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Urban displacement

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: EXTRACTS ON URBAN DISPLACEMENT IN BURMA FROM US STATE DEPARTMENT COUNTRY REPORTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
Format/size: html (34K)
Date of entry/update: 08 February 2007


Title: INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN MYANMAR: 1995 – 2005
Description/subject: "This compendium focuses on recent articles related to the development of industrial estates in the major urban centres of Myanmar. Although the clustering of traditional craft industries was common in towns and cities throughout Burma in the colonial era, it was not until the 1950s that modern industrial complexes such as those in the Pyay district of central Burma and in several parts of Rangoon began to take shape. The displacement of urban core residents and small enterprises that took place in the late fifties also led to the development of industrial sites in satellite towns on the east side of the capital. But it was only in the 1990s, following the opening to privately owned industries by Burma’s military government, that the push to develop industrial zones throughout the country began in earnest. Today there are more than fifty industrial parks scattered throughout the country, about half of them in the area around the national capital. Some, like the new complexes at Indagaw near Bago and the two near Kyaukse in Upper Myanmar are exclusively reserved for state-owned factories. Others are being developed with foreign capital for foreign-owned enterprises or foreign companies that have entered into joint-venture agreements with holding companies of the military government. Most of the new industrial estates are being developed by the Department of Human Settlement and Housing Development of the Ministry of Construction specifically for privately owned industries. Over 6,000 of the 50,000 privately owned manufacturing enterprises in the country are now accommodated in these zones. Recently, several privately owned land development companies have begun their own industrial parks in the Yangon area in collaboration with the DHSHD. The articles in the compendium are arranged in chronological order with the most recently published at the top of the list. The articles have been selected on the basis that they are representative of initiatives and challenges faced in the rapidly developing industrial zones of Myanmar. Internet search engines such as Google will yield many more references on any one of the many zones named here. Researchers should bear in mind that place names in Myanmar are frequently spelled in a variety of ways in English. Thus, the use of different spellings as search words may result in a considerable increase in the amount of information generated."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Courier Information Services
Format/size: html (445K), Word (558K), pdf (786K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.doc
http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs2/INDUSTRIAL%20ESTATES%20IN%20MYANMAR.pdf
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2005


Title: Land disputes (Category archive BurmaNet News)
Description/subject: Articles on this category from BurmaNet News
Language: English
Source/publisher: BurmaNet News
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2016


Individual Documents

Title: The mean streets of Hlaing Tharyar
Date of publication: 28 August 2015
Description/subject: "...While all-out street brawls might not be an everyday occurrence in Hlaing Tharyar, the township is awash with crime – everything from fistfights, robberies, rapes and extortion to assaults and home detentions by lenders against debtors. A senior police officer from the Hlaing Tharyar Myoma Police Station said some of these cases are brought to the attention of police, but many others are “solved” by calling in local toughs who rely on intimidation. Among the obstacles to maintaining rule of law in the township are the huge growth in population, and an insufficient police force. Last year’s census identified 684,700 residents, about half of whom are squatting illegally on land they do not own or rent. Many of these squatters are thought to have migrated to the area in the wake of Cyclone Nargis in May 2008..."
Author/creator: Khin Wine Phyu Phyu
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 August 2015


Title: Police roundup pushes homeless people out of Pyay City, Bago Division, August 2012
Date of publication: 08 July 2013
Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member from Yangon Region trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. It describes events occurring in Pyay City, Bago Division, on August 3rd 2012 when City Development Committee staff and policemen carried out a nighttime city-sweep to remove homeless families. The authorities used a public rubbish truck to forcibly detain the families and then to transport them to Okshittpin Forest, which is halfway between Pyay City and the border with Rakhine State. The families were abandoned in the forest during a monsoon rain, and were threatened not to return to Pyay. Both children and adults were threatened with prison if they returned. However, the families did return to Pyay, after they encountered several problems along the way, including being without food to eat for two days, not having baby formula for infants, inadequate shelter under which to sleep, and most of the younger children became sick. Once they returned to Pyay City, the families were assisted with medicine. Pocket money and education was provided to the children by a local organization."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: html, pdf (85K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b43.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/KHRG/KHRG%202013/KHRG-2013-07-08-Police_roundup_pushes_homeless_people_...
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


Title: Forced relocation in Burma’s former capital
Date of publication: 22 April 2008
Description/subject: The population of Yangon has experienced coercive resettlement on a truly massive scale under military rule..."With its ‘huts to apartments’ scheme, the SPDC claims to have placed many squatters in new multi-storey housing on the site of or near their former dwellings. However, forced relocation in Yangon, Mandalay and other cities in central Burma continues today; victims of fires, for example, are not allowed to rebuild their old neighbourhoods and residential areas are cleared to make way for new roads, apartments and shopping centres. This is an environment where the land rights of ordinary citizens, whatever their ethnicity, remain unrecognised..."
Author/creator: Donald M Seekins
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 30
Format/size: pdf (Burmese, 143K; English, 304K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR30Burmese/10-1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2008


Title: SPDC Army atrocities in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract in the words of a local resident
Date of publication: 24 October 2007
Description/subject: "While the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continues its diplomatic manoeuvring claiming a 'return to normalcy' and courting favour with United Nations special envoy to Burma, Ibrahim Gambari, attacks on villages and military atrocities in northern Karen State have continued unabated. Nevertheless, local villagers continue to resist such abuse and speak out, where possible, against its daily perpetration. The report below comprises a translated account of the situation in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract, Lu Thaw township, Papun District written not by a KHRG researcher or any other of the organisation's staff, but rather by a local village head from Ler Muh Bplaw village tract who testifies in his own words to the atrocities that continue to undermine rural lives and livelihoods. The report discusses SPDC operations including attacks on villages and the killing of civilians as well as the state of health and education for the communities of Ler Muh Bplaw village tract. The text of the report is supported with photographs taken by KHRG field researchers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F9)
Format/size: html, pdf (517 MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg07f9.pdf
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


Title: Dead Set on Helping
Date of publication: December 2003
Description/subject: "Burma’s poverty means that even providing funerals for loved ones can be difficult if not impossible. But a new social welfare association is lending a helping hand... Accompanied by some poor people, a famous Burmese movie star carries a coffin in Rangoon. In the coffin is the corpse of a poor man who is unrelated to the actor. This is not a scene for a film; it’s real. And to many people it’s amazing, because it’s so unheard of. The movie star, Kyaw Thu, has participated in many funerals as a sort of gravedigger, and he is vice president of a social welfare association known as the Free Funeral Services Society (FFSS)..."
Author/creator: Htain Linn
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10, December 2003
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


Title: Residents Speak Out Against Forced Relocation
Date of publication: 02 April 2002
Description/subject: "Homeowners in Rangoon's Kamaryut Township were told by military officials last week to evacuate their homes by April 5 or face arrest. The residents were not given any reasons for the forced relocation nor have they been offered any compensation thus far, Kamaryut residents told The Irrawaddy..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2007


Title: INDUSTRIAL BELT TAKES SHAPE AROUND CAPITAL
Date of publication: 17 January 1997
Description/subject: "...Sources say the industrial zones are creating another headache: forced relocations of villagers. The source says that farmers have been forced to give up their prized land in Mingaladon north of Rangoon to make way for Mitsui's industrial park. "There is no negotiation between the farmers and the government. The govenrment simply puts up a sign saying, 'Everybody must move by this date.' Everybody must obey it or else. Villages are silently angry but they don't dare protest." Adds another local resident, explaining the public mentality about reallocations, "We have to obey the king. When the king says move, we have to move."..."
Author/creator: B.J. Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Nation"
Format/size: html (22K)
Date of entry/update: 25 January 2007


Title: Urban Development
Date of publication: 01 January 1997
Description/subject: "RIP: Rest In Pieces"... On Nov 14th 1996, the Slorc posted a notice at the gate of Kyandaw Cemetery giving relatives one month's notice to move the remains to a new site at Shwe Nyaung-bin, two hours drive from Rangoon. Kyandaw cemetery is located on 50-70 acres of what has become prime real estate in downtown Rangoon, near Hantha-waddy intersection. Both Burmese and foreigners are buried there of Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist faiths. Rumours abound in Rangoon as to what the military government wants the land for; a casino to be built by Khun Sa, a hotel to be built with foreign investment, or, a Japanese shopping center. Whatever is planned for this land remains unknown as the Slorc refuse to specify at this stage. A Slorc spokesman, Major Hla Min stated on a recent Asian Business News television interview: "Yangon has changed, and the location of the cemetery, once it was probably on the outskirts of Yangon, but today its almost in the center of the city, so naturally it has to be relocated." ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 5, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2007


Title: HUMAN SETTLEMENTS SECTOR REVIEW, UNION OF MYANMAR
Date of publication: 1991
Description/subject: The oft-cited UN Habitat report on the 1989-1990 urban resettlement programme in Burma which the report estimates affected 1.5 million people (16 percent of the urban population). "...During the early months of 1990 international attention was focused on the Yangon squatter clearance and resettlement programme launched by the Government in 1989. The Mission found that the programme is not limited to Yangon, but has broad national coverage. The scale and characteristics of the land-development and other works was considered by the Mission to be of such overwhelming significance to the present and future urban situation that the Mission concentrated its resources on attempting to assemble a comprehensive record of the programme and assessing the impacts and implications. The programme consists of: (a) land development for sites-and- services resettlement schemes, and for complete housing units for public servants; (b) new and improved roads; (c) urban rail transport; (d) road, rail and pedestrian bridges; (e) parks and gardens; (f) redevelopment for commercial and residential uses of sites cleared as a result of resettlement and fires; (g) clean-up campaigns, building renovations, and repainting of facades; and (h) rehabilitation of drains and water bodies. For the size of the overall country population and for an urban population of less than 10 million, the scale of works within the time period allocated is probably unprecedented internationally. Based on visits to selected towns, analysis of maps and layout plans, and the data supplied by GAD and HD, the Mission estimates that the total population affected by the resettlement and new housing components is in the order of 1.5 million, or 4 per cent of the total population, and 16 percent of the urban population. Roughly 50 per cent of this number is in Yangon, Mandalay, Taunggyi and Bago, all centres visited by the Mission..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2007


Title: Interviews in Satellite Villages
Date of publication: 05 July 1990
Description/subject: from Dawn, Vol. 2 No. 13, July 1990... "Recently, a report, with, photos was received from friends inside Burma. The report contains interviews with people who were recently relocated, under duress, to areas around Rangoon called "New Towns". Few such reports have been received, so DAWN wishes to give extra space in this issue to this reality of life in Burma today..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Dawn
Format/size: pdf (32K - text; 246K - with photos)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/Satellite_interviews_with_pics.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 March 2007