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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Rakhine (Arakanese) - cultural, political

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Rakhine (Arakanese) - cultural, political

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: "Narinjara News" (English)
Description/subject: This news service covers Bangladesh-Burma relations, the Bangladesh-Burma border, events in Arakan and human rights violations against both the Buddhist and Muslim population of Arakan. Email delivery of the reports may be requested from narinjara@yahoo.com
Language: English
Source/publisher: Narinjara News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: All Arakan Students' & Youths' Congress (AASYC)
Description/subject: The seven political objectives of AASYC: 1) To promote physical fitness, intelligence, virtue, socio-economical status and friendship of Arakanese students and youths 2) To preserve the ecosystem and cultural heritage of Arakan 3) To build national solidarity 4) To eliminate any forms of Colonialism, Chauvinism and Dictatorship 5) To liberate the whole oppressed ethnic nationalities 6) To gain democracy and human rights 7) To achieve self-determination and self-identification of Arakan
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Burmaonline.net
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2009


Title: Arakan National Council
Description/subject: "ANC is a decentralized political body representing the people of Arakan for self-determination, justice, peace, prosperity, equality, integrity, tranquility, and dignity in emerging the Arakan State with civilized modernity and democracy."... ANC activities: "1. Drafting Arakan State Constitution; 2. Strengthening civil society; 3. Education and training skills in diplomat and foreign relationship; 4. Documentation in human rights violation, rape cases, forced labours, internal displaced persons (IDP), and researching over military expansion; 5. Media networking and training; 6. Training in civil administration and management skills; 7. Research on state-based economic planning; 8. Training youths and women to make public awareness in constitutional power and democratic principle inside Arakan State; 9. Cooperating with democratic forces; 10. Publishing monthly newsletter, research papers, white paper, and producing annual report books; 11. Supporting financial, logistics, and skills to the civil societies in the Arakan State and abroad."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Arakan National Council
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2005


Title: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Description/subject: News and articles about Rohingya, ရိုဟင္ဂ်ာ အေၾကာင္း သတင္းႏွင့္ ေဆာင္းပါးမ်ား
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Rohingya Blogger (RB)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://burmese.rohingyablogger.com/
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2012


Individual Documents

Title: Migration as a Challenge for Myanmar’s Socio-economic Development: Case Studies of Hpa-­an and Mrauk-­U townships in Myanmar
Date of publication: 04 September 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Migration is the act or process of moving from one place to another with the intent of staying at the destination permanently or for a relatively long period of time (1992, Longman). It can also be assumed that people move from one place to another, usually their home place, to work or to settle in another place. As basic factors, migration take place an area where the migrants believe that their opportunity and life circumstances will be better at their destinations than the present location. Nevertheless, if an area where takes place a movement of in-­migration because of positive conditions (pull factors), this will be generally increased the population or human resources. Similarly, if an area where takes place a movement of out-­migration due to negative conditions (push factors), this area will lose their population or human resources. Some time it affects the negative impacts and potential challenges for sustainable socio-­economic development of this area. Therefore, this study is based on some specific areas of Myanmar: Hpa-­an Township, Kayin State and Mrauk-­U Township, Rakhine State where migration process takes place by focusing the question of how and why the people are migrating in these areas. This paper is intended to explore the migration patterns of these are as and to point out the main reasons of push and pull factors for these migrations. To obtain the relevant data, it is analyzed with field observation and in semi-­structured in-­depth interview survey method to the local authorities, experts and local people. Some of the facts from the interview data are assessed by SWOT Analysis to know the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats due to migration. As a result from this study, economic condition is the key factor of the migration for the study areas and that effect on the socioeconomic condition of these areas.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Saw Yu May
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (725K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015


Title: The Bride Price Negotiation Among Chin Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 July 2015
Description/subject: "In 2012, amidst the communal violence between Royingha and Rakhine, a Chin bride father at Paletwa in southern part of Chin state in Myanmar asked twenty lakhs in kyat (approximately equivalent to 200 US$) to the groom for the bride price which made the public shocking record that a normal price range around 5-­6 lakhs (approximately equivalent to 500-­‐600US$). On the other hand, the other bride’s father asked five thousands kyats for the bride price to the groom in May 2013. These two cases have shocked near and far Chin members in Paletwa. Some Chin young women are even competing for their bride price. Many Chin nationalists have then attained concern for this circumstance as an additional ethnic politics issue from the state’s hegemony nation state building process. Yet, not only the geographical location of Paletwa but its socio-economic setting also much interwoven with Rakhine since in the historical time (see also in Kyin Lam Mang 2014; CHKC 2012; Brown 1960). Many shop owners in Paletwa municipal market have informed me in 2013 (May-­‐July) how much they are affected from the communal violence happening in Rakhine where the flow of major basic goods and medicines are imported from Rakhine is limited. In Paletwa, half of the residence belongs to Rakhine ethnic nationalities with a hundred Muslim populations. The trading disadvantage categorized as; the Muslim on the top, the Chin in middle and the Rakhine on t he bottom due to their socio-­‐economic networks in Sittwe and Kyautdaw in Rakhine state. That is, for example, a trading associated in Rakhine state have much facilitating for Rakhine in Paletwa while many Muslim and the Chin do not much deserve to have such network. The Chin missionary or nationalists have claims that Paletwa is in need of “taking care” otherwise their fellows are under the economic “trapping” of the Rakhine.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Flora Bawi Nei Mawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: UNREST IN BURMA’S ARAKAN STATE: A CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS (UPDATED)
Date of publication: 26 June 2012
Description/subject: • The rape and murder of a 27-year-old Buddhist Rakhine woman and the murder of 10 Muslim pilgrims trigger deadly sectarian clashes between Buddhists and Muslims in Arakan State starting on 8 June. • According to the regime, as of 21 June, 62 people had died and over 2,000 buildings, including seven mosques and nine Buddhist monasteries, had been destroyed as a result of the unrest. However, various organizations say that the death toll might be much higher as a result of escalating attacks and reprisals affecting Muslim Rohingya and Buddhist Rakhine. • Regime imposes a curfew and a ban on public gatherings of more than five people in six of 17 townships in Arakan State. President Thein Sein declares an indefinite state of emergency which allows the military to take over administrative control of Arakan State. • World Food Program estimates that 90,000 people have been displaced due to the unrest. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warns of a risk of a severe humanitarian crisis due to ongoing violence and poor conditions in IDP camps. • Bangladeshi authorities push back more than 2,000 Rohingya fleeing violence in Arakan State. Bangladeshi FM Dipu Moni says Bangladesh is already “overburdened” with Rohingya refugees and cannot take any more “under any circumstances.” • Regime warns journalists that they could be charged under existing laws, including the Emergency Provisions Act, if they publish inflammatory reports on the ongoing violence in Arakan State. • Daw Aung San Suu Kyi expresses concern over the handling of the situation by local Rakhine authorities, in particular their failure to dampen anti-Muslim sentiment. Daw Suu also calls on Buddhists to “have sympathy for minorities.” • International reactions: UN warns that discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities poses a threat to Burma’s democratic transition; US, UK are “deeply concerned” over the ongoing violence; EU welcomes the regime’s “measured response” to the crisis; OIC “condemns systematic acts of violence and intimidation against the peaceful Rohingya population.” • The authorities’ decades-long discriminatory policies and practices targeting Rohingya have reinforced the racial and religious animosity between the two communities in Arakan State. Rohingya have suffered restrictions on marriage, freedom of movement, and religious practice. In addition, the regime has routinely subjected Rohingya to forced labor, extortion, land confiscation, and other human rights abuses.
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: pdf (103K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.altsean.org/Docs/PDF%20Format/Thematic%20Briefers/Unrest%20in%20Burmas%20Arakan%20State%... (13 June)
Date of entry/update: 26 June 2012


Title: An Open Letter from the Asian Human Rights Commission to the President of Myanmar (Burma) and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh
Date of publication: 14 June 2012
Description/subject: "...the AHRC strongly urges you to communicate with one another so as to open the border immediately to allow for the movement of people seeking shelter from the violence, and to make appropriate arrangements for the temporary settlement of persons fleeing the parts of Myanmar affected by violence. Furthermore, in order to enable the provision of adequate food and health services to the affected populations, both of your governments are requested to cooperate with one another so as to provide complete, unimpeded, secure access to international agencies at the earliest possible opportunity, in order that these agencies can assess the situation and make arrangements for the necessary provision of emergency relief supplies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
Format/size: pdf (80K)
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


Title: Myanmar Conflict Alert: Preventing communal bloodshed and building better relations
Date of publication: 12 June 2012
Description/subject: "The communal bloodshed in Myanmar’s Rakhine State represents both a consequence of, and threat to, Myanmar’s current political transition. While communal tensions and discrimination against Myanmar’s Muslim minority long predate the country’s recent opening up, the loosening of authoritarian constraints may well have enabled this current crisis to take on a virulent intensity. Equally, failure to both halt the crisis and address its underlying causes risks halting or even eroding Myanmar’s current reform initiatives. Unless the government takes steps not just to end the violence but also lay the groundwork for protection of minority communities there is a risk of the violence spreading. How the government handles this case will be a major test of the police and courts in a country that has just begun to emerge from an authoritarian past. It will also test the government’s will and capacity to reverse a longstanding policy of discrimination toward the Muslim Rohingya..."
Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (ICG)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 June 2012


Title: I Stopped Going to School, Because We Had to Flee to India: PART 1 – On the Run from the Chin State
Description/subject: "Aung Than is 26 years old, enthusiastic and positive young Arakanese man from the Chin State, whose determination of acquiring an education has kept him going through difficult and challenging times in his life. When Aung Than was only six years old, he and his family had to leave everything behind and flee to India, due to the brutal Burmese military oppression in his village. Although his biggest wish had always been to gain good education, it somehow always seemed to be out of reach, and moving away from him. Fleeing from Burma to India, and India to Bangladesh, Aung Than grabbed onto every study opportunity, attending school in Mizoram language in India, as well as being taught by Buddhist monks, Muslims, and an American teacher in Bangladesh. After years of hard work and fleeting study opportunities, Aung Than had a chance to complete his studies on the Thailand-Burma border, where he eventually co-founded AHREM (Arakan Human Rights and Environmental Movement), aiming to teach young Arakanese about environmental issues and human rights. Always keen to give back to his people, Aung Than now dreams of running an orphanage where he can help children whose dreams seem out of reach, just as his were one day."...See the Alternate link for part 2.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalink.org/land-owners-were-arrested-and-put-in-prison-part-2-on-the-run-from-the-chi...
Date of entry/update: 16 March 2016


Title: Rakhaing Leader of the Guerrilla and the Peaceful Pro-Democracy Movement: Saw Mra Raza Linn
Description/subject: "In 1988 I was one of the active leaders of the democracy movement in the Rakhaing [Arakan] State. At that time I was a teacher. So I organized many people and delivered my first democracy speech at Wangabar Ground in Sittwe on 9th of August, 1988. But the government was very angry with me. On 21st of August we seized all government offices in my native town, Rathedaung, without any bloodshed. The government was angry and wanted to kill me. In 1988, September 18, they seized state power. At that time I was at Rathedaung, running the office and controlling my township. After they seized state power, many gun men came in the township and then they searched for me to kill me. They shouted: I want to kill Mra Raza Linn, putting the gun through her mouth! Something like that. They were shouting everywhere. Thousands and thousands of people, they were following me before the government seized state power. They all disappeared. There were only about ten or twelve people around me. So I thought at that time that if I want to continue my struggle I should not stay in Burma. I should go somewhere… So I decided to leave my native country and took shelter on the Bangladesh-Burma border… After they seized the power I told my colleagues I must leave my country. If you want to continue the struggle, follow me! I called them. So eleven men they followed with me. And then we crossed the Bay of Bengal with a small engine boat, and took shelter on the Bangladesh-Burma border. All of us became soldiers, eleven men together with me. All became soldiers..."..."This story is based on Saw Mra Raza Linn’s voice as she tells Burma Link about her experiences, struggles, successes, and dreams."...See the Alternate link for Burmese version.
Language: English and Burmese
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://burmese.burmalink.org/?p=2884
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2016


Title: You Die with It or You Fight for It
Description/subject: "Khaing Hla Pyaint is an incredibly determined young Arakanese man who decided that whatever it takes, he will work for his country and help his people. On a long journey from Arakan State near Bangladeshi border to the Thai border town of Mae Sot, Khaing Hla Pyaint experienced deportation, imprisonment, and torture, until he could finally reach his goal and become a soldier in the jungles of Karen State. Despite the hardship, Khaing Hla Pyaint has never regretted the choices he has made. Why was he so determined to work for his country? How did his childhood experiences and further education make him realise he wants to help his people? Read the second part of the unbelievable story of this young dedicated soldier and learn how he feels about the root causes of the conflict, and how he thinks the international community and donors can promote change instead of funding more arms and training for the Burma Army."...See the Alternate link for part 2.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalink.org/my-aim-in-life-is-to-work-for-my-country-but-i-ended-up-on-a-fishing-boat/
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2016