VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Chin (Zo)- economic, social, cultural, political

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Chin (Zo)- economic, social, cultural, political

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: The Last Frontier: Burma's Chinland In Transition - A Project Maje Update Report, April 2012
Date of publication: April 2012
Description/subject: "In mid-2012, with reforms taking hold in central Burma, war raging in the north, and a possible peace process in the east, little attention is being paid to Burma's western regions, including the homelands of the indigenous peoples known as the Chins. A group of culturally similar, but linguistically diverse ethnic peoples associated with highland lifestyles (although many live in river valleys), the people who have been called "Chins" in Burma have historically lived in Chin State, Sagaing Division, and far northern Arakan. These areas of residence are known as Chinland, particularly in indigenous-rights contexts. Some of these people prefer to be called Zo, and regional/tribal/linguistic names are often used in addition to "Chin" or instead of "Chin." Some of them who live in other countries use "Burmese" to describe their origins, or are described that way by others. Total population estimates of the "Chin" people of Burma, including residents outside of Burma, come to around 1.5 million. This update report is composed of interviews with people who identify themselves as Chin or Zo. The interviews took place in March-April 2012 in India: Delhi and Mizoram State (which borders Burma's Chin State). The interviews contain information on the current situation within Chinland and on the conditions for refugees and migrants in India. Of particular interest are Chin opinions on what the benchmarks would be for safe return to their homeland. A range of responses to change in Burma are observable. Some Chin refugees have already returned, some have gone back to visit for the first time in decades, and the majority apparently do not trust Burma's military/government and express a "wait and see" viewpoint..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


Title: Chin Forum
Description/subject: Aims and objectives: "The Chin forum was formed with aims and objectives of providing a common forum for all the Chin through which they could continuously strengthen the unity among themselves and also with all the other democratic forces of Burma and other nationalities. Furthermore, Chin Forum will carry out various tasks of research and documentation works for the betterment of entire Chin people under six working groups:..."
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Chin World
Description/subject: Chin Directory, Chin Songs, Zuk Album, e-books, Videos
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chin World Media
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Chinland
Description/subject: "The Official Website of the Chin National Front". Chin National Front, CNA, Government of Chinland, STATEMENTS, SPEECHES, ALLIANCES, UNPO, UN LINKS.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chin National Front
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Mizo Christian Global Network
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Chin Forum
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Voices of the People: "A Collection of Stories of people of Burma"
Description/subject: "These are Burma’s voices for change, extraordinary stories of people of Burma from all walks of life. Their experiences, struggles, fears, and successes. These are unheard stories of incredible spirit of resilience and courage, voices of hope and dreams that have emerged from decades of oppression. Help us spread these voices across the globe!"...Stories and voices from Karen, Karenni, Shan, Kachin, Chin, Rakhine, Mon, Palaung, Pa-O, Nagas and other ethnic minorities.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2016


Title: Zomi Daily
Description/subject: News, Articles, Technology & Science, Health, poetry, Newsletter
Language: English/ Zomi
Source/publisher: Zomi Daily
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2012


Title: Zomi National Congress
Description/subject: (New Generation) pan hanciamna...in Chin
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Zomi Online Directory
Alternate URLs: http://zomidirectory.com/index.php?option=com_sobi2&catid=10&Itemid=54
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2010


Individual Documents

Title: Unsheltered Heights: Northern Chin State's Environmental Issues
Date of publication: March 2017
Description/subject: A starry frost will come dropping on the pools and I'll be astray on unsheltered heights - - Seamus Heaney, "Sweeney Astray"..... Contents: Introduction... Mining... Logging... Biodiversity... Forest Products... Agriculture... Ecotourism Roads... Energy... Water Supplies and Recycling... Watershed... Climate Change... Background reading with links to articles.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2017


Title: Social Networks and Remittances as Social Capital for Rural Community Development, Chin State, Myanmar : A Case Study of Vanzang Village
Date of publication: 26 August 2015
Description/subject: Conclusion: "For the Vanzang community network, the formation of VGM plays crucial role in connecting with all Vanzang oversea people virtually in one place and solidarity with the villagers abounds afterwards. This reinforced cohesive relationships among themselves through virtual group resulted in the birth of various different projects in the home community. It is found that one key person stands out as mobilizer for the villagers to the oversea migrants. For the villagers, their main mobilizing strategy is to pinpoint the shared struggles and experiences in the community life. As it is seen above, for basic infrastructure development, the community raise the issues in such a way that the possibility of a new improvement clearly demonstrated in the understanding of the overseas migrants. And all the issues raised are central to the welfare of the community life. Most of the development issues are raised by the villagers basing on the needs of the community. The migrants are the sponsors for community development programs implemented. In this community network, both the committee and the members are agent and initiator of development. Though some ideas may originate from the village or rom overseas, some are transported from networking to other community, like neighboring villages. In most cases, community projects help share the remittance to the non-­‐receiving families. In the remittance initiated community projects, the poorer segment of the community are not marginalized but centered or equal beneficiaries of the development. It is the community projects that are reaching equally its members. The distribution of remittance through community development is effective to harness remittance for social and economic development in the rural regions where the gove rnment is not responsive to its overall development. It is noticed that several projects were carried out without formal leadership system. It was a loose network without any rule or regulations, but function effectively under this structure. Later on, this necessitates the formation of Vanzang Global Development Group in 2008 for coordinating community projects and mobilizing all Vanzang people from Myanmar and abroad is the important development of the community network. Community network helps to exchange information and mobilize more effectively for the cause of Vanzang people.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Cung Lian Hu
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (264K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: The Bride Price Negotiation Among Chin Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 July 2015
Description/subject: "In 2012, amidst the communal violence between Royingha and Rakhine, a Chin bride father at Paletwa in southern part of Chin state in Myanmar asked twenty lakhs in kyat (approximately equivalent to 200 US$) to the groom for the bride price which made the public shocking record that a normal price range around 5-­6 lakhs (approximately equivalent to 500-­‐600US$). On the other hand, the other bride’s father asked five thousands kyats for the bride price to the groom in May 2013. These two cases have shocked near and far Chin members in Paletwa. Some Chin young women are even competing for their bride price. Many Chin nationalists have then attained concern for this circumstance as an additional ethnic politics issue from the state’s hegemony nation state building process. Yet, not only the geographical location of Paletwa but its socio-economic setting also much interwoven with Rakhine since in the historical time (see also in Kyin Lam Mang 2014; CHKC 2012; Brown 1960). Many shop owners in Paletwa municipal market have informed me in 2013 (May-­‐July) how much they are affected from the communal violence happening in Rakhine where the flow of major basic goods and medicines are imported from Rakhine is limited. In Paletwa, half of the residence belongs to Rakhine ethnic nationalities with a hundred Muslim populations. The trading disadvantage categorized as; the Muslim on the top, the Chin in middle and the Rakhine on t he bottom due to their socio-­‐economic networks in Sittwe and Kyautdaw in Rakhine state. That is, for example, a trading associated in Rakhine state have much facilitating for Rakhine in Paletwa while many Muslim and the Chin do not much deserve to have such network. The Chin missionary or nationalists have claims that Paletwa is in need of “taking care” otherwise their fellows are under the economic “trapping” of the Rakhine.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Flora Bawi Nei Mawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Chin Ethnic Identity and Chin Politic in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Conclusion: "To conclude the article, chin state has diverse and multiple dialects, language, norms, traditions and religions, and is eager to set up own identity based on its context. Especially, from a small tribe to a big tribe group, they want to get their own identity and self-administration according to the history of myths and traditional practices. It means that every tribe group has the same rights and the same opportunities in its life. For instance, every tribe group has its own customary law and traditional land use authority. Moreover, the rights are leading them to establish federal system in their own destination, ensuring, respecting and protecting minority rights. Therefore, most of the ethnic political parties believe that Federalism is the best way to ensure and protect their own identity and own people in Myanmar. In fact, ethnic political parties play officially in the democratic system of Myanmar, demanding federal administration in the political agenda. For instance, by looking at the Chin ethnic political parties, they have the same vision, that is to initiate the federal state and ensure the rights of Chin people in Myanmar. Meanwhile, ethnic armed groups have been opposing the political system of Myanmar because the junta administration and democratic p ractice of Myanmar is not ensuring the political rights of ethnic people and indigenous p eople in term of social, cultural, traditional and administration. Mostly, Myanmar democratic transition has been a favor to the majority Burmese people, discrimination toward ethnic people in different levels of constitution and bureaucratic system, mainly dominated by central government as well. In fact, the minorities feel that they have to retain their language, their religion, their custom and be granted to be full members of the state. Especially, Chin political parties have been strongly standing on “We are co-founders of the U nion of Myanmar, also called the union of Burma”. I assume that if there is no federal system in Myanmar, the rights of ethnic groups will be neglected and the civil war will not end. In fact, the ethnic people and ethnic arm groups will fight to retain them in political agenda of Myanmar. However, the ethnic minorities of Myanmar need to tolerate the fact that inclusion is the best way to establish the union state rather than separation from the union state. Majority of them also need to recognize the philosophy of federalism and protect the rights of ethnic people, indigenous people and their ways of life. It means that the Union of Myanmar is found together with multi-nationality..."
Author/creator: Salai Vanni Bawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (732K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Ethnic Chin People Today: Livelihood, Migration, Internal Displacement and Exile
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Last summer, I met a young Chin exile who came back from Australia to Yangon. He said he returns home once a year to do development in his village in Tedim Township in northern Chin State. According to this young man, although he experienced challenges in Malaysia as an exile before he reached the safe third country, he has now graduated in Australia and got a good job. So he wants to help his native villagers for their livelihood security. Thus, he set up a women group of weavers in five villages nearby his village to resume traditional textile weaving. He initiated financial support to buy them 10 wooden frame looms and all the required materials for weaving. He added “We Chin people exiles today are now escape from poverty and I am planning to do development program in my region to end the poverty.” He continued, “Currently, vision of many exile Chin people today is supporting any kind of development in their native villages individually or collectively.” In this paper, I will elaborate Chin people today should keep migrating out to escape from the multiple hardships in their native land so that not only for their better life but also they are able to support the remaining family by remittance and do development in their region as well.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Kyin Lam Man
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (186K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2015


Title: Identity
 Politics 
and
 Ethnicity : Chin
 Christia
n Churches 
and
 Cross 
Planting
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Author/creator: Marja‐Leena
 Heikkil ä‐Horn
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (155K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Socio-cultural factors of Falam in Chin State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Chin State is situated in the Western sector of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the 13, 907 square miles Chin State is home to Chins. In Myanmar, they predominantly inhabit Chin State, which is located in the Northwest of the country, the bordering Bangladesh to the west and India to the north. The Chin State is divided into two divisions. Northern and Southern During the British Colonial period, the Chin State was under. A Socio-­‐economic study of Falam Township was carried out in 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information. A northern sample of 30 households in 6 villages was selected. A house to house visit was made by 2 interviewers. There are many collections of the historical and socio-­‐cultural evidences of the villages. Out of these villages, the name of the village, Parthe, is explained briefly in this paper.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Saw New
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (176K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Food Security Surveillance survey Comparative Report Southern Chin State, Kanpetlet Township
Date of publication: October 2011
Description/subject: June and October 2011..."Solidarites International (SI) started its intervention in Kanpetlet Township, Southern Chin State in March, 2011. After conducting two rapid assessments in the two townships of Mindat and Kanpetlet in September and December 2010, SI launched a food security intervention in Kanpetlet Township, with the support of WFP and CIAA1. SI started its intervention with a blanket food distribution funded by WFP in 67 villages, targeting 10,000 people, around 1900 HH. The beneficiaries’ selection was based on the rodent infestation level: most of the selected villages had been severely affected by rodent infestation, and the majority of the villages had lost at least 75 % of their crops. In each selected village, all the villagers, except the government employees, received 10 kg of rice per month, for 2 months. In parallel, SI launched a food security project funded by CIAA. The specific objective of this project was to improve the access to food and to restore the production capacities of the communities affected by the rodent infestation. The project activities included corn and paddy seeds distribution, Food for Work (FFW) for rodent control and rat trap distributions. This project targeted 58 villages, for a total of 8800 beneficiaries. Within the framework of this project, one of the expected results was to monitor the food security situation in the targeted area, in order to better understand the main constraints faced in terms of access to food, and thus to better address the needs. SI conducted 2 food security surveillance surveys during 2011 project implementation period: the first assessment was done in June 2011 and the second assessment end of September/ beginning of October 2011.The rationale behind conducting those 2 surveys at that time was to collect data both towards the beginning and the end of the lean season in the area. The present report shows a comparison between the main findings of those 2 food security surveillance surveys..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Solidarites International (SI)
Format/size: pdf (515K)
Date of entry/update: 17 February 2012


Title: A Land of Beauty and Misery
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Breathtaking vistas of Chin State contrast starkly with the hardships of life in this often-ignored corner of Burma... "The Chin people I met during my visit to this northwestern part of Burma take great pride in the natural attractions of their land—a place of dense forests and deep gorges, where exotic flowers cover steep mountains, which often lie enveloped in cool, refreshing mists. Children in Chin State are the most vulnerable to disease and malnutrition. (Photo: KO YUYA) But the natural beauty belies the hardships of life in this isolated highland, where ordinary people face privations that are severe even by the standards of a country ranked among the world’s most impoverished. Much of the suffering here is not, however, merely a matter of poverty. Besides the struggle to find food and earn a living, many must also contend with various human rights abuses committed by the Burmese junta..."
Author/creator: Ko Yuya
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010


Title: On the Edge of Survival: The Continuing Rat Infestation and Food Crisis in Chin State, Burma
Date of publication: 24 September 2009
Description/subject: Executive Summary" "Since late 2007, the people of Chin State have been struggling with massive food shortages and hunger after the vast bamboo forests that cover the mountainous landscape of Chin State began to flower and die- a process that occurs twice every century. Already struggling for their survival due to decades of severe economic repression and human rights abuses, this natural disaster has left the Chin people on the edge of survival. This report is a follow-up to CHRO’s July 2008 report, “Critical Point: Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State,” which first brought worldwide attention to the dire humanitarian conditions facing the Chin people. This report provides an update on the current conditions in Chin State, the effects of the food crisis, and responses taken to assist people in the affected areas of Chin State. The bamboo of Chin State began to flower in late 2006. Attracted to the fruit produced by the bamboo, the flowering process triggered an explosion in the rat population. After exhausting the fruit supply, the rats turned on people’s crops and food supplies, causing massive food shortages for local villagers dependent on farming for their livelihood and subsistence. In 2008, CHRO estimated that as many as 200 villages were affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100,000 people, or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State, were in need of immediate food aid. CHRO now believes those figures are much higher. Since CHRO first reported on the crisis, food shortages spread to seven townships in Chin State as well as parts of Sagaing Division. Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. In several villages, each and every household is in need of immediate food aid. The consequences of the food crisis are also more apparent now. Over 54 people are known to have died due to the effects of extreme malnourishment and famine-related disease; children comprise the majority of recorded deaths. As access to affected regions is limited, this number is likely to be an underestimate. Disease and malnourishment is widespread, particularly among women, children, and the elderly. Children with little ability to concentrate on studies due to hunger have been forced to drop out of school in order to help their families forage for food: school enrollment rates are down 50 to 60 percent from last year. Several thousand Chin have fled their villages to search for food elsewhere. More than 4,000 have already arrived to the India and Thailand border. Villagers are now struggling with hunger and severe malnutrition due to food shortages in Chin State. Children are particularly at risk of malnourishment. (© CHRO, 2007) Up to 82 percent of the farmland has been destroyed in certain affected regions of Chin State. (© CHRO, 2009) The situation has been made more acute by the ruling military regime’s utter neglect of the suffering, compounded by policies and practices of abuse and repression against Chin civilians. As thousands struggle with hunger, starvation, and disease, the SPDC continues practices of forced labor, extorting excessive amounts of money from villagers, confiscating people’s land and property, in addition to other severe human rights abuses. Such actions have strained the Chin people’s ability to cope with the impacts of the natural disaster. Since the food shortages were first reported by CHRO, efforts have been made to respond to the food crisis. After initially dismissing the situation in Chin State, the WFP conducted a follow-up investigation and eventually acknowledged the existence of food shortages in Chin State. During a recent mission to the area, WFP reported “food consumption *to be+…worse than any other region visited by the Mission.” WFP and their coordinating partners initiated relief programs in early 2009 that continue to be implemented in various affected areas of Chin State. Chin community-based groups in India have also organized relief teams to deliver food aid to remote villages in Chin State. These teams are responsible for delivering over 30,000 kilograms of rice to 54 villages in six townships from May to July 2009 alone. Despite concerted efforts from multiply fronts to assist the affected population, Burma’s military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to do nothing to respond to the food crisis in Chin State. Rather, the SPDC has exacerbated the crisis through sustained human rights abuses and economic repression, further undermining the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. Forced labor, extortion, and confiscations of land and property continue unabated within the affected areas. SPDC has denied repeated requests for food aid, even as it reports a rice surplus. Local authorities have banned villagers from receiving foreign aid, threatening reprisals against anyone who accepts foreign aid. Government neglect and continued abuse; inadequately supported relief efforts; and pervasive hunger and food shortages have the potential for catastrophic humanitarian consequences. The effects of the bamboo flowering and rat infestation are expected to last three to five years. During the last bamboo cycle, half a century ago, 10,000 to 15,000 people reportedly died due to the associated effects of hunger and disease in neighboring Mizoram State. The people of Chin State today struggling with the same natural disaster have the added burden of military repression, abuse, and neglect. They are on the edge of survival now; but their struggle is far from over."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
Format/size: pdf (2.38MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/On_The_Edge_of_Survival-2.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 September 2009


Title: Critical Point - Food Scarcity and Hunger in Burma’s Chin State _ 2008 (Special Reports)
Date of publication: July 2008
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The military regime of Burma has been consistent in their inability and unwillingness to protect and provide for the people of Burma. Burma’s human rights record provides testimony of decades of widespread violations and abuses perpetrated largely at the hands of Burma’s military rulers and their agents against the Burmese people. Dissent is regularly silenced and opponents brutalized. In a country once known as the “rice-bowl of Asia,” Burma is now one of the poorest countries of Asia due to steady economic deterioration driven by the regime’s mismanagement. Many in Burma live without access to proper schools, healthcare facilities, reliable electricity, safe drinking water, and stable food supplies. Cowed by policies of extreme oppression and tactics of intimidation, life for much of the population in Burma is a struggle for daily survival. Add to that a natural disaster- and survival in Burma reaches a critical point. Western Burma’s Chin State is at such a point. Since 2006, the region has been plagued by a severe food crisis following a steep reduction in the local harvest and food production. The year 2006 marked the beginning of a new cycle of bamboo flowering, which occurs about every 50 years in the region, triggering an explosion in the population of rats and resulting in the destruction of crops. This has caused a severe shortage of food for local communities primarily dependent on subsistence farming through shifting cultivation. The phenomenon has been documented three times since 1862, and each past event ended in a disastrous famine for the communities in the area. Compounding the impending food crisis in Chin State due to the bamboo flowering is the continuation of severe human rights violations and repressive economic policies of the military regime, which serve to further undermine the livelihoods and food security of the Chin people. The use of unpaid civilian forced labour is widespread throughout Chin State, which consumes the time and energy of local farmers and reduces their crop yields. The regime also forcibly orders farmers to substitute their staple crops for other cash crops, and has confiscated thousands of acres of farmland from local farmers for tea and jatropha plantations. Meanwhile, arbitrary taxes and mandatory “donations” collected from Chin households by the Burmese authorities total up to as much 200,000 Kyats a year in major towns.2 This includes the unofficial collection of money from the Chin public by officials in various government departments at the local level to support such programs as tea and bio-fuel plantations; and extortion and confiscation of money, properties, and livestock by military units stationed at 33 locations across the state. The rising cost of living and skyrocketing food prices is also adding to the already dire humanitarian situation in Chin State. In the last four years, the price of rice has quintupled from 6,000 Kyats a bag in 2004 to as much as 30,000 Kyats today, an amount equivalent to the monthly salary of entry level public servants. The humanitarian consequences stemming from the dying bamboo and exacerbated by conditions imposed by the regime are enormous, and there are clear indications that unless urgent action is taken to address the crisis, the situation could soon turn into a large-scale catastrophe affecting all parts of Chin State. The hardest hit areas are in the southern townships of Matupi and Paletwa where bamboo grows heavily, but reports suggest that severe food shortages are a state-wide phenomenon with many villages in the northern townships of Tonzang and Thantlang, for example, having already run out of food supplies. Based on the latest field surveys conducted in the affected areas, Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) estimates that as many as 200 villages may be directly affected by severe food shortages associated with the bamboo flowering, and no less than 100, 000 people or 20 percent of the entire population of Chin State may be in need of immediate food aid.3 Food scarcity is more severe in remote areas, where families are being reduced to one meal a day or have nothing left to eat at all. CHRO recently visited four border villages in India’s Mizoram State where it found 93 families from 22 villages in Paletwa Township, Chin State who fled across the border in search of food. To date, Burma’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has done nothing positive to counter the food scarcity, nor has the SPDC provided any kind of help to communities affected by the food crisis. Repeated requests by affected communities for food aid were denied, even as 100,000 metric tonnes of rice was exported to Sri Lanka.4 Rather, Burma Army soldiers have seized food aid donated by private donors and church groups.5 In contrast to the situation in Burma, India’s Mizoram and Manipur States, both adjacent to Chin State, are facing a similar food crisis related to the bamboo flowering, and have received millions of dollars in aid from the central government as well as international aid agencies, including USAID of the United States government, to support emergency programs to combat and manage the food crisis.6 In early May, when Cyclone Nargis ripped through lower Burma and the Irrawaddy delta destroying entire regions of land and leaving thousands homeless, hungry, and helpless, the regime clearly demonstrated their complete indifference to the plight of the Burmese people. In response to this natural disaster, they did shamefully little to ease the suffering of the victims and much to hamper relief efforts. As a result, the people of Burma paid a heavy price in the loss of life and continue to struggle under a regime that fails to protect or provide for its people. As another natural disaster unfolds in western Burma without hope of internal protections or provisions, the Chin people, like the cyclone victims, will be sure to pay a heavy toll unless action is taken immediately. The critical point for action is now."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO)
Format/size: pdf (731K, 640K)
Date of entry/update: 09 July 2008


Title: A History of the Chin - a review of Lian Sakhong's book "In search of Chin Identity"
Date of publication: October 2004
Description/subject: "The former Secretary-General of the Chin National League for Democracy provides an in-depth study on Chin nationalism, Christianity in Burma and the Chin role in the history of Burma. Early Chin society in Burma consisted of a segmented tribal society comprised of six tribes, 63 sub-tribes and nearly as many dialects, but later transformed into a cohesive, modern ethnic unit claiming one common national identity based on Christianity. Today more than 80 percent of the Chin in Burma are Christian. Lian Sakhong’s In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma examines this transformation and enables us to better understand how religion, ethnicity and politics have intertwined since independencce... In Search of Chin Identity: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma, by Lian H Sakhong. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Monograph series No. 91, NIAS Press, Copenhagen: 2003; 280 pages.
Author/creator: Mikael Gravers
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 November 2004


Title: The Chin and Mizo: Ex-brothers?
Date of publication: April 2004
Description/subject: United by geography, commerce and the colonial experience, the Chin and Mizo have grown apart in recent years.
Author/creator: Karin Kaasik
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 4, April 2004
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 July 2004


Title: IN SEARCH OF CHIN IDENTITY
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: A Study in Religion, Politics and Ethnic Identity in Burma..."Chinram was once an independent land ruled by local chieftains and following traditional Chin religion. This world was abruptly transformed in the early twentieth century, however, by British annexation and the arrival of Christian missionaries. As the Chin became increasingly related to Burmese independence movements, they began to articulate their own Christian traditions of democracy and assert a burgeoning self-awareness of their own national identity. In short, Christianity provided the Chin people with a means of preserving their national identity in the midst of multi-racial and multi-religious environments. Written by an exiled Secretary General of the Chin National League for Democracy, this is the first in-depth study on Chin nationalism and Christianity. Not only does it provide a clear analysis of the close relationship between religion, ethnicity and nationalism but also the volume contains valuable data on the Chin and their role in the history of Burma."
Author/creator: Lian H. Sakhong
Language: English
Source/publisher: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS)
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB) - 306 pages
Date of entry/update: 15 April 2010


Title: Refugees from Burma need US protection
Date of publication: 30 April 2002
Description/subject: Fact Finding Trip to New Delhi by Zo T. Hmung April 17-30, 2002 Executive Summary: "I spent April 17-30, 2002, in New Delhi to assess options for durable solutions for refugees from Burma who reside in the Indian capital. "According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in New Delhi, as of the end of March 2002, there are 952 people from the country of Burma recognized as refugees by the UNHCR. Out of 952 refugees, 90 percent of them belong to Chin ethnic groups. The rest are Burmese, Arakanese, Shan, and Kachin. They include torture survivors, women, children, elderly people, and people persecuted because of their ethnicity, religion, and prodemocracy activism. "During my trip, I met with Wei-Meng Lim-Kabaa, UNHCR Deputy Chief of Mission, Kathy A. Redman, Officer in Charge Immigration, Attache of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and Mr. Christopher George, YMCA Refugee Program Coordinator. I also met with over 250 refugees in one large meeting, met six times with 10 key leaders from the refugee community, conducted five interviews at refugees' apartments, spent most of my time visiting their housing and neighborhoods, and gathered voluminous information regarding their current hardship and vulnerability and their compelling reasons for fleeing Burma. "These groups are distinguishable from other refugee groups in India. For years, they had been living in suburban areas of New Delhi without future hope for a better life. They are unable to obtain jobs. Because they are Christians, they cannot feel comfortable and are not welcomed in the local Hindu community. They are unable to speak the local language, which is Hindi. Their children are unable to attend school. Psychologically, they are traumatized. They cannot go back to Burma because Burma is still under the rule of a military regime. Most importantly, they can be deported back to Burma at any time even though they are recognized as refugees by the UNHCR." Unfortunately, the UNHCR has referred only a dozen cases to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) authority in New Delhi. At the same time, the U.S. INS in New Delhi does not take a case unless UNHCR refers a case to them. The INS does not accept walk-in cases. Therefore, they are in need of special protection by the U.S. The U.S. Department of State should designate them as refugees and process their cases. This would be a durable solution for them. The Chin community in the U.S. would be very happy to welcome these refugees..."
Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
Language: English
Format/size: HTML (206K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Ashes and Tears
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: Interviews with Refugees from Burma on Guam, including recent interviews with Chin and Kachin refugees. "During the past year, nearly a thousand refugees from Burma have arrived on the island of Guam, a United States territory in the Pacific Ocean. They are seeking asylum in the US, having fled extraordinary levels of persecution in their homeland. Most are from northern Burma, especially the Chin State... This report consists of interviews with a small cross section of the Guam asylum seekers. It is to some extent representative of their demographics, in terms of ethnicity and gender. The interviewees have given us a great bounty of significant new information and details about recent conditions in Burma... Numerous topics are covered in these 17 interviews. There is front-line information about the AIDS epidemic which is making its grim progress into the remote mountains of Burma, and the efforts to evade the regime’s denial about it..."
Author/creator: Edith Mirante
Language: English
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Format/size: pdf (329K), Text (184K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.projectmaje.org/txt/guam_rep.txt
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Ethnic political crisis in the Union of Burma
Date of publication: 25 October 2000
Description/subject: (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA). "Approximately, Burma has a population of 48 million people. Of those 48 million, 68% are Burman, and the rest, 32 %, belong to the ethnic groups such as Arakanese, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, etc. These are only estimated statistics as there is no proper documented information available inside Burma. The ethnic people have their own religions, culture, and languages. There are different religions such as Buddhism, Muslim, Christianity, and Hinduism. Burmans belong to the majority religion, Buddhism while most ethnic Chins and Kachins are Christians. The ethnic political issue is important to Burma's politics. Because in order to put an end to civil war, which has spanned over half a century in Burma, the ethnic political crisis must first be resolved in accordance with the full consent of the ethnic minority people. Therefore, Burma's political history, especially how the minority and the majority groups came to live together under the Union government, needs to be addressed..." (A Brown Bag Seminar organized by the Council for Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA)
Author/creator: Zo T. Hmung
Language: English
Format/size: HTML (66K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: A Chin Compendium
Date of publication: September 1997
Description/subject: 20 articles and reports about the Chin, 1996-97
Author/creator: Edith Mirante
Source/publisher: Project Maje
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Zo History
Date of publication: 1986
Description/subject: "This book contains the most comprehensive analysis of the people mostly known as Chin, Khyeng, Kuki, Lushai, and Plains Chin. It analyses the effect of imposing several names to these people. The author, Dr. Vumson chooses "Zo" as the common name because most of them call themselves by this name. The readers will find how the Zo people migrated from Western China—Tibet to the valley of the Chindwin and Irrawaddy and then to the Kale —Kabaw—Myittha Valleys and why they migrated to the rugged hill areas they occupy now. The proud and brave Zo people were colonialized, though they resisted with all their might. Then Japan invaded their country, exposing them to modern industrial warfare and dislocating their social and political behaviour. When the colonial rule ended they were divided into three countries hopelessly outnumbered by Indians and Burmans. The book analyses how they struggle to survive and retain their distinctive identity. It is most interesting to see how the same people develope themselves in two forms of societies, one under socialism and the other under free enterprise." [from the cover of the hard copy edition]...N.B. MANY (MOST?) OF THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENDNOTES ARE REPLACED BY ". SINCE THE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS ALPHABETICAL, ONE CAN LOOK UP ANY NAME FOLLOWED BY ". THESE ERRORS WILL BE CORRECTED IN A FUTURE VERSION, BUT IT MAY TAKE A LITTLE TIME. -- OBL LIBRARIAN.
Author/creator: Vumson
Source/publisher: Vumson via N.T. Thawnga, Aizawl, India
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB)
Date of entry/update: 24 October 2011


Title: THE ECONOMICS OF THE CENTRAL CHIN TRIBES
Date of publication: 01 March 1943
Description/subject: CHAPTER I. The Application of Economic Theory to Chin Culture ... CHAPTER II. The Social Background ... CHAPTER III. Agriculture ... CHAPTER IV. Animal Husbandry ... CHAPTER V. Hunting and Fishing... CHAPTER VI. Forest Products ... CHAPTER VII. Land Tenure ... CHAPTER VIII. Trade and Wage-earning ... CHAPTER IX. The Economics of the Household ... CHAPTER X. The Economics of Social Obligations ... CHAPTER XI. The Economics of Justice ... CHAPTER XII. The Economics of Religious Ritual ... CHAPTER XIII. Wealth, Poverty, and Debt ... CHAPTER XIV. Conclusion ... GLOSSARY ... INDEX.
Author/creator: H. N. C. STEVENSON, F.R.A.I., Burma Frontier Service
Language: English
Source/publisher: Government of Burma
Format/size: pdf (6.8MB) - other formats in the Alternate URL
Alternate URLs: https://archive.org/details/economicsofthece033105mbp
Date of entry/update: 21 July 2013