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Specific areas of health care

  • Child health

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Children Medical Fund
    Description/subject: "The Burma Children Medical Fund (BCMF) is a program dedicated to raising money for children from Burma with serious medical problems who are disadvantaged as a result of the political turmoil in Burma. On this website you will find a brief introduction to the situation along the Thai-Burma border and at the Mae Tao Clinic; see pictures of children you can help; read about the medical conditions that BCMF funds treatment for and see how donations are managed and used. BCMF is currently expanding its program to include special adult and women’s cases. Please see Burma Adult Medical Fund (BAMF) and Women’s Gynaecological Surgery Fund (WGSF) for more information.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Children Medical Fund
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmachildren.net/our-cases/women/
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Countdown to 2015 - Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: Myanmar profile
    Date of publication: 14 June 2012
    Description/subject: "Countdown to 2015 tracks coverage levels for health interventions proven to reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality. It calls on governments and development partners to be accountable, identifies knowledge gaps, and proposes new actions to reach Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health...The Countdown country profile presents in one place the best and latest evidence to enable an assessment of progress in improving reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) and achieving MDGs 4 and 5. The profile presents the most recent available information at the time it was published on selected demographic measures, coverage rates for priority interventions across the continuum of care, and indicators of equity, policy support, human resources, and financial flows. Missing values, or estimates that are more than five years old, indicate an urgent need for concerted action to increase data collection efforts. The most current Countdown country profile, containing the latest available Myanmar health data on key maternal and child health indicators, was published in June 2012 in Building a Future for Women and Children: The 2012 Report."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Countdown
    Format/size: pdf (397K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.countdown2015mnch.org/
    Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


    Title: Countdown to 2015: Accountability Report - Myanmar
    Date of publication: March 2012
    Description/subject: "In March 2012, Countdown published Accountability for Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival: An update on progress in poor countries. This publication included special one-page Countdown country profiles, customized to showcase core indicators selected in 2011 by the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Countdown
    Format/size: pdf (1.44MB)
    Date of entry/update: 22 June 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Monitoring the situation of children and women
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009-2010.....Contents: Summary Table of Findings i Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vii List of Abbreviations viii Acknowledgements ix Executive Summary xi I. Introduction 1 Background 1 Survey Objectives 3 II. Sample and Survey Methodology 4 Sample Design 4 Questionnaires 4 Training and Fieldwork 5 Data Processing 7 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents 8 Sample Coverage 8 Characteristics of Households 8 Characteristics of Respondents 10 IV. Child Mortality 11 V. Nutrition 14 Nutritional Status 14 Breastfeeding 16 Vitamin A Supplements 20 Low Birth Weight 21 VI. Child Health 24 Immunization 24 Tetanus Toxoid 26 Oral Rehydration Treatment 27 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia 29 Solid Fuel Use 31 VII. Environment 32 Water and Sanitation 32 VIII. Reproductive Health 36 Contraception 36 Antenatal Care 36 Assistance at Delivery 38 Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - 2010 iv IX. Child Development 40 X. Education 42 Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness 42 Primary and Secondary School Participation 43 Young Female Literacy 47 XI. Child Protection 48 Birth Registration 48 Early Marriage 49 Orphans and Children's Living Arrangements 50 XII. HIV/AIDS 52 Knowledge of HIV Transmission 52 List of References 56 Appendix A. Sample Design 124 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey 130 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors 134 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables 176 Appendix E. MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators 183 Appendix F. Questionnaires
    Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development; Ministry of Health; United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    Format/size: pdf (5.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2013


    Title: MYANMAR: Majority of under-five deaths preventable - UNICEF
    Date of publication: 26 February 2009
    Description/subject: "Most deaths of children under five are preventable or treatable in Myanmar, according to the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The Under 5 Mortality Survey (2002-2003), conducted by the government and UNICEF, reported the main causes of early death as acute respiratory infection (21.1 percent), brain infection (13.9 percent), diarrhoea (13.4 percent), septicemia (10.7 percent) and prematurity (7.5 percent). About three-quarters of all deaths occurred in the first year. "Over two-thirds of child deaths could be prevented by inexpensive but proven high impact services like immunisation, better case management with antibiotics, insecticide-treated bed nets, supplementation of Vitamin A and other micronutrients," Osamu Kunii, chief of health and nutrition at UNICEF, told IRIN in the former Burmese capital, Yangon. As part of its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Myanmar has pledged to reduce its under-five mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015, from 130 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 43. "To achieve the goals we need more internal efforts and external supports, especially resource mobilisation such as funding," Kunii said, emphasising the importance of better collaboration and coordination between government, UN and NGO partners before 2015..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IrinNews (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2009


    Title: Maternal and Newborn Health - State of the World's Children 2009
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar" -- most useful are the tables.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNICEF
    Format/size: pdf (2.35MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


    Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 38 -- special issue on child health
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Part I - Health: Journey of the Foetus - Health Messenger; Immunisation - Judith Leblanc, Nurse officer (AMI); Developmental Milestones and Factors Influencing Childhood Development - Damarice Ager (ARC); Caring for your Child - Damarice Ager (ARC)... Part II - Medical: Immediate Care of the Newborn Infant - Dr. Claudia Turner & Dr. Verena Carrara (SMRU); Acute Respiratory Tract Infections (Children <5) - Dr. Claudia Turner (SMRU); Differential Diagnosis of Diarrhoea Diseases in Children - Dr. Zaw (World Vision) and HM; Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) - Andrea Menefee, MPH, RDFood Security Programme Coordinator (TBBC); Child Growth Monitoring - Erika Garrity Pied, MS, RDNutrition Technical Officer, (TBBC); Intestinal Worms in Children - Dr. Marcus Rijken (SMRU); Quiz.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
    Date of entry/update: 29 February 2008


    Title: Active surveillance for congrnital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE - Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS... METHODS - From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0–17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR)... FINDINGS - A total of 81 children aged 0–17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT–PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT–PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001–02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births... CONCLUSION - This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT–PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS.
    Author/creator: Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ;84(1):12-20, 2006.
    Format/size: pdf (195K)
    Alternate URLs: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/2006/Vol84-No1/bulletin_2006_84(1)_12-20.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2008


    Title: Improving Maternal newborn and child health-Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2004
    Description/subject: In Myanmar, over 60% of the total population are women and children. The population is made up of the Bamar ethnic majority, who live mostly in the lowlands and central part of the country, and some 135 different ethnic groups, mainly living in the highlands and eastern and western borders of Myanmar. More than 70% of the total population lives in rural areas. The lowland delta and central dry zone are highly populated areas. In 2003, the MOH estimated a crude birth rate of 24 live births per 1,000 populations in urban areas, and 26 per 1,000 in rural areas. Intense efforts have been instigated to improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) services. Various activities have been implemented, with particular emphasis on improving essential obstetric care and post-abortion care. Although there have been significant improvements in quality of MNH service delivery, current estimates indicate that maternal mortality ratio has not declined to the levels anticipated.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organization, South-East Asia Region
    Format/size: pdf (550.63 K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 November 2010


  • Mental health

    Individual Documents

    Title: Evaluation of a nursery school program in long-term Karen refugee camps in Thailand
    Date of publication: November 2011
    Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand due to ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative, learning-friendly environment. Psychosocial development and potentially concerning behaviors of two- to five-year old children in nursery schools were examined using a psychosocial checklist. The results showed that psychosocial development of the children increased with age, with a majority of five year olds being proficient in playing cooperatively with other children. A third of the children showed sadness or emotional outbursts. Difficulty separating from parents was also observed. The results also showed that children who attended the nursery schools for more than a year were better at playing cooperatively with other children and were more aware of their own and others’ feelings. On the other hand, children who were newer to the nursery schools were more polite and better at following rules and controlling their feelings when frustrated. The results indicate that nursery schools can be a promising practice to promote healthy psychosocial development of children in protracted refugee situations."
    Author/creator: Akiko Tanaka
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (357K)
    Date of entry/update: 13 November 2011


    Title: WHO-AIMS report on mental health system in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 2006
    Description/subject: Acknowledgement The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect information on the mental health system of Myanmar. This study was carried out by Professor Hla Htay of the Department of Mental Health, University of Medicine (1), Yangon and Mental Health Hospital Yangon, Myanmar. The preparation of this study would not have been possible without the collaboration of the Ministry of Health, Department of Health, Department of Health Planning, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Nursing, Budget and Finance Unit, Department of Health, Mandalay Mental Health Hospital, Mental Health Units in States and Divisions and Department of Social Welfare. We are grateful for the support of the Medical Superintendent, Yangon Mental Health Hospital, Consultant/Lecturer, Forensic Psychiatric Unit, Yangon Mental Health Hospital, Rector University of Medicine (1), Rector University of Nursing.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia
    Format/size: pdf (409.34 K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    Title: "Health Messenger Magazine" No. 28, special issue on Mental Health
    Date of publication: June 2005
    Description/subject: GENERAL HEALTH: Living as a refugee. By Charles Kemp; What is Mental Health? Mental Health and Addictions. By Pam Rogers... MOTHER AND CHILD HEALTH: Mental Health of Refugee Children;. Causes and Consequences of violence. By Karine Le Roch, Clara; Barilani A protective Network for Victims of Violence... MANAGEMENT: What Health Workers can do? Coping with Stress; Management of Mental Health at Community Level; Happy Saturday Group. By Karine Le Roch.; Counseling for Mental health. By Claudia Pedraglio Martinez... SOCIAL: The Psycho-Social Approach. By Elsa Laurin... INTERVIEW: Interviews with Mental Health Helpers... TEST ;Test your Psycho Potential; How Vulnerable are you to Stress? LACKS COVER PAGES
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2007


    Title: Karenni refugees living in Thai–Burmese border camps: traumatic experiences, mental health outcomes, and social functioning
    Date of publication: 2004
    Description/subject: Abstract In June 2001, we assessed mental health problems among Karenni refugees residing in camps in Mae Hong Son, Thailand, to determine the prevalence of mental illness, identify risk factors, and develop a culturally appropriate intervention program. A systematic random sample was used with stratification for the three camps; 495 people aged 15 years or older from 317 households participated. We constructed a questionnaire that included demographic characteristics, culture-specific symptoms of mental illness, the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and selected questions from the SF-36 Health Survey. Mental health outcome scores indicated elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores were comparable to scores in other communities affected by war and persecution. Psychosocial risk factors for poorer mental health and social functioning outcomes were insufficient food, higher number of trauma events, previous mental illness, and landmine injuries. Modifications in refugee policy may improve social functioning, and innovative mental health and psychosocial programs need to be implemented, monitored, and evaluated for efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Author/creator: Barbara Lopes Cardozoa, Leisel Talleya, Ann Burtonb, Carol Crawford
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Social Science & Medicine _58 (2004) 2637–2644
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2010


    Title: Psychiatric services in Myanmar A historical perspective
    Date of publication: 1997
    Description/subject: Historical perspective The care of the 'insane' The earliest history of services for the mentally ill in Myanmar goes back to 1886. The British authorities felt that a national facility was required; however, its function was to be merely containment. Sadly, the prime motivation for this wnuaissantchea.t Itthweas mcaelnletadllythe i'pllriscoanusefodr thae inpsuabnleic' and was built close to the City Prison in Rangoon '(innomwateksn',ownby as19Y1a4ngtohne). nIunmitbiaelrlsy whiathd sroismeen 5t0o around 750 and yet more space was needed to accommodate the unfortunates.
    Author/creator: Khin Maung Zaw
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Psychiatric Bulletin 1997 v. 21, p. 506-509
    Format/size: pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://pb.rcpsych.org/content/vol21/issue8/
    Date of entry/update: 27 October 2010


  • Primary health care

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar Country Paper for Revisiting Primary Health Care
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: I. Background The foundation of Primary Health Care and its evolution The Thirtieth World Health Assembly in 1977 identified the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that would permit them to lead socially and economically productive lives as a main social target of governments, international organizations and communities. This was reaffirmed by the International Conference on Primary Health Care in 1978 held in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in September, 1978.1 The declaration of Alma-Ata formally adopted primary health care as means for providing a comprehensive, universal, equitable and affordable healthcare service for all countries. It was unanimously adopted by all WHO member countries at the Primary Health Care Conference. The conference defined PHC as "essential health care made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community by means acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and the country can afford. The ideology behind Primary Health Care is based on the recognition that health promotion and protection are essential for sustained economic and social development and contribute to better quality of life. PHC is a cost-effective approach and its principles include social-justice, equity, human rights, and universal access to services, community involvement and priority to the most vulnerable and underprivileged.
    Author/creator: Dr. Nyo NYo Kyaing
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Department of Health, Ministry of Health via WHO SEAR
    Format/size: pdf (362.44 K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


    Title: REVITALIZING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE COUNTRY EXPERIENCE: MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: CONTENTS 1. BACKGROUND 2. PRESENT STATUS OF PHC IN MYANMAR 2.1 Eight Elements of PHC 2.1.1 Health education 2.1.2 Nutrition 2.1.3 Maternal and Child Health 2.1.4 Water and Sanitation 2.1.5 Immunization 2.1.6 Locally endemic diseases 2.1.7 Treatment of common illness and injuries 2.1.8 Essential Drugs 2.2 Other elements of PHC 2.2.1 Non-communicable disease contro 2.2.2 Tobacco Control 2.2.3 Mental Health 9, 15 2.2.4 Primary Oral Health Care 9, 15 2.2.5 School and Youth Health 9, 2.2.6 Occupational Health and Safety 2.2.7 Food and drug safety 2.2.8 Health Care for the Elderly9, 2.2.9 Gender and Health 2.2.10 Emerging Diseases 2.2.11 Health Management Information System ( HMIS ) 3. TRANSLATING THE VALUES OF PHC INTO POLICY AND ACTIONS 3.1 National Health Policy and Health Development Plans 9,15,16,18,19 3.2 Rural Health Development 3.3 Community participation and volunteerism 18,19 3.3.1 Community Health Workers (CHWs) 3.3.2 Auxiliary Midwives (AMWs) 3.4 Integration 3.5 Inter-sectoral actions for health 4 LESSONS LEARNT 4.1 Achievements related to Primary Health Care 4.2 Lesser achievement related to PHC 5 PHC AND THE CURRENT HEALTH ISSUES AND CONTEXT 5.1 Demographic changes and epidemiological transitions 5.2 Public private partnership 5.3 Integrating vertical programme and improving quality of care 6 THE WAY FORWARD
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organization
    Format/size: pdf (411.26 K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 November 2010


  • Reproductive Health/Gynaecology, Obstetrics

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Burma Children Medical Fund
    Description/subject: "The Burma Children Medical Fund (BCMF) is a program dedicated to raising money for children from Burma with serious medical problems who are disadvantaged as a result of the political turmoil in Burma. On this website you will find a brief introduction to the situation along the Thai-Burma border and at the Mae Tao Clinic; see pictures of children you can help; read about the medical conditions that BCMF funds treatment for and see how donations are managed and used. BCMF is currently expanding its program to include special adult and women’s cases. Please see Burma Adult Medical Fund (BAMF) and Women’s Gynaecological Surgery Fund (WGSF) for more information.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Children Medical Fund
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmachildren.net/our-cases/women/
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: Separated by Borders: United By Need, An Assessment of Reproductive Health on the Thai-Burma Border (English)
    Date of publication: 06 February 2012
    Description/subject: A needs assessment of reproductive health on the Thailand-Burma border...According to Dr. Angel Foster, DPhil, MD, of Ibis Reproductive Health and the University of Ottawa, “Our report finds that millions of Burmese and ethnic minorities both inside Burma and along the Thai border have limited or no access to family planning, safe abortion, and general reproductive health care. The toll on women has been particularly severe. Negative effects include high numbers of unplanned pregnancies — and, consequently, high rates of maternal mortality and unsafe abortions. In fact, post-partum hemorrhage and unsafe abortion are the leading causes of maternal death and injury.” The absence of health care infrastructure inside eastern Burma, as well as for those Burmese living illegally as migrants in Thailand, has produced a kind of reproductive health “perfect storm.” Notes Foster, “Since denial of health care has been an official policy of the Burmese military in ethnic areas, women and men, especially adolescents, know little about family planning practices and voluntary sterilization.” Other key findings: Despite the fact that rape and sexual violence are extensive problems within both the conflict zones of eastern Burma and in migrant communities in Thailand, the few health workers that do exist generally lack the knowledge and supplies to dispense critical medicines like emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), which can prevent pregnancy after sexual assault. Even within refugee camps inside Thailand, leaders and organizations working there often adopt policies that prevent unmarried people from accessing family planning information or supplies. Finally, abortion is illegal in Burma unless a woman’s life is at risk and restricted in Thailand. Lack of legal access combined with a lack of trained providers are fundamental causes of morbidity and mortality from abortion. “Our hope is that the new Burmese government will someday make it possible for more organizations to provide aid and resources to the people in eastern Burma where outside groups are currently banned,” said Cari Sietstra, JD, a consultant at Ibis. “The time has come to rebuild the health and human rights of the millions of men, women, and children affected by this conflict.”... Due to an ongoing sixty-year civil war that has subjected civilian populations to forced labor, extrajudicial killings, rape, displacement, imprisonment, denial of health care and education, and destruction of food supplies, the reproductive health of Burmese populations on both sides of the Thai-Burma border is marked by high levels of unmet needs. Reproductive health indicators throughout the region demonstrate a lack of access to family planning resources, including sexual and reproductive health information, low levels of contraceptive access, and high rates of unplanned pregnancy, maternal mortality, and harm from unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality for Burmese populations on both sides the Thailand-Burma border.
    Language: English (full text); Karen, Burmese, Thai (summary and findings)
    Source/publisher: Ibis Reproductive Health (Ibis), Global Health Access Program (GHAP)
    Format/size: pdf (2.8MB - OBL version; 4.15MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://ibisreproductivehealth.org/work/other/thaiburmaborder.cfm (Summary and findings in Thai, Burmese, Karen and English)
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


    Title: Forced Migration and Adolescent Reproductive Health
    Date of publication: December 2011
    Description/subject: "This article combines findings from a study on reproductive health in three populations along the Thailand-Burma border and research conducted on adolescent pregnancy in camps for Burmese refugees in Thailand. The data show that adolescents in three populations—communities in eastern Burma (isolated rural villages, conflict-affected areas, and internally displaced person (IDP) areas in eastern Burma), migrant communities and refugee camps in Thailand—face difficulties in gaining access to reproductive health information and services. One key reason for gaps in service is community attitudes towards adolescent sexual health and reproduction. The impact of community attitudes on access to care is most striking in refugee camps, where populations may access camp-based clinics for reproductive health services, and arguably face the fewest structural barriers to access (for example, barriers to access that exist as part of one’s external environment, such as security and freedom of movement)..."
    Author/creator: SU-ANN OH AND MARGARET HOBSTETTER
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Gender Perspectives" (Vol. 3, Issue 2, December 2011) INSTITUTE OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES (ISEAS)
    Format/size: pdf (596K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


    Title: Against the Odds: Helping Mothers and Babies Survive in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: November 2011
    Description/subject: Technical support provided by the Global Health Access Program (the health branch of Community Partners International), and the Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health....."Over the last decade, militarization and the destruction of community infrastructure have escalated in eastern Burma. The government does not provide health care for the displaced population, which is targeted for abuse, with food and health facilities, documents and supplies destroyed. We have a high prevalence of malaria in eastern Burma, which causes low birth weight, and sometimes miscarriage. If not properly cared for, pregnant women suffer high maternal, and high neo-­‐natal death. There is high mortality in children under age five. And there is a lack of family planning services. Before the Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Workers (MOM) Project, our community-­‐based organizations utilized every opportunity to improve access to maternal and child health care and education for these vulnerable displaced populations. There were many successes, but it was far from enough. We needed to increase health worker capacity, improve access and the referral system, and most of all, to address the shortage in life-­‐saving emergency care. What the MOM Project brought was a focus on mobile health care, a way to address obstetric emergencies and training of local health workers, even in displaced populations. Through the MOM Project, we helped empower individuals and the community. The MOM Project could not get rid of maternal, or neonatal and infant death. But by equipping people and communities with knowledge and skills, it has saved countless lives. Significantly, the MOM Project played a role in fulfilling the basic right to reproductive health and building a human rights-­‐based approach to health in eastern Burma. Health and human rights cannot be separated. People have the right to access health information and essential health services. Families have the right to stay together and organize as a community. A rights-­‐based approach encourages looking at the bigger picture, at integrating health into the broader system of civil society. This is the critical issue — strengthening our civic foundation to save the lives of mothers and children, and build healthy families and communities." - Dr. Cynthia Maung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Workers (MOM)
    Format/size: pdf (2.5MB) 32 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://cpintl.org/sites/default/files/bookPdf/CPI%20RH%20report%20web_0.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 15 February 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Monitoring the situation of children and women
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009-2010.....Contents: Summary Table of Findings i Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vii List of Abbreviations viii Acknowledgements ix Executive Summary xi I. Introduction 1 Background 1 Survey Objectives 3 II. Sample and Survey Methodology 4 Sample Design 4 Questionnaires 4 Training and Fieldwork 5 Data Processing 7 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents 8 Sample Coverage 8 Characteristics of Households 8 Characteristics of Respondents 10 IV. Child Mortality 11 V. Nutrition 14 Nutritional Status 14 Breastfeeding 16 Vitamin A Supplements 20 Low Birth Weight 21 VI. Child Health 24 Immunization 24 Tetanus Toxoid 26 Oral Rehydration Treatment 27 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia 29 Solid Fuel Use 31 VII. Environment 32 Water and Sanitation 32 VIII. Reproductive Health 36 Contraception 36 Antenatal Care 36 Assistance at Delivery 38 Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - 2010 iv IX. Child Development 40 X. Education 42 Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness 42 Primary and Secondary School Participation 43 Young Female Literacy 47 XI. Child Protection 48 Birth Registration 48 Early Marriage 49 Orphans and Children's Living Arrangements 50 XII. HIV/AIDS 52 Knowledge of HIV Transmission 52 List of References 56 Appendix A. Sample Design 124 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey 130 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors 134 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables 176 Appendix E. MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators 183 Appendix F. Questionnaires
    Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development; Ministry of Health; United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    Format/size: pdf (5.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2013


    Title: A ‘climate of fear’ at the Thai-Burma border
    Date of publication: 03 February 2010
    Description/subject: The oppressive regime running Burma has both forced many Burmese into displaced person camps in Thailand. Young Burmese people are particularly vulnerable, especially due to issues such as sexual health education and trafficking. By any account, Burma is a beautiful, naturally rich country with a diverse ethnic history. It is also run by one of the most oppressive regimes in the world, the State Peace and Development Council, an 11-member group of military commanders. This junta, in power under different names since 1988, has been cited for countless human rights abuses. The SPDC also oversees a corrupt, inefficient economy. In spite of the country’s natural wealth, social-economic conditions continue to deteriorate, along with Burma’s schools and hospitals.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Conversation for A Better World
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 November 2010


    Title: Accessing Maternal Health Services in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: 23 December 2008
    Description/subject: This Perspective discusses the following new study published in PLoS Medicine: Mullany LC, Lee CI, Yone L, Paw P, Oo EKS, et al. (2008) "Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma". PLoS Med 5(12): e242. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050242 Luke Mullany and colleagues examine access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations within vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.
    Author/creator: Macaya Douoguih
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PLoS Med 5(12)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 February 2009


    Title: Access To Essential Maternal Health Interventions and Human Rights Violations among Vulnerable Communities in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: Background: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services... Methods and Findings: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15–45 y) documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y). Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%), any (39.3%) or  4 (16.7%) antenatal visits, use of an insecticidetreated bed net (21.6%), and receipt of iron supplements (11.8%) were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates  11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen households had been forced to move. Among Karen households, odds of anemia were 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–2.40) times higher among women reporting forced displacement, and 7.47 (95% CI 2.21–25.3) higher among those exposed to food security violations. The odds of receiving no antenatal care services were 5.94 (95% CI 2.23–15.8) times higher among those forcibly displaced... Conclusions: Coverage of basic maternal health interventions is woefully inadequate in these selected populations and substantially lower than even the national estimates for Burma, among the lowest in the region. Considerable political, financial, and human resources are necessary to improve access to maternal health care in these communities.
    Author/creator: Luke C. Mullany, Catherine I. Lee, Lin Yone, Palae Paw, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Cynthia Maung, Thomas J. Lee, Chris Beyrer
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: PLoS Medicine, December 2008 | Volume 5 | Issue 12 | e242
    Format/size: pdf (186K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Access_To_Essential_Maternal_Health.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 February 2009


    Title: Maternal and Newborn Health - State of the World's Children 2009
    Date of publication: December 2008
    Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar" -- most useful are the tables.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: UNICEF
    Format/size: pdf (2.35MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 February 2009


    Title: Increasing access to reproductive health services in eastern Burma
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Alternative strategies to increase access to reproductive health services among internally displaced populations are urgently needed. In eastern Burma continuing conflict and lack of functioning health systems render the emphasis on facility-based delivery with skilled attendants unfeasible. Along the Thailand/Burma border, local organizations are implementing a unique pilot, the "Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Workers (MOM) Project", which establishes a three-tiered collaborative network of community-based reproductive health workers. Health workers from local organizations receive practical training in basic emergency obstetric care plus blood transfusion, focused antenatal care, and family planning at a central facility. Returning to their target communities inside Burma, these first-tier “Maternal Health Workers ” (MHWs) train a second tier of local health workers (HWs) and a third tier of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide a limited subset of these interventions depending on their level of training. Close communication between health workers and TBAs promotes acceptance and coverage of reproductive health services throughout the community. We describe the rationale, the design and implementation of the project and the parallel monitoring plan for evaluation of the MOM Project. This unique model of health care delivery may serve as a model for new strategies for increasing access to care in other conflict settings.... Keywords: Emergency obstetric care, reproductive health, misoprostol, internally displaced populations, Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Mobile Obstetrics Maternal Health Worker Project (MOM)
    Format/size: pdf (2.89MB)
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2008


    Title: The MOM Project: Delivering Maternal Health Services among Internally Displaced Populations in Eastern Burma
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract: Alternative strategies to increase access to reproductive health services among internally displaced populations are urgently needed. In eastern Burma, continuing conflict and lack of functioning health systems render the emphasis on facility-based delivery with skilled attendants unfeasible. Along the Thailand–Burma border, local organisations have implemented an innovative pilot, the Mobile Obstetric Maternal Health Workers (MOM) Project, establishing a three-tiered collaborative network of community-based reproductive health workers. Health workers from local organisations received practical training in basic emergency obstetric care plus blood transfusion, antenatal care and family planning at a central facility. After returning to their target communities inside Burma, these first-tier maternal health workers trained a second tier of local health workers and a third tier of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide a limited subset of these interventions, depending on their level of training. In this ongoing project, close communication between health workers and TBAs promotes acceptance and coverage of maternity services throughout the community. We describe the rationale, design and implementation of the project and a parallel monitoring plan for evaluation of the project. This innovative obstetric health care delivery strategy may serve as a model for the delivery of other essential health services in this population and for increasing access to care in other conflict settings."...Keywords: antenatal care, childbirth, emergency obstetric care, misoprostol, internally displaced populations, Burma
    Author/creator: Luke C Mullany, Catherine I Lee, Palae Paw, Eh Kalu Shwe Oo, Cynthia Maung, Heather Kuiper, Nicole Mansenior, Chris Beyrer, Thomas J Lee
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Reproductive Health Matters"
    Format/size: pdf (544K)
    Date of entry/update: 20 December 2008


    Title: Reproductive health in Burma: a priority for action
    Date of publication: 30 April 2008
    Description/subject: There is an urgent need for improved reproductive health services in Burma. At 360 per 100,000 live births the estimated maternal mortality ratio is lower than for a number of other countries in the region but there is widespread belief that this number is not a true representation of the maternal deaths in the country. Contraceptive use is also low, with large regional variations; women in those areas most affected by conflict are less likely to use a modern contraceptive than those living in the central plains region. In Arakan (Rakhine) State, where many people are displaced from their homes or are returnees from refugee camps in Bangladesh, the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women is particularly low.
    Author/creator: John Bercow
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
    Format/size: pdf (English, 275K; Burmese, 190K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/22-23.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


    Title: Borderline Health
    Date of publication: 2008
    Description/subject: As a "slow-motion genocide" envelops ethnic minorities in eastern Burma, health workers rely on innovative strategies and raw courage to save the lives of mothers and infants.
    Author/creator: Cathy Shufro
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Johns Hopkins Public Health" Online Edition, FAll 2008
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 December 2008


    Title: "Health Messenger" Magazine No. 37 -- special issue on maternal health
    Date of publication: September 2007
    Description/subject: I. Health:- 1. Female reproductive system (HM); 2. Lifestyle consideration during antenatal and postnatal period - Erika Garrity Pied (TBBC); 3. Breast-feeding - Erika Garrity Pied (TBBC); 4. Family planning (HM)... II. Medical:- 5. Pregnancy changes and management of symptoms - Dr. Htwe (AMI); 6. Antenatal care (SMRU); 7. Genital Haemorrhage: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment - Dr. Bertrand Martinez-Aussel (AMI); 8. Vaginal Discharge - Dr. Bertrand Martinez-Aussel (AMI); 9. Intra-natal and Post-natal care (SMRU)... Focus: "I don't have enough breast-milk!"; 10. Interview with ARC staff in Umpiem; Quiz.
    Language: Burmese, English
    Source/publisher: Aide Medicale Internationale (AMI)
    Format/size: pdf (3.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2007


    Title: Myanmar Adolescent Health Fact Sheet
    Date of publication: January 2007
    Description/subject: Myanmar’s population is estimated at 50.52 million1 with a growth rate of 1%. Nearly 70% of the population is rural. The sex ratio was estimated to be 989 males per 1000 females in 20022. According to the Fertility and Reproductive Health Survey (FRHS) in 2001, the total fertility rate has decreased from 4.0 in 1990 to 2.4 in 20012. In 2001, the crude birth rate was 23.9 and crude death rate 11.23. The infant mortality rate has declined from 79 per 1000 live births in 1997 to 49 in 2001 (48.3 in urban and 50 in rural areas). In the year 2000 the maternal mortality ratio of the country was 360 per 100,000 live births. The adult literacy rate improved from 83.1% in 1995 to 96.5% in 2001 and the Human Development Index of Myanmar for 2003 was 0.5784.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: World Health Organization_SEARO
    Format/size: pdf (236.42 K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


    Title: Fertility Regulation through Traditional Midwives along the Thai-Burma Border
    Date of publication: 21 July 2006
    Description/subject: Reproductive Health in Developing Countries...SUMMARY: "Multiple confounders with important interaction make a cause & effect analysis difficult when discussing factors contributing to decrease reproductive mortality. Every sector taken up to be improved is a step towards the objective of improving women’s well-being. Findings of this literature review are: traditional midwives (TMs) as contraceptive distributors are not significant in reducing reproductive deaths. The main killer among mothers in Burma and along the Thai-Burma border is unsafe, septic, induced abortion. Even if TMs cannot provide emergency obstetric care, as distributors of modern contraception they could affect the maternal mortality in four ways. 1: Reducing number of pregnancies, which decreases the number of times women face risk of maternal death. 2: High-risk pregnancies at higher parities can be avoided. 3: Women can avoid unwanted pregnancy, which may end in unsafe abortion or in not seeking care or in abandoning a baby. 4: Involving TMs in contraceptive services may replace their practice of inducing unsafe abortions. As long as most of the deliveries are still at home with indigenous midwives maternal mortality can not be reduced below 100/100,000, even if there is functioning emergency obstetric care (EmOC) available. Examples from Brazil and China have shown this It is still realistic that the present high mortality from over 600/100,000 in Burma’s internally displaced people (IDP) areas can be significantly reduced. Fertility regulation is not a substitute for obstetric care in a limited budget country, but they should work together. TMs have been utilized in some countries by integrating them successfully into existing health systems. Even in countries with political stability the reduction of maternal mortality took decades. In an unstable population disrupted by civil war additional factors delay the process. To overcome the feminization of poverty girls schooling is to be promoted. The number of girls in secondary schools needs to be increased, so that the coming generation has a better understanding of health issues. No RH prospective intervention studies about postemergency settings with TM programmes for fertility regulation have been found in the literature. There cannot be one monopolized concept for healthcare or for safe motherhood, or for population stabilization. We need measured tailored projects for every ethnic group in its circumstances reaching each needy individual. If one way does not bring the expected results, the strategy must be changed. With motivated skilled midwives from the Backpack Health Worker Team (BPHWT) and additional trained EmOC-staff, who can form a link in a transition period until there are enough literate skilled midwives, as many lay midwives as possible should be offered training on a voluntary basis with as many skills as they can take in. Disarmament of rebel groups and peace negotiations are essential."
    Author/creator: Inge Sterk
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
    Format/size: pdf (855K - low resolution; 1.53MB - original, high resolution )
    Alternate URLs: http://www.mitwelt-netzwerk.de/documents/thesis_2006-07.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 February 2007


    Title: Frauen in Bildung und Gesundheit
    Date of publication: 29 December 2005
    Description/subject: Armutsreduzierung und die Stärkung der Position von Frauen hängen in vielerlei Hinsicht zusammen. In Burma, so heißt es im Allgemeinen, nehmen die Frauen eine angesehene und respektierte Rolle in der Gesellschaft ein. In der Kombination mit Armut, Gewalt oder kulturellen Werten werden jedoch Diskriminierungen und Ungleichheiten sichtbar. Die meisten Gesundheitsprobleme, denen sich Frauen ausgesetzt sehen, sind auf schlechte Lebensbedingungen zurückzuführen. keywords: women, health, education, prostitution, HIV/AIDS, family planning
    Author/creator: Ulrike Bey
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26, S. 37-43
    Format/size: pdf
    Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


    Title: Working Our Way Back Home - Fertility and pregancy loss on the Thai-Burmese border
    Date of publication: December 2005
    Description/subject: Findings:- Key findings from the research show that: While unplanned pregnancy and abortion are a large problem, they can be prevented. * Post abortion care at Thai and Burmese health facilities takes large amounts of health resources. * At least a third of women with post abortion complications have self-induced abortions. * Men and women have low levels of knowledge about modern methods of contraception. * Temporary contraceptive information or methods are not offered to women during post abortion care in the Mae Sot Hospital but are offered 6 weeks after discharge. Many women are affected by unplanned pregnancies ~ * The vast majority of women are married and two thirds have children. * A third of women have five or more pregnancies, which is a health risk in itself. The way the pregnancy ends can negatively affect women's health and wellbeing ~ * Unqualified abortionists and home remedies are the only recourse women have to end an unwanted pregnancy. * Women know of and use a wide variety of methods to end their pregnancy including self-medication with multinational and Burmese medicines, drinking ginger and whisky, vigorous pelvic pummelling and insertion of objects into the sex organs. * Post abortion treatment in hospital can be expensive if a woman does not have a work permit or is not referred by Mae Tao Clinic and can leave her with debts. Women are pressured by social and political circumstances to end their pregnancies~ * Women are often pressured by employers, husbands and the fear of unemployment to end their pregnancies. * Some women report domestic violence as influencing their decision to abort. Women were attempting to limit their fertility in many different ways ~ * Most women and lay midwives classified menstrual regulation and abortion as traditional methods of fertility control. * Most women accepted a diverse range of temporary and permanent contraceptive methods from the Mae Tao Clinic staff while they were still in-patients. The nature of forced displacement and lack of human rights directly effects reproductive health ~ * Having a work permit does not necessarily offer protection to women, as there is scrutiny to ensure a woman is not pregnant when a permit is issued.  As workers without work permits can be arrested and deported by Thai police, women are reluctant to travel to any type of health service and often wait until they are very unwell.  Burmese women as non-citizens are not included in Thai death statistics at a national level so the deaths of Burmese women go unnoticed, by both Thai and Union of Myanmar authorities.
    Author/creator: Cynthia Maung, Suzanne Belton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Mao Tao Clinic
    Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


    Title: A Pregnant Problem
    Date of publication: November 2005
    Description/subject: Young women trapped by dogma and the generation gap... "It’s only a couple of years ago that young people living in and around the Karenni refugee camp at Ban Tractor in Thailand’s Mae Hong Son Province were able to help themselves to free condoms from boxes attached to trees and wayside posts. It was the idea of the camp health department director, Say Reh, who had been growing increasingly concerned about the rising numbers of young unmarried women becoming pregnant and also about the risk of HIV/AIDS in the community. But it was a short-lived idea. Say Reh had to abandon his solo birth-control effort after three months because of strong opposition from many of the camp residents and Catholic and Protestant church ministers. “Older people here believe that distributing condoms and organizing sex education encourages young people to indulge in sex,” says Say Reh. Although he’s abandoned his free condoms initiative, Say Reh and some of his co-workers still hold occasional sex education classes for the young people of Ban Tractor, under the watchful eye of disapproving elder members of the community. “The problem is that parents are sensitive on sex issues and many are illiterate, so they don’t know how to educate their children and guard them from unwanted pregnancies,” he says..."
    Author/creator: Louis Reh
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 11
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


    Title: Borders of fertility: Unwanted pregnancy and fertility management by Burmese women in Thailand
    Date of publication: May 2005
    Description/subject: Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy...Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, School of Population Health, Key Centre for Women�s Health in Society The University of Melbourne...This thesis, describes how women who are forced to migrate from Burma into Thailand manage their fertility, unwanted pregnancy and pregnancy loss. Unsafe abortion is a common problem and much time and resources are taken with the care of women suffering haemorrhage, infection and pain after self-induced abortion in both Thai and Burmese-led health facilities. The thesis examines the characteristics of 43 Burmese women admitted to health facilities with post-abortion complications and their chosen methods of self-induced abortion. There is no commonly agreed definition of abortion between formal, informal health workers or women. Most people considered it morally proscribed and in some cases knew it was illegal, but still felt it was necessary. Some aspects of post-abortion care are performed better by informally than formally trained health workers. Post-abortion family planning was poorly performed by Thai health workers. Lay midwives play a central role in fertility management and some are abortionists. Burmese women�s partners are not well informed about fertility management and frequently decline vasectomy. Within a relm of limited traditional and modern reproductive choices, women manage their fertility outcomes. The Burmese women in this study are generally married with children. Considered illegal migrants, they are employed and work in Thailand without work permits. Many women have a history of escaping human rights abuses and entrenched poverty in Burma. At least a third of women admitted into care with post-abortion complications have induced their abortion with oral herbal preparations, pummelling manipulations or stick abortions. Most of the abortion services are provided by Burmese lay midwives. Reasons for terminating the pregnancy include: poverty, gender-based violence and the local illness of �weakness�. In addition, incomplete sexual health knowledge, and difficult access to reproductive health services play a part in mistimed pregnancy. I argue that a lack of rights increases women�s risk of unsafe abortion. The rights to work and earn a fair wage and to move without fear influence reproductive health choices and access to health services. A lack of sexual health information for men and women and the ability to safely control fertility causes unwanted pregnancies. Furthermore, violence perpetrated at the individual and state level contributes to unsafe abortion. Burmese women�s mortality and morbidity associated with unsafe abortion in Thailand is largely unrecorded and unknown to the Burmese military government. Unwanted and mistimed pregnancy can be avoided through reproductive technologies, education programmes, and access to modern contraceptives. To safely terminate unwanted pregnancies and to treat the complications of pregnancy loss is a woman�s right. Burma and Thailand are signatories to Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Descrimination Against Women, yet Burmese women continue to suffer, become sterile, socially vilified, unemployed or repatriated to Burma due to their reproductive status. Their sickness and deaths are secondary to the economic imperatives of Burma and Thailand.
    Author/creator: Dr. Suzanne Belton
    Language: English
    Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2005


    Title: Fertility and abortion: Burmese women's health on the Thai-Burma border
    Date of publication: January 2004
    Description/subject: "In Thailand's Tak province there are 60,520 registered migrant workers and an estimated 150,000 unregistered migrant workers from Burma. Fleeing the social and political problems engulfing Burma, they are mostly employed in farming, garment making, domestic service, sex and construction industries. There is also a significant number of Burmese living in camps. Despite Thailand�s developed public health system and infrastructure, Burmese women face language and cultural barriers and marginal legal status as refugees in Thailand, as well as a lack of access to culturally appropriate and qualified reproductive health information and services..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton and Cynthia Maung
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Forced Migration Review No. 19
    Format/size: pdf (110K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 June 2004


    Title: Myanmar Fertility and Reproductive Health Survey 2001
    Date of publication: December 2002
    Description/subject: Preliminary Report: The 2001 Fertility and Reproductive Health Survey (FRHS) is the third survey to obtain detailed information on demography and reproductive health in Myanmar. The first survey was 1991 Population Changes and Fertility Survey (PCFS) and the second was the 1997 FRHS. This Preliminary Report is the first report of 2001 FRHS to provide policymakers, programme managers, international organizations, NGOs and scholars timely and reliable detailed but brief information on fertility, contraception, maternal and child health, infant and child mortality, knowledge of STDs and HIV/AIDS and internal migration in Myanmar. Two more detailed reports are planned to supplement this one: comprehensive Country Report (main survey report) and Report on Detailed Analysis of Trends and Patterns on selected topics.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Myanmar Department of Population
    Format/size: pdf (2.21 MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/myanmar/?publications=1472
    Date of entry/update: 22 October 2010


    Title: Post Abortion Care: Who Cares?
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "This article is intended to give health workers an introduction into the individual implications of pregnancy loss as well as local issues on the Thai-Burma border and broader South-east Asian regional issues. I want to focus on the gender and social features rather than pure biomedical information, although this is of course highly important but is covered in other parts of this magazine. I will talk about some women�s stories that were collected in 2002 to outline typical cases, the reasons why the woman chose to end the pregnancy and impact on women�s lives. I will also present some findings from a medical records review conducted with the Mae Tao Clinic and discuss some findings from research in the international arena. So should we care about post abortion care? I hope to show that we should, as not only can it be a life threatening event for the woman but it reflects certain aspects about the communities we live in, social conditions, legal and religious norms, how we value human rights and the status of women..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Health Messenger
    Format/size: html (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


    Title: Lady's Love Powder
    Date of publication: June 2002
    Description/subject: This article appeared in Burma - Women's Voices for Change, Thanakha Team, Bangkok, published by ALTSEAN in 2002... "...Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases are problems that many Burmese women face with little support and a poverty of health resources. Of course it is difficult to quantify such statements in light of the limited sharing of information that occurs between the Burman military government and the rest of the world. One informed source, Dr Ba Thike (1997), a doctor working in Burma, reported that in the 1980s abortion complications accounted for twenty percent of total hospital admissions and that for every three women admitted to give birth, one was admitted for abortion complications...The records at the Mae Tao Clinic in Thailand, a health service that offers reproductive health services to women coming from Burma as day visitors or as longer-term migrant workers, reflects a crisis in women�s health. In 2001, the Mae Tao Clinic documented 185 abortion complication cases (Out Patients Department) and 231 cases that needed to be admitted into the In-patients Department with complications such as sepsis, dehydration, haemorrhage and shock from abortions and miscarriage..."
    Author/creator: Suzanne Belton (Ma Suu San)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma - Women's Voices for Change (publ. ALTSEAN)
    Format/size: html (24K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 June 2004


    Title: WOMEN'S HEALTH (Chapter from "Gathering Strength")
    Date of publication: January 2002
    Description/subject: OVERVIEW; GOVERNMENT HEALTH SPENDING; POLICY, LAW & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATING TO WOMEN'S HEALTH; EDUCATION ABOUT WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUES; ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE; REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH; MATERNAL HEALTH; WOMEN & HIV/AIDS; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS.
    Author/creator: Brenda Belak
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Images Asia
    Format/size: PDF (954K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Escape From the Bear and Run Into the Tiger": The Impact of Violence and Fear on Migrants' Reproductive Health
    Date of publication: December 2000
    Description/subject: "The massive influx of migrants from Burma into Thailand is one of the largest migrant populations in Asia. Over one million migrants from Burma are currently residing in Thailand. An ethnically diverse group coming from all over Burma and speaking many different languages, these migrants often lack a common language even among themselves. What they do share are encounters of fear and violence, that affect most facets of their lives. During 1998, an Assessment of Reproductive and Sexual Health Perspectives, Concerns and Realities of Migrant Workers from Burma in Thailand was conducted under the guidance of Mahidol University's Institute of Population and Social Research (IPSR). The recently published results of the study reveal that a fear of violence and a preoccupation with staying safe determines almost every aspect of the migrants' lives, including their health care options and decisions. The study highlights the extremely limited health services that exist in Burma as well as the problems encountered by migrants in Thailand such as the ready availability of medicines without access to health services or education. Consequently, people from Burma suffer from easily treatable conditions, presenting a health care crisis on both sides of the border. Most migrants from Burma in Thailand reside illegally and are generally unable to communicate in Thai. They are often in situations which leave them vulnerable to violence and abuse by employers, authorities and even each other. These experiences, coupled with fears of violence and exploitation, create a vacuum in which the migrants have few or no options for health services. This reality is further compounded by cultural mores and the lack of basic and reproductive health education, which lead to high maternal mortality and morbidity rates, unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/ AIDS)..."
    Author/creator: Therese Caouette
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate" VOL. VII, NO. 4 WINTER 2000
    Format/size: pdf (329K - article; 1.22MB - full magazine)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/BD2000-V07-N04.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Women's Health

    Individual Documents

    Title: Myanmar: Monitoring the situation of children and women
    Date of publication: October 2011
    Description/subject: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009-2010.....Contents: Summary Table of Findings i Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vii List of Abbreviations viii Acknowledgements ix Executive Summary xi I. Introduction 1 Background 1 Survey Objectives 3 II. Sample and Survey Methodology 4 Sample Design 4 Questionnaires 4 Training and Fieldwork 5 Data Processing 7 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents 8 Sample Coverage 8 Characteristics of Households 8 Characteristics of Respondents 10 IV. Child Mortality 11 V. Nutrition 14 Nutritional Status 14 Breastfeeding 16 Vitamin A Supplements 20 Low Birth Weight 21 VI. Child Health 24 Immunization 24 Tetanus Toxoid 26 Oral Rehydration Treatment 27 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia 29 Solid Fuel Use 31 VII. Environment 32 Water and Sanitation 32 VIII. Reproductive Health 36 Contraception 36 Antenatal Care 36 Assistance at Delivery 38 Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 - 2010 iv IX. Child Development 40 X. Education 42 Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness 42 Primary and Secondary School Participation 43 Young Female Literacy 47 XI. Child Protection 48 Birth Registration 48 Early Marriage 49 Orphans and Children's Living Arrangements 50 XII. HIV/AIDS 52 Knowledge of HIV Transmission 52 List of References 56 Appendix A. Sample Design 124 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey 130 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors 134 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables 176 Appendix E. MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators 183 Appendix F. Questionnaires
    Source/publisher: Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development; Ministry of Health; United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
    Format/size: pdf (5.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 27 December 2013