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Home > Main Library > Non-Burman and non-Buddhist groups > Ethnic groups in Burma (cultural, political) > Single Groups > Shan (cultural, political, historical) > Shan Historical Documents

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Shan Historical Documents

Individual Documents

Title: Kyaing Tong in Transition (c.1850 -­‐1950)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Kyaing Tong is the largest and oldest state of Trans -­‐ Than Lwin Region. It is known in history with such variety of names as Gon (Khun) (Than Tun, 2004), Kom, Kyaing Tong (Hman-­‐nan, 2008), Khema Vara and Khema Rahta Jayajotitonkarapur (Scott and Hardiman, 1901). The first people who migrated into Kyaing Tong were Wa or La-­‐wa. They also settled in the other areas of eastern Shan States and Lan Na in northern Thailand (Conway, 2006). There were followed by Gon (Khun) and Lu people. The date of the migration of these people is attributed to the early first millennium AD even though local chronicles mentions the date of early settlements to twelfth century AD (Mangrai, 1981). Later the ethnic group from the neighbouring states of Thailand and Laos comprising Tai Hkun; Tai Lu, Tai Lem, Tai Neu, Tai Yuan, Tai Lao and Tai Htai came to settle in the Trans-­‐Thanlwin Region including Kyaing Tong area (Sai Aung Tun, 2009). They established communities which later developed chiefs known as saophas or sawbwas (in Myanmar) which means lord of the sky. A legend says that Kyaing Tong was firstly founded by a hermit named Tong. The state therefore was named after its founder Keng Tong or Kyaing Tong. However Kyaing Tong chronicle mentions that the first two sawbwas of Kyaing Tong; Mang Kom and Mang Yè belonged to Wa Tribe. They were replaced by Khun sawbwas who ruled the region from the mid-­‐thirteenth century A.D to 1959 when sawbwas relinquished their autonomous rule (Than Tun, 2004).".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Soe Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (180K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: The Uneasy Subordinate Alliance: The Relations between Myanmar and the Shan States in Late Nineteenth Century
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Historical Setting: "The Shan who belong to the Tai ethnic group of Mongoloid family migrated from China into Myanmar before the Christian Era (Scott and Hardiman, 1901a). Although the date of their migration was still controversial, they had already present in Myanmar before the rise of Bagan in central Ayeyarwaddy Basin. In comparison, the area of settlements of Shans was larger than that of Bamar who entered in the Ayeyarwaddy Basin after the collapse of Pyu city-states (Than Tun, 2002). Since they lived in Yunnan Province, Shans established clusters of communities known as Mong, Muang, Keng-state or town which was ruled by a hereditary chief known as Saopha-lord of the sky. The Myanmar word saw-bwa derived from sao-pha (Zeng Peng: 1990). The first kingdom of Shans might be the Mao which located in a strategic place on the Yunnan border, from thence they entered Myanmar by crossing Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy River. The Shans from Mong Mao area also moved south along the Ayeyarwaddy River. With the help of other groups from Shan States they later founded kingdoms and dynasties in central Myanmar, Upper Sagaing District, Mohnyin, Mong Kwang, Mong Mit and Bhamo. Tai immigrants on the other hand, established p etty states in Hsenwi, Hsi paw, Mong Nai, Mong Pai, Yawng Hwe (Nyaung Shwe), and Kyaing Tong. When Bagan was founded by Aniruddha (1044-77) in the first half of eleventh century A.D, the Shan principalities had already existed in Myanmar. It is attributed that the hegemony of the kings of Bagan could not be extended to the principalities of Shan States, particularly the trans- Than Lwin area (Than Tun, 2004)."......Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shwe Zin Maw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (189K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: Sao Weng - A Shan Patriot of Lawksawk
Date of publication: 2000
Description/subject: The Sao Hpa (or) Sawbwa of the State of LAWKSAWK was without doubt the first Shan leader of SHAN STATE to clash with the advancing British Column. It was January 1887. The annexation of Upper Burma was accomplished in 1885. The Sao Hpas of Southern Shan States formed a confederacy and installed the Limbin Prince as Sovereign. First, in the Shan States, and their aim was Burma itself. With unity and solidarity they firmly believed they could drive the British back to the sea. The final aim was to establish a country with Limbin Prince as King of Burma. During that period the whole of Shan States, South as well as North was in turmoil and discontent existed.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan State Magazine
Format/size: pdf (278K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanyoma.org/yoma/Sao-Weng%28Patriot-of-Lawk-Sawk%29.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Founding of the Union of Burma Through the Hill Peoples Efforts
Date of publication: 01 March 1993
Description/subject: The Memoirs of Khun Kya Bu of Hsipaw, signatory to the Panglong Agreement
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland
Format/size: pdf (228K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanyoma.org/index.php/other/99-history-shan/845-the-founding-of-the-union-of-burma-thro...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Shan Case: Rooting Out the Myth of the Golden Triangle
Date of publication: 01 December 1992
Description/subject: "This is one of the few attempts made by the Shans to introduce themselves to the world at large. I sincerely hope that this brochure helps clear up at least some of the gravest misconceptions about the Shans and our homeland"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation, 1994
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 26 October 2015


Title: Report of the Government Advisory Committee on the Amendment of the Constitution as Proposed by the Shan State Government and its People, 1962
Date of publication: 08 January 1962
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.shanland.org/oldversion/index-3142.htm
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


Title: Shan Federal Proposal (Federal Amendment Proposal)
Date of publication: 25 February 1961
Description/subject: Document containing proposals For the REVISION of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BURMA submitted by THE SHAN STATE, translated by Sao Singha. This document was ratified by the Convention, attended by delegates from the entire Shan State, which was held in Taunggyi on Saturday, 25th of February, 1961.
Author/creator: Trans. Sao Singha
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shan State Steering Committee
Format/size: pdf (506K)
Date of entry/update: 06 May 2017


Title: The Constitution of the Union of Burma, 1947 ("The 1947 Constitution")
Date of publication: 24 September 1947
Description/subject: html version plus a facsimile version
Language: English
Source/publisher: Constituent Assembly of Burma
Format/size: html, pdf (2.7MB - facsimile)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20110902222123/http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Constitution/1947.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Politics in the Shan State
Description/subject: Secession from the Union of Burma..."...The fourth of January 1958 was significant in Burma for two reasons: it marked the tenth anniversary of the nation’s independence and it also denoted the end of the constitutional limitation on the right of a state to secede from the Union1. While the anniversary of independence caused rejoicing throughout the country, the right of secession caused many of the leaders to worry and wonder whether or not this date would become significant as the beginning of the breakup of the Union. Since the right of secession is a unique right, not found in any other modern federal constitution save that of the U.S.S.R.,2 it is useful to examine the background and the contemporary situation in order to see what opportunities there are for a state to secede from the Union of Burma, and what limitations exist to keep it from exercising its right..."
Author/creator: Josef Silverstein, date?
Language: English
Source/publisher: Shanland.org
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003