article.
Author/creator: Richard Hughes, Oliver Galibert, Mark Smith & Dr. Thet Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ganoksin
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/burma_jade_journey2.htm (Part 2)
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/tracing-green-line.htm (Part 1)
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Burmese Sapphire Giants
Date of publication: October 1995
Description/subject: "...Introduction to Burmese sapphires Although it is rubies for which Burma (Myanmar) is famous, some of the world’s finest blue sapphires are also mined in the Mogok area. Today the world gem trade recognizes the quality of Burmese sapphires, but this was not always the case..."
Author/creator: Richard W. Hughes, U Hla Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of Gemmology (Vol. 24, No. 8, October, pp. 551–561)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2004


Title: Gem Mining in Burma
Date of publication: April 1957
Description/subject: An engaging account of the historical, social and technical dimensions of gem mining and trading in Burma. "For many centuries, Burma has been one of the most important gem centers in the world. The Mogaung area, practically in the path of the famous World War II Burma Road, is the only commercial source of jadeite that produces qualities ranging from the finest gem emerald green to the cheapest utilitarian quality. The gem mines in Mogok are the only sources of fine gem rubies; Siam rubies are generally inferior. Only in rare cases is a fine Siam ruby found. Today, approximately eighty-five percent of all rubies and sapphires mined are of Burmese origin, especially since the Kashmir mines in India have ceased operations on any large scale. Despite sufficient time and adequate facilities for making a complete and thorough investigation, a superficial survey in the course of several trips during the past two years revealed the presence of immense wealth still hidden within Burma. Until a complete scientific investigation is made of the gem areas in Burma, it is hoped that this article will fill the interim gap..." (c) Gemological Institute of America. Reprinted by permission.
Author/creator: Martin Ehrmann
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Gems and Gemology" Spring 1957
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB, 2.7MB- original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Ehrmann.pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2004


Title: Short Description of the Mines of Precious Stones, in the District of Kyat-pyen, in the Kingdom of Ava
Date of publication: 1833
Description/subject: Editor’s note: This first-hand communication from Giuseppe d’Amato appears to have been written originally in Italian. It was translated for publication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1833, although the translator’s name is not provided. However short this account, it provides valuable detailed information mining in royal Burma as well as a few hints concerning Chinese traders in Upper Burma. M.W.C.
Author/creator: Père Giuseppe D’Amato
Language: English
Source/publisher: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal via SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
Format/size: pdf (21K)
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2010