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Home > Main Library > Economy > Economies of the States and Divisions of Burma > Yangon Division

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Yangon Division

Individual Documents

Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016


Title: Life in the Machine House of Rural Migrants: Case Study of the Lives Of Rural Migrant Industrial Workers and their Families in Haling Thayar Industrial Zones
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In the past four years, Myanmar’s economy and industrial sector have experienced significant development which has pushed rural work forces into urban industries. Livelihoods of rural migrant industrial workers in Myanmar, along with urbanization and industrial development, need to be researched if economic quality of life is to be improved and social needs to be addressed for migrant industrial workers. This research will test the hypothesis: “Rural migrants experience improved life after moving to work in factories in Hlaingtharyar Industrial Zone”. This research examined by answering three research questions Do migrants experience social rights to development, social standards and quality of life after moving to Yangon Industrial Zones, What relationship do rural migrants have with local industrial workers, authorities and labor unions, What are the needs of rural migrants to improve social standards and quality of life?. The purpose of this research proposal is to better understand the lives of rural to urban migrant workers in industrial zones, to assess how they adapt and survive in their new environment as well as their social relationship with local habitants, work, unions, and their families. This issue makes a direct impact on productivity of industries and human rights issues of labors. This research mainly applied ethnography approaches to rural migrant workers as a human agency.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tin Maung Htwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (203K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015


Title: Snaking Out the Rats
Date of publication: August 2010
Description/subject: With rodents in the city increasing, people in Rangoon are buying harmless, colorful snakes to rid homes and businesses of rats.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 31 August 2010


Title: Left to Rot
Date of publication: August 2009
Description/subject: "The city of Rangoon is a victim of the junta's abandonment -- streets are crumbling, trash piles up, electricity is an on-off affair, sewage drains overflow and traffic lights don't work..."
Author/creator: Wai Sann
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


Title: Development in Yangon Division
Date of publication: 14 February 2005
Description/subject: This article on Yangon Division was originally printed in the New Light of Myanmar on February 14th, 2005, as part of a series leading up to and immediately following the celebration of Union Day on the 12th of February. The original text along with accompanying pictures and tables can also be found in the archive of the print edition of NLM in the On-line Burma Library at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-14.pdf. An article summing up recent developments in the whole country with accompanying statistical tables was published in NLM on Union Day, 2005, and is available at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-12.pdf.
Author/creator: Thiha Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: SPDC (News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar)
Format/size: pdf (2.3 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-14.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 August 2005


Title: PROFILE OF YANGON DIVISION
Description/subject: This document provides a basic introduction to Yangon Division inculding information about the topography and climate; population; languages spoken; religion; forest, sown acreage and produce; historical sites and interesting places; tradational festivals and main construction projects.
Language: English
Source/publisher: MODiNS.NET
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2005