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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Karenni (Kayah) - cultural, political

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Karenni (Kayah) - cultural, political

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE)
Description/subject: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE) Mission Statement: The mission of Karenni Independence Through Education is to provide financial and organizational support for community-based organizations, individuals, and projects in the Karenni Refugee Camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand and within Karenni State which * Develop youth and student community-involvement, leadership, and inter-ethnic cooperation. * Bring awareness about the situation in Karenni State and the refugee camps to an international level. * Build and foster educational opportunities and resources for Karenni students, especially those that focus on cultural preservation and community development."... About the Karenni | About KITE | What KITE does | How you can help | Picture Gallery | Press Releases | Contact Us.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karenni Independence through Education (KITE)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004

Title: Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNOW)
Description/subject: "The Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNOW) is a nonprofit grassroots organization, founded 6 years ago in 1994 by Karenni women who had fled to and found tenuous asylum on Thai soil. Some of these women have tried many times to return home, each time finding the situation in Karenni State intolerable and returning to Thailand once again. Within the Karenni refugee camp there has been a noticeable gender different involving decision making, where the input and participation of women has been minimal. In recent times, this has begun to change through necessity and women beginning to take leadership roles and organize themselves into flexible grassroots organizations. However, because of lack of education, women still remain facing many problems in getting forward aswell as in obtaining, leading and managing roles in the community. Therefore, the organization realized that it is up to the women themselves to open the way and upgrade their ability and knowledge..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karenniland
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010

Title: Karenni Student Union
Description/subject: KSU Background: The Karenni Student Union was founded on April 1st 2000. There are currently 451 members of the KSU and membership numbers continue to increase. The primary goal of the KSU is to help Karenni students gain the skills necessary to serve our community both now and on our return to Karenni State... Our Objectives: 1. To cooperate with the Karenni National Education Committee to seek ways for Karenni students to have access to further studies. 2. To cultivate and upgrade the knowledge of Karenni students in administration to be able to participate in serving Karenni state in all fields now and in the future. 3. To implement collectively the goal of the Union by the combined strength of the students who finish high school level. 4. To cooperate and exchange ideas with other student groups who are also suffering under oppression. 5. To support students who are facing difficulties in continuing their studies. 6. To educate the students to promote their morality and dignity... Mission of Karenni Student Union: We the Karenni students are against discrimination of race or sex in society. We work to have access to higher education and to preserve human dignity in order to be ready to lead our country. We encourage cooperation and coordination with other student groups.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karenni Student Union (KSU)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2004

Title: UNPO Karenni Page
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Voices of the People: "A Collection of Stories of people of Burma"
Description/subject: "These are Burma’s voices for change, extraordinary stories of people of Burma from all walks of life. Their experiences, struggles, fears, and successes. These are unheard stories of incredible spirit of resilience and courage, voices of hope and dreams that have emerged from decades of oppression. Help us spread these voices across the globe!"...Stories and voices from Karen, Karenni, Shan, Kachin, Chin, Rakhine, Mon, Palaung, Pa-O, Nagas and other ethnic minorities.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 March 2016

Individual Documents

Title: The Villagers [in Burma] Don’t Dare to Speak Out: Kayan Refugee
Date of publication: 29 August 2015
Description/subject: "Kataerina, a Kayan (also known as Padaung) woman from Pyin Soung village in southern Shan State, is now 35 years old and has three daughters. Her life seems smooth for now, but it was tough and full of struggles for food, education and freedom. Kataerina’s story echoes so many voices from the people of Burma, who have had to endure child labour and an ongoing struggle for food and basic living standards. From armed conflict to being locked up and nearly killed by Burmese soldiers, Kataerina’s struggles finally led her to the Thailand-Burma border where she now lives in the Ban Mai Nai Soi refugee camp in Mae Hong Son Province. From Katarina’s story, you can learn more about the difficulties faced by the Kayan people in eastern Burma, where Kataerina hopes she will not be forced to return to."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 March 2016

Title: We Are Not Hardliners – We Are the Ones Who Want Peace the Most: Khu Oo Reh, General Secretary of UNFC
Date of publication: 03 August 2015
Description/subject: "Khu Oo Reh is the General Secretary of the ethnic alliance United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC) and the Vice Chairman of the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP). In this exclusive in-depth interview, Khu Oo Reh talks about the goals of the UNFC, the current state of the peace process and the NCA talks (Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement), as well as the role of the international community who are engaging with the Burma Government and funding the peace process through institutions such as the Myanmar Peace Centre (MPC). The views of the UNFC and ethnic armed organisations, who remain in desperate need of support in order to realise a lasting and sustainable peace, end up too often ignored, overlooked, or misunderstood by international actors. Khu Oo Reh strongly encourages the international community to listen to all sides in order to develop an understanding of the dynamics of the problems they are funding to solve."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2016

Title: Karenni Refugee in Ban Mai Nai Soi Camp: ‘I Stay Here So I Feel Safe’
Date of publication: 24 March 2015
Description/subject: "John Bosco is like any 23-year-old who dreams of good education and a career, and who likes to read, use the internet, and play football. Unlike many young people, however, John’s life is confined within the fences of Ban Mai Nai Soi refugee camp in Thailand. John is ethnic Karenni and comes from a big family in a rural village with no access to electricity or water. Although John grew up under militarization and afraid of “the sounds of guns shooting and bombs exploding,” his main priority was education. John’s family wanted him to have a better life and a future, and they sent him to the Ban Mai Nai Soi refugee camp in 2009. He hasn’t been able to see his family since. In the camp, John says that restrictions on movement and travel are increasing hand in hand with decreasing aid. Like so many others, John is now trapped in one of the most isolated refugee camps in Thailand, which remains out of the electricity grid and is surrounded by landmines. John still considers himself lucky; he doesn’t have to worry about repatriation as much as the many others who have no family in Burma and no place to go."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 March 2016

Title: Transnational “Myanmar”-Karenni Societies in United States: Experiences of Karenni Refugee Resettlement
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "This paper examines the resettlement of refugees from Burma/Myanmar to the United States, by focusing on the refugee experience. The ethnographic description of the resettlement process reveals how refugees, by establishing a transnational “Myanmar” community in the United States, manifested a nationalism that was hitherto believed to be impossible. Building a nation-state in Burma/Myanmar has been a controversial issue since the nation’s independence from the British in 1948. Callahan argues that the process of state building in Burma has focused on warfare and violence by the state. After independence, the national army or Tatmadaw regarded citizens as potential enemies, and conducted various anti-insurgency campaigns. Her argument richly elucidates the state-building process in Burma/Myanmar. However, though the Nation and the State are inseparable, her arguments exclude the nation-building process. This paper explores one aspect of belonging to the nation of “Myanmar.” While state building is one of the most important tasks for a country following ethnic conflict, it is often analyzed only within the context of resistance movements, such as “Burmanization” by the government or resistance movements against it. Hence, the possibilities for actual nation building have not yet been explored. The experiences of refugees outside the country offer a new and useful perspective for such a discussion. Refugees may no longer legally belong to their country of origin, yet their existence expresses the core essence of the nation they come from. The case study dealt with in this paper focuses on Karenni refugees from the Kayah State, which is the smallest state in Burma. In the Kayah State, the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) has been resisting the Burmese ruling military junta for more than 60 years, seeking either autonomy or independence from the state. The KNPP strategically have used the word “Karenni” as an umbrella term that includes all ethnic groups in Kayah State, in order to resist the Burma-centric state. The ex-chairman of the KNPP, namely Khu Hte Bu Pe, invented a “Karenni” script for the sake of the core spirit of his nation. Two refugee camps in Thailand were centers of KNPP politics in order to construct the “Karenni”, and “Karenni” has been an anti-state term, with its use being prohibited inside Burma by the junta. The category of “Karenni” or “Karenni” identity was constructed as a refugee concept in Thailand. This paper discusses the further transnational spread of “Karenni” through the resettlement of refugees to a third country, while also considering the meaning of Burma and Myanmar for those resettled refugees..."
Author/creator: KUBO Tadayuki
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (691K)
Alternate URLs: http://repository.cc.sophia.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/123456789/36547/1/200000079942_000134000_97.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015

Title: Living Ghosts - The spiraling repression of the Karenni population under the Burmese military junta
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The people of Karenni State are living ghosts. Their daily survival is an achievement; however, it also signifies their further descent into poverty and a spiralling system of repression. Whilst this report documents the deteriorating situation in Karenni State over the past six years, this is nothing new for the ethnically diverse population of this geographically small area. They have been living in a protracted conflict zone for over 50 years with no respite from decades of low-intensity conflict and frequent human rights abuses. All the while both State and Non-State actors have marginalised the grassroots communities’ voices, contributing to the militarisation of their communities and societies. Burmese soldiers oppress Karenni villagers on a daily basis. Villagers are isolated from members of their own communities, and other ethnic groups; they report daily to local Burmese troops about Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) troop movements and other activities in their areas; community members spy on one another, reporting back to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); and they are punished by the SPDC in retaliation for the actions of the KNPP. All of these strategies create an environment of fear and mistrust between ethnic groups, communities, and even family members. These tactics successfully oppress the villagers, as they are too fearful and busy to think beyond daily survival. Further exacerbating the situation is the fact that villagers face oppression not only from the Burmese army, but also ceasefire groups and the KNPP. Soldiers from both the KNPP and ceasefire groups physically maltreat villagers and undermine their livelihoods. While these occurrences are certainly less frequent and less severe than similar acts by the SPDC, they still oppress the civilian population and undermine their ability and capacity to survive. Additionally the presence of many different actors has resulted in the militarisation of Karenni State. Thousands of landmines have been indiscriminately planted throughout the state, without adequate mapping or markings to minimise civilian causalities. The SPDC, ceasefire groups and the KNPP all recruit and have child soldiers in their armies. The Burmese army has the largest number of child soldiers anywhere in the world, and approximately 20 per cent of the KNPP’s troops are under 18 (the minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces under Burma’s national law). The increased militarisation of Karenni State has resulted in increases in human rights abuses. However villagers are staging their own non-violent resistance movement. They have developed and implemented a number of early warning systems and household and village-wide risk management strategies so as to minimise the impact of the SPDC and other armed groups violence and abuses. These resistance strategies have become the biggest threat to local and regional authorities; consequently the villagers are increasingly becoming the targets of hostilities from the Burmese army. Most people in Karenni State rely on agriculture as their primary source of income and are living a subsistence existence. Despite the villagers’ best efforts to secure their livelihoods, their ability and capacity to do so is constantly undermined by the SPDC and, to a lesser extent, ceasefire groups and the KNPP via crop procurement, forced production of dry season crops, arbitrary taxation and fines, theft and destruction of property and food, forced labour and land confiscation. This is further exacerbated by the drought that has been occurring in Karenni State for the past decade, which affects crop yields. When coupled with skyrocketing commodity prices, villagers’ ability to ebb out a living is further eroded – to the point of impossibility in some cases. The abject poverty in Karenni State prevents villagers from accessing basic health and education services. Whilst the SPDC claims to provide free health care and education, in reality this does not occur. Health and education services provided by the state are extremely expensive and are well-below international standards. As a result, for most people education and medical treatment becomes a luxury they simply cannot afford. As a result of poverty some villagers are turning to illegal activities in order to survive - mainly poppy production. In Karenni State there are two areas where villagers are growing poppies with the permission of ceasefire groups. Farmers can earn a significantly higher monetary return on their poppy yields than for other crops using the same quantity of land. Poppy growers can earn up to 300,000 Kyat per 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium they produce (a 1.5 kilogram package of raw opium can be produced in four months). A teacher supported by the SPDC would have to work for 60 months in order to earn the same amount. Additionally amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) are being produced in Karenni State. Three factories producing ATS in Karenni State have been identified, again in areas controlled by ceasefire groups; however as it is difficult to distinguish between factories and ordinary dwellings it is possible that there are many other ATS factories in Karenni State that have not been identified. Each factory can produce between 250,000 and 300,000 pills per month. From the three known factories in Karenni State between 9 million and 10.8 million ATS pills are being produced and released into the international drug market each year. Today over a quarter of the population in Karenni State have been forced from their homes as a direct result of the actions of the Burmese military junta. Between 70 and 80 per cent of those displaced are women and children. Displacement has increased 42 per cent since 2002 and represents eight per cent of the total population in Karenni State. Karenni State has the highest level of displacement to population ratio in all of eastern Burma. When similar comparisons are made to the five countries with the largest displaced populations in the world (Sudan, Colombia, Uganda, Iraq and the Democratic Republic of Congo) the percentage of displaced persons in Karenni State is alarmingly higher. Over 12 per cent of Sudan’s population is displaced – less than half that of Karenni State. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) in eastern Burma receive very little assistance, if any at all, primarily due to the policies of the SPDC, which severely restrict humanitarian agencies accessing these vulnerable populations. The SPDC deems IDPs as enemies of the state and implements a shoot on sight policy, which includes children and the elderly. IDPs are vulnerable to human rights abuses, exploitation and violence from the SPDC, as well as food shortages and have severely limited access to education and health care services. The most pressing need of the people and the IDP population is physical security. Most people have the capacity to earn a livelihood mitigating food shortages, to educate their children, establish a medical clinic and develop their communities; however, they lack the security necessary to do so. There are humanitarian organisations working in Karenni State, including local community based organisations (CBOs), nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and international agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme. Despite this presence the humanitarian situation in Karenni State continues to deteriorate and people are finding themselves slipping further and further into the poverty abyss – with no foreseeable escape. The impacts from the situation in Karenni State are not confined to the State’s boundaries - they spill over into other states and divisions in Burma and also across international borders, especially into Thailand. These spill over effects include, but are not limited to: the mass exodus of people from Burma to neighbouring countries as refugees and migrant workers; illegal trafficking of drugs and people and associated health concerns, especially HIV/AIDS. These non-traditional security threats impinge on Burma’s neighbours economies and social welfare systems, affecting regional stability and security. The situation in Karenni State cannot be rectified without genuinely addressing Burma’s complex issues, including ethnic chauvinism, in a participatory manner, which engages the whole nation’s citizenry. Only when these issues are truly addressed may the people of Karenni State find peace and start living life for the future, and not as living ghosts."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Issues
Format/size: pdf (666K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/images/stories/pdfreports/livingghosts.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 April 2008

Title: The Dragon Mothers Polish their Metal Coils
Date of publication: September 2006
Description/subject: "Estimated at less than 50,000, the Kayan tribe of Burma’s northeast have long been the essence of exotica, subject of curiosity, and source of "Ripley's Believe it Or Not" obsessions. Because of some of the women's traditional adornment of coiled metal rings, which enhance--or perhaps disfigure--their necks, the Kayans are also known by the name the lowland Burmese gave them: "Padaung," meaning "long necks." Years ago, National Geographic magazine x-rayed some Kayan women and determined that their necks had not been stretched, as it appeared. Actually, the women's collarbones had been pushed down to create the long-necked effect..."
Author/creator: Edith Mirante
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Guernica"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2007

Title: Language use and policy in a linguistically fragmented refugee community
Date of publication: November 2004
Description/subject: Abstract: "The context of this dissertation is the conflict-ridden attempt in Burma to create a unitary nation state, also the parallel attempt by the Karenni political opposition, based in refugee camps in Thailand, to create a viable nation-inopposition from the many Karenni ethnolinguistic groups. New data is presented on language use at public sites in one of the two Thailand-based Karenni refugee camps, where 11 languages are in daily use. Observations at schools, public meetings, acts of worship and shops, and exit interviews at clinics, show that public language use is dominated by the use of Karenni (Kayah), Burmese and English, with lesser-used community languages in a state of critical decline. Karenni and Burmese predominate in spoken language, while Burmese and English are the most important languages in written discourse. In schools the use of Karenni declines as students move up through the system, while the use of English and Burmese increases. Although 23% of the camp population are speakers of languages other than Karenni and Burmese, these other languages are underrepresented at the sites investigated. At schools minor languages feature mainly in the speech of students who are probably explaining to each other what their teacher is saying in Burmese or Karenni. At public meetings, minor languages play a similar role, featuring in nonofficial speech overheard by observers; official speech is dominated by Karenni and Burmese. At shops, there are clusters of locations where minor languages are used, but the vast majority of transactions are in Karenni or Burmese. Language use at Christian places of worship depends on the denomination of the church. Catholic churches use Karenni, with one or two also using Burmese; and Baptist churches use Karen with some Burmese. Written texts in churches vary, with some in Karen, some in Karenni roman script and a few in Karenni camp script. At all churches the phenomenon of congregations praying in several first languages simultaneously was observed. At clinics, the language of consultation was either Karenni or Burmese. English accounts for 31% of writing or use of written texts at the sites observed. However, the use of English as the preferred medium of instruction in upper secondary schools has been limited by lack of teachers' proficiency and lack of texts in English. Burmese continues to be the leading medium of instruction in the upper school system. About one third of the population of Kayah state has been displaced since 1996, and at least two fifths of its villages destroyed or relocated for security reasons. Many refugees have been displaced from monolingual villages. Those who now live in Karenni northern camp find themselves in a linguistically complex environment where in some cases their own language now cannot probably be used in the local shop, and is not supported in the school system at any level. Although some of these languages, for example Kayan, have quite large core communities elsewhere, some do not, and these languages must now be at risk of disappearing completely. They include Kay aw, Manaw and Bre."
Author/creator: Richard Sproat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Macquire University (dissertation)
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 09 December 2005

Title: Kayah, Kayan, Karenni et Yang Daeng
Date of publication: June 2002
Description/subject: Version internet 2002. "...En Birmanie la zone ouverte aux étrangers est réduite par la guerre civile, et toute étude y serait dérangée par la présence imposée d’une escorte militaire. Les Kayah les plus faciles à approcher sont les Kayah orientaux (Kayè dans leur propre dialecte). On peut les atteindre de la frontière thaïe sans trop de difficultés. Ces groupes Kayah sont assez différents de leurs cousins de l’ouest, et en particulier des Kayah de Kyebogyi. La principale différence est due aux conditions économiques, le pays très vallonné à l’est de la Salween n’est pas propice à l’agriculture, et la rotation annuelle des champs induit un déplacement périodique des villages. A l’opposé des villages occidentaux qui sont grands et stables, à l’est il faut souvent trois heures de marche pour d’atteindre le prochain hameau, ou les champs distants. Les villages sont d’habitude construits vers le tiers supérieur des collines, proche, mais pas à côté, d’un point d’eau. A l’intérieur même des villages les gros arbres ne vont pas être coupés: les pentes sont abruptes, parfois 70%, et les racines nécessaires pour retenir le sol. Il en sera de même dans les champs, où seuls les petits arbres seront éliminés. Je vis en 1983, après que tous les plants de riz tardifs moururent en raison de la sécheresse, qu’une végétation d’un mètre de haut envahit les champs abandonnés en trois mois. Pour des raisons qu’il faudra étudier, les manifestations extérieures de la religion diffèrent aussi entre l’ouest et l’est du Karenni. Par exemple le Ko Thoo Bow, ou mât aux esprits, sera parfois très petit, fait d’un simple bambou, et non décoré à la manière de ceux de Kyebogyi. Je ne vis pas une fois la guirlande faite de petits fanions accrochée vers le sommet des mâts reliées au sol comme elle le serait à l’ouest. Dans les villages où je me suis rendu, je notais souvent l’absence de mât femelle, et la simplicité du “how”, réduit à une simple table en bambou..."
Author/creator: Jean-Marc Rastorfer
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: CédoK (Centre d'études et de Documentation sur les Karenni)
Format/size: html (827K) , Word (661K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/JMR-kayah1.doc
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Celebration, Affirmation and Transformation: a "Traditional" Festival in a Refugee Camp in Thailand
Date of publication: 31 October 2000
Description/subject: "In 1996, approximately 1500 people lived in Camp 5, a refugee camp located in the jungle on the Thai-Burmese border. The camp was open and self-administered, with refugee-run schools, two churches, and one Buddhist monastery. Though unavoidably and significantly influenced by displacement, cultural life in Camp 5 was vibrant. Refugees were able to celebrate annual festivals in the camps; for many internally displaced persons inside Burma, such celebrations have been impossible for some years. One such festival is diy-kuw. The people living in Camp 5 call themselves Karenni and have fled from Kayah State (referred to by the Karenni as "Karenni State"). Kayah is Burma's smallest state, bordering Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son..."
Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: the Need for Considered Responses
Date of publication: May 2000
Description/subject: Click on the on the html link above to go to a neater, paginated table of contents or on the pdf links below to go straight to the document .... PDF File 1: Cover and Contents. PDF File 2: Boundaries; Climate; Physical Features; Population; Ethnic Groups in Karenni; Gender Roles in Karenni; Agriculture, Land Distribution and Patterns of Recourse; Resources; Water; Communication, Trade and Transport Conflict in Karenni; A History of Conflict; The Pre-Colonial Period; The Colonial Period; Independence in Burma and the Outbreak of Civil War in the Karenni States; State and Non-State Actors including Armed Groups and Political Parties; The Role of the Tatmadaw; The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); The Karenni National Peoples Liberation Front (KNPLF); The Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organisation (SSNLO); The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP; The NDF and CPB Alliances and their Impact in Karenni; War in the Villages; The Formation of Splinter Groups in the 1990s; The Economics of War; The Relationship between Financing the War and Exploitation of Natural Resources; The Course of the War; Cease-fires.... PDF file 3: Conflict-Induced Displacements in Karenni -- Defining Population Movements; Conflict Induced Displacement; Displacement in 1996; Displacements by Township; Relocation Policy; Services in Relocation Sites; Smaller Relocation Sites and so-called Gathering Villages; Displacement into Shan State; Displacement as a Passing Phenomenon; Displacement, Resettlement and Transition; Women outside Relocation Sites. Development Induced Displacement -- Displacements in Loikaw City; Confiscation of Land by the Tatmadaw; Displacement as a Result of Resource Scarcity; Food Scarcity; Water Shortages; Voluntary Migrations. Health and education needs and responses: Health Policy; Health Services; Health Status of the Population; Communicable Diseases; Nutrition; Reproductive and Womens Health; Landmine Casualties; Iodine Deficiency and Goitre; Vitamin A Deficiency; Water and Sanitation; Responses to Health Needs; Education Policy; Educational Services and Coverage; Traditional Attitudes to Education; Educational Services in Karenni; Responses to Educational Needs; Responses from the Thai-Burma border; Responses by International Humanitarian Agencies from Inside Burma. Appendices: A Comparison of Populations in Relocation Sites in Karenni; Refugee Arrivals at the Thai Border; Displacements by Township; Examples of Population Movements.
Author/creator: Vicky Bamforth, Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
Format/size: 3 pdf files: (1) Cover and Contents (472K); (2) Text-pp1-47 (782K); 3 Text pp48-128 (1300K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: "Traditional" culture and refugee welfare in north-west Thailand
Date of publication: December 1999
Description/subject: "The effects of displacement on culture can have significant impacts on the psychological and physical welfare of individual refugees and on the social dynamics within a refugee population. Yet, refugees and relief agencies alike often underestimate or feel too overworked to incorporate the importance of cultural factors in assistance programmes. Potential cultural conflicts between refugee communities, host communities and relief agencies are of course important. Less often recognised, however, is the importance of cultural variation and tension within the refugee community. This article argues that if relief agencies develop a greater awareness of cultural patterns and potential cultural conflict within as well as between communities, their assistance programmes may be more effectively and appropriately designed and implemented...This article is based on anthropological field research, conducted by the author at the request of the NGO concerned during the course of wider field research conducted in 1996-7 and 1998, with Karenni refugees living in camps on the Burmese border, in Thailand's northwestern province of Mae Hong Son. Karenni people have been fleeing from Karenni (Kayah) State in eastern Burma and seeking refuge on the Thai side of the border for some years, the first significant numbers arriving in 1989..."
Author/creator: Sandra Dudley
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 6
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Burmesische Kinder im Flüchtlingslager
Description/subject: Durch Zwangsarbeit, gezielte Menschenrechtsverletzungen und gewaltsame Umsiedlung versucht die burmesische Regierung, die ethnische Gruppe der Karenni im Osten Burmas unter Kontrolle zu halten und von den Karenni-Widerstandsgruppen zu trennen. Knapp die Hälfte der etwa 200.000 Bewohner des Kayah-Bundesstaates sind inzwischen vertrieben – in staatlichen Lagern oder in den endlosen burmesischen Wäldern. Flüchtlings-Leben in Thailand; Karenni Ethnic children in refuge camps; Life of refugees in Thailand
Author/creator: Michaela Ludwig
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Terre des Hommes
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.tdh.de/medien/1_2005/leben_im_lager.htm
Date of entry/update: 18 August 2007