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Mandalay Division

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: PROFILE OF MANDALAY DIVISION
Description/subject: This document provides a basic introduction to Mandalay Division inculding information about topography and climate; population; inhabitant; languages and religion; forest, sown acreage and produce; other products of Mandalay Division; historical sites and interesting places; festivals and Radio/TV retransmission and microwave stations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: MODiNS.NET
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 June 2005


Individual Documents

Title: Policies for Shared Prosperity in Myanmar (English, Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 23 February 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "The November 8, 2015 elections in Myanmar marked a historic milestone in the country’s political and economic transition that began in 2011. Incoming policy makers are preparing to pick up the baton and deliver on the people’s strong aspirations for a harmonious and prosperous Myanmar. In this series of policy notes, the World Bank Group seeks to promote dialogue on critical development challenges and on options for policies and reforms that can contribute to shared prosperity for the people of Myanmar. Myanmar has strong medium-term growth potential. Efforts to open up and liberalize the economy over the past 4 years have revealed pent up demand, brought in new investments, and increased productivity from a very low base. Between 2011 and 2014 Myanmar’s economy grew at an average real rate of 7 percent per year, which is among the fastest in East Asia, and comparable to other high performing countries in their initial phase of liberalization. In the coming years, further removal of economic controls could help Myanmar to maintain a strong pace of growth. Myanmar has a real opportunity in ensuring that growth is also inclusive. This not only means sustaining a strong pace of growth, but doing so through a diversified economy that can absorb the labor force into higher productivity sectors. The agriculture sector, which suffers from low productivity, contributing on average only 10-15 percent to annual real GDP growth over the past 4 years, employs over half of the country’s labor force. The manufacturing and construction sectors on the other hand, which have the highest value added per unit of labor, employ only 10-15 percent of the labor force. Policies that can enable a structural shift to more productive and labor intensive activities could make a big dent on poverty and inequality in Myanmar. These would include expanding access to essential public services. This could enable a bigger share of the population to benefit from the agglomeration of economic activities around Myanmar’s growth poles, namely Yangon and Mandalay, which account for roughly 35 percent of national GDP. The sound governance and use of Myanmar’s natural resource wealth are also critical to inclusive growth. Around 10 percent of Myanmar’s official GDP is derived from natural resources, though some estimate unofficial trade in natural resources at more than 20 percent of official GDP. This not only concentrates wealth from non-renewable national assets in the hands of a few, but also finances conflicts, which have created vicious cycles of poverty that are geographically and ethnically concentrated. Policy reforms since 2011 have started to promote inclusion so that a growing share of Myanmar’s people can take advantage of new opportunities and benefit from economic growth. Higher tax collections from non-agriculture sectors and rising natural resource rents have enabled Myanmar to reprioritize public spending towards critical economic and social service needs. Foreign exchange, trade and investment liberalization have opened up economic opportunities and the space for investment beyond a small group of highly protected sectors. Increased public sector transparency and decentralization have started to gradually bring the state closer to the people. Given this context, how can Myanmar advance reforms to close the disparities across its geography, ethnic communities, and income groups; and to promote productivity and competitiveness? This is the question that this series of policy notes, “All aboard! Policies for shared prosperity in Myanmar,” aims to generate debate and ideas. The theme “All aboard” is meant to reflect inclusivity and imminent departure on a positive journey. The policy notes focus on six interconnected areas that are likely to be high priorities for shared prosperity (figure 1). The first is on closing the gap in access to social services for improving Myanmar’s human development outcomes. This could help to strengthen the productivity and employability of Myanmar’s current and future labor force, which is the critical input to inclusive growth and a precondition to success in all the other areas. The second policy note is on growing together by reducing poverty in rural areas. Policies to boost agriculture productivity and accelerate the delivery of essential services in rural areas, where they lag the most, could help to supply the much needed labor and food for the rapidly expanding industrial, manufacturing and service sectors. Investment in higher productivity sectors is also likely to require breaking business as usual to foster competitiveness and a dynamic environment for private sector growth across the country, which are discussed in the third policy note. These include policies that are targeted at reducing the costs of doing business and engaging in international trade. The relative impact of these could be enormous in terms of incentivizing private sector investments, expanding access to economic opportunities for rural and urban populations, and diversifying the sources of growth. Enabling these to drive major structural transformations in the economy is likely to require policy reforms in two important areas. The fourth policy note therefore looks at options to expand Myanmar’s ability for financing the future through an open, modern, and inclusive financial system. This is important not only for channeling savings to large private investments, but also to finance public sector operations and service delivery, facilitate the expansion of international trade, and enable the transfer of increased remittances to rural areas. The fifth policy note is on energizing Myanmar by enhancing access to sustainable energy for all. Myanmar’s growing economy will need more energy than is currently supplied – not only for productive sectors, but also for the delivery of public services across the country."
Author/creator: Habib Rab + team
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: html, pdf (English, 1.4MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original...Burmese, 1.6MB-reduced version; 2.1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-en-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/World_Bank-2016-02-23-All_aboard-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016


Title: Micro Level Study on Socio-­economic Situation of Sinlan Village, Pyin Oo Lwin Township: A Geographic Perspectives
Date of publication: 04 September 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Socio­‐economic situation means an individual's or a group's position within a hierarchical social structure. Socio-­economic status depends on a combination of variables, including occupation, education, income, wealth, and place of residence. While sociologists often use socio-­economic status as a means of predicting behavior, geographers used to focus on that position with the relations to or reference of a place or space or a region. Therefore, in this paper, the variables of the social and economic status of a small village will be examined at an individual level with the respects of location, physical phenomena, human resource, land use pattern and the environmental perception of the rural dwellers from Sinlan Village. This village is located about 1km northwest of Pyin Oo Lwin town. It lies at an elevation of about 1,160 meters above sea level so that it receives temperate climate. As consequence, the main economy and living style of the village is quite different to that of the others. Random sampling method was used to define the number of households to be visited and interviewing and field observation methods are also applied to collect the necessary data by the teachers and PhD preliminary students from Geography Department, Mandalay University. The field survey was made in February,2015.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nyo Nyo and Soe Sandar San
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015


Title: MANDALAY ECONOMY IN TRANSITION (185 9-1877)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Ratanabon City is well known as Mandalay City. It was founded by King Mindon soon after he ascended to the Amarapura Throne in 1852. Many obstacles were ahead of him during his reign. Myanmar was defeated in the second war with the British the result of which was that lower Myanmar was ceded to the latter. It was indeed, a great loss to Myanmar King for rich food supply of rice, salted fish, fish paste and salt all of which were essential to Myanmar daily diet. The first and foremost reform to be carried out was to lessen its dependence for rice on lower Myanmar. The second was to introduce coinage system to become easier in economic transactions and taxations. And the third was the introduction of economic monopoly system and that of tax farming in inter-regional trade. People could see in this period change in agriculture, change in monetary system and change in trade all of which had never been practiced. For these changes in economic performances to be successfully implemented, King Mindon had an efficient, enthusiastic and zealous Heir Apparent popularly known as Prince Kanaung who was very much interested in all-round development of the kingdom to match with, or supersede the British imperialists so that they could be driven out and regain lost territories. For these reasons, reforms were introduced and carried out in the kingdom to become materialized. In brief this research paper is intended to treat the following three major points: on agriculture; on monetary system and on trade.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Yee Yee Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (211K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2015


Title: Socio-­economic Changes in Livelihood of Htantaw Village Amarapura Township, Mandalay Region
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Considering health in the broad term as well–being this study examines changes to villagers’ lives with the effect of privatization and modernization policies. It explores how their economy is related to the changing environment in both time and space. How these villagers cope, struggle and do their best to sustain their living in light of limited resources they had are also presented. This study is conducted in Htantaw Village in the area of Taungthaman Lake locating in the ancient Amarapura Township of Mandalay Division, Myanmar. Villagers, from different ages, occupations and economic status, were interviewed in their homes. Focus groups were used in the first section of the data collection stage. In addition, this study encouraged village leaders participation through the data collection process such as through drawing a Village map, talking through the geographic and social changes in the village and villagers’ struggle and survival strategies. Before 1990, Htantaw; Village is a typical agricultural based village where villagers worked on rice farming, wickerwork and livestock breeding such as duck and cow. Initial socio and economic changes began in 1996 when the water draining in and out was blocked to make a natural Taungthaman Lake as the huge fish–raising ponds by the military government which later issued concession of fishing in a nearby lake owned by a private company. This greatly impacted the villager’s livelihood not only the farming family but also duck and cow raising for milk too, including the rice farmers as their paddy field and agricultural land around the lake had been flooded. The other significant social change was in 2000 due to the establishment of Yadanabon University providing the education for more than twenty thousand students in total a year. The village has become crowded not only with students moving in and from other places but also people who had moved in as workers for the university. Villagers who have some savings started the room rental business and grocery shops. Some started small business es such as restaurants, mobile phone shops and café shops, beauty salon and dress making shops. The social tension between the local and new moving in has been mentioned as well as the increasing struggles in villagers’ life. As the study was conducted by university staff members with the participation of village leaders, its results will be used in further discussions to build a relationship between academic and community people in order to better support the economic and educational development of the village and suggest a model for peaceful learning society in the country.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sandar Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2015


Title: Development in Mandalay Division
Date of publication: 13 February 2005
Description/subject: This article on Mandalay Division was originally printed in the New Light of Myanmar on February 13th, 2005, as part of a series leading up to and immediately following the celebration of Union Day on the 12th of February. The original text along with accompanying pictures and tables can also be found in the archive of the print edition of NLM in the On-line Burma Library at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-13.pdf An article summing up recent developments in the whole country with accompanying statistical tables was published in NLM on Union Day, 2005, and is available at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-12.pdf.
Author/creator: Thiha Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: SPDC (News and Periodicals Enterprise, Ministry of Information, Union of Myanmar)
Format/size: pdf (2.3 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/NLM2005-02-13.pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 August 2005