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Thailand-Burma relations

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Glimpses of the Thailand-Myanmar border
Date of publication: 01 September 2012
Description/subject: "...Thus human flows continue to follow the same pattern: from the Kayin State into Thailand where Mae Sot remains a hub of international activity. This hub, however, seems to be losing importance as financial flows are changing direction. Organisations based on the Thai side of the border and working with the populations from Burma (in medical, humanitarian aid, human rights monitoring and other fields) complain of draining support. Foreign governments and donors are so excited about Myanmar’s ‘opening up’ that they are now bypassing the border areas and rushing to Yangon. There they still need to cut deals with the still predominantly (ex-)military government. But the wish to believe in the irreversible positive change in Burma (or profit from its untapped business potential) is stronger."
Author/creator: Indrė Balčaitė
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2014


Title: Salween News Network (Thai)/Salween Post (English)
Description/subject: A useful site focussing on helping Thai people to understand the situation in Burma. The main section is in Thai, with a set of articles from 2005-2007 translated into English... "SNN is a project focusing on information and media, working to produce news and information about Burma in Thai language. So far, no organization in Thailand is focusing specifically on this arena, despite the fact that Thai and Burma are neighbors and a large number of people from Burma have fled to Thailand.... Thailand and Burma are neighboring countries but most of Thai people are still not informed and not understand about situations in Burma. One of the reasons is that there is too little information about Burma in Thai language. Hence, Salween News Network was established to produce and to be a center of information about Burma in Thai language.... Main objectives: 1. To produce and collect information (news, articles ,features ,books etc.) about Burma for Thai society.... 2. To create a network among independent Burmese news agencies and Thai news agencies... 3. To train Burmese and Thai journalists to produce news, articles, features etc. about Burma in Thai mainstream media.... Main Activities: 1. Collect information and write news and articles 2. Publish newsletters and books about Burma in Thai language 3. Provide trainings for Burmese and Thai journalists. 4. Organise meeting for Thai and Burmese journalists.... Publication: 1. Salween News Network’s media 1.1 Listserve by snn_news@cm.ksc.co.thThis e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it 1.2 Newsletter ( every 6 weeks) 1.3 Website www.salweennews.org 1.4 Books.... 2. other media including Thai language newspapers and magazines.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Salween News Network/
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


Individual Documents

Title: Environmental Damage and Poverty Migration among Myanmar and its Neighbors
Date of publication: 28 August 2015
Description/subject: "In recent years migration studies have theorized that 21st-century migration is following patterns that both incorporate and diverge from academic and policymaking explanations of late 20th-century migration. The case of Myanmar, whose out-migration is well-known and well-enumerated, nevertheless shows both a less-known pattern of in-migration in rural areas as well as environmental (and not only economic) factors in both in- and out- migration. James Clifford’s earlier, Asia-Pacific-focused work Routes, published in 1997, was influential in modifying the conventional academic foci on migration. Addressing the “subjectivity” of the ethnographers of peoples and migrations and their subjects as more an issue of shared, though differing, ideas of movement and space, he brought a new awareness of the interplay between semantic webs purportedly possessed by fieldwork subjects and their would-be interpreters among scholars. He followed this work with a particular narrative of Native American migration in Returns, published in 2013. Both of these works open the door for new attempts to study and interview migrants in their own situations and to grasp the diversity of migration beyond push-pull factors. One burgeoning methodology within this new research initiative was that of ethnographic interviews with migrants. Clifford had revealed an extremely human, molecularly detailed side of interviewees and respondents. Newer works began to concentrate almost exclusively on the migrants’ own narratives and to pull slighter, more localized explanations from them in the same mode as Charmaz’s grounded theory. Here were the roots of ‘new migration’ ideas. With the wealth of published data becoming available from migrants worldwide, small and large differences between their experiences and general migration theory became more apparent...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Lynn Thiesmeyer
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (69K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: From ‘Unidentified Corpse’ To ‘Hometown Association’ : The Standing of Self in The Religious Sphere Among Myanmar Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand
Date of publication: 28 August 2015
Description/subject: "This article studies the practice of the standing of self among Myanmar migrant workers in Ranong province, Thailand, which occurs through hometown association constructed within the religious sphere. In the past, Myanmar migrant workers h ave been limited to a socially self-less existence due to their illegal status, the lack of government protection, and the rejection by local people. The lack of self is particularly evident in the “absence” of migrants’ deaths. Even more evident is the way that a deceased migrants’ body has been assigned the status of “the unidentified corpse” and “the object of merit” to be “stored” in the cemetery to await the “cemetery cleansing ceremony” (พิธีล้างป่าช้า), initiated by local people of Chinese descent. Over the past ten years, improved legal status and more flexible state policy has brought about many religious activities and religious gatherings among mig rants. Arising from this phenomenon are “hometown associations” which oversee social welfare and life quality improvements for migrants. In particular, funeral associations assist in proper handling of deceased migrants, by seeking relatives, seeking bodies of the deceased, organizing public processions for the deceased bodies, arranging funeral ceremonies, as well as transporting bodies of the deceased across the border to Myanmar. In effect, these hometown associations are transforming “the unidentified corpse” (ศพไร้ญาติ) into “the identified body” (ศพมีญาติ), entitled to proper religious traditions, social space and dignity akin to the locals. By this implication, the “corpses” of migrants are not only lifeless bodies but a “place” which has been constructed and given social meaning as a site of negotiation of translocal subjects. There is an emerging practice in which migrants effectively stand for the “presence” of self through translocal networks, arising from the rebuilding of neighborhoods and communities in host country through the religious sphere.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nattchawal Pocapanishwong
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (6.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: When Stories Wander: Ideas on the Co-Production of Social Movements’ Narratives in Transnational Space
Date of publication: 26 August 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burma/Myanmar has faced change in recent years. Since the elections of 2010, sanctions have been lifted and foreign direct investment has risen significantly. These developments, however, have not always been welcome. Local people from Dawei, for example, have expressed their dissatisfaction over land seizure, lack of compensation and participation in the decision-making processes over the development of a large Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The local grassroot movements can rely in their struggles on a network that is not restricted to Myanmar, but reaches out to exile groups, INGOs and academia in Thailand and beyond. To successfully communicate their stories, these groups rely on transculturally competent individuals re-presenting their stories within and across various (transnational) spaces. The conceptions of space I apply in this context rely heavily on Harvey and Lefebvre. But while these scholars focus more on the production of space(s), I intend to undertake an examination of the utilization of space(s). Hence, the main questions of this ongoing research project are: 1. How do transnational spaces affect the production and re-presentation of social movement narratives? 2. What narratives are re-presented when, where, how and why by transculturally competent individuals from Dawei’s social movement network? 3. What difficulties do these transculturally competent individuals face in translating/re-presenting these narratives? 4. Ultimately, how empowering are these narratives for Dawei’s activist network?The paper itself will not elaborate on any findings (as it is too early in the research process, yet), but on the theoretical framework and its implication for fieldwork offering a hopefully exciting new perspective on the re-production of narratives in transnational spaces like the borderland of Myanmar and Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Anselm Feldmann
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (428K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Burma as ‘Corridor’: A case of South Asian descendants’ community in northern Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "This paper highlights the location of Burma (Myanmar) and reconsiders its geographical territory andits historical position. There were and are a lot of studies of Burma/Myanmar. Most of the studies were on the Burma itself or on those people living in Buma. On the other hand, Burma situated at the meeting point of South Asia and Southeast Asia. In other words, Burma holds a position of the node or corridor which connecting these two regions. This paper tries to focus on Burma as ‘corridor’, by considering a case of South Asian migrant groups in Thailand, a Bangladeshi (or Eastern Bengal) Muslim descendants’ community in northern Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Takada Mineo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (60K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Cross-border Migration and Revitalization of Shan Buddhist Practices in Myanmar-Thai Border Area
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This presentation aims to examine how the new Shan migrants help revitalize Shan Buddhist practices in Myanmar-Thai border area in Northern Thailand. This area has a long history of the ceaseless migrations of the Shan and other ethnic groups; the flow of people has continued even after the border demarcation in the early 20th century. Recently, we could find two contradictory processes- a rigid border control by the state administration and a fluid border crossing of people, goods and information. The border crossing of people may be characterized by a one-way flow from Myanmar to Thailand and its steady increase in quantity. By focusing on the flow of Shan lay Buddhist readers/reciters in Mae Hong Son, the northern Thai-Myanmar border area, this presentation analyzes the important role of the border crossing migrations for revitalizing Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand."...Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tadayoshi Murakami
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (88K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Inequality and way of life of Burmese migrants in Thailand: A case study in Chiang Mai
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper draws on case studies of Burmese migrants in the city of Chiang Mai, Thailand, to explore concepts and theories of migration, uneven development and acculturation in which migrants engages in the new environment of urban societies. It examines the new emergence of push-­pull factors of migration, mainly economic reason and urban attractions, which bring Burmese migrants into the city. Further, the paper pays more attention on the concept of uneven development, which comes along with the process of development in urban areas. It discusses about the cities like Chiang Mai as a place where provides residents to access not only greater opportunities for work, activity and key good as well as services, but the places also emerge alongside rising urban inequality for a certain group of people, particularly Burmese migrant workers are recognized as a local symbol of inequality in Chiang Mai, as well as in Asia region. Lastly, the paper focuses analytical attention on ‘way of life’ of Burmese migrants of varying cultural, social, political and economic backgrounds, which it responds to the narratives a bout urban diversity and development of the city of Chiang Mai where they encounter. Based on acculturation framework, cultural way of life of Burmese migrants living in Chiang Mai is classified into three main areas; assimilation, separation and integration, and each area of way of life would be adapted by different generations of the migrants. Therefore, one can see the social phenomenon of Burmese migrants, especially Shan ethnic group, would emerge through Thai society in the city at different levels of lifestyles.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tithirat Pripotjanart
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (375K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Social Exclusion, Livelihoods, and Gender Violence: Burmese Muslim Refugees in Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This work seeks to understand gender-­based violence and the connection between violence and livelihoods for refugees living in conditions of social exclusion. Through qualitative research consisting of 40 interviews, a market survey, and observation conducted among Burmese Muslim refugees in Thailand, this work analyzes the connection between livelihoods strategies, social exclusion, and gender-­based violence. Muslims are a marginalized group within Burma and experience ongoing discrimination while living in refugee communities in Thailand, which results in risk for several kinds of violence at multiple levels. The experiences of Muslim refugees living in Thailand offer insight into the conditions that shape violence for refugees more generally. Findings show that several factors contribute to the incidence of gender violence, including structural, community, and interpersonal stressors and constraints. These dynamics also shape violence, whether domestic abuse, harassment and assault within the refugee camp, or experiences with Thai authorities. By showing the complex conditions that shape gender-­based violence for refugees in this context, this work demonstrates the need for consideration of marginalized groups within refugee populations and the layered nature of the conditions that underpin dynamics of gender violence. This pa per concludes with consideration of the implications of these findings for the possibility of refugee return to Myanmar in the context of ongoing ethnic difficulty and livelihoods struggles.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mollie Pepper
Language: English, Burmese and Karen
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (309K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: Koh Tao trial another litmus test
Date of publication: 04 December 2014
Description/subject: "...Whatever the outcome of the trial, it is highly unlikely that National Police Chief Somyot Pumpunmuang or Police Major General Suwat Jaengyodsuk, the two with overall responsibility for the blighted Koh Tao investigation, will follow with their own apologies. The Koh Tao investigation is yet another example of institutional discrimination against the Burmese underclass in Thailand, who live on half the minimum wage. Such discrimination is practically government policy. The outcome and integrity of the trial will prove just how far this discrimination reaches in post-coup Thailand, 2015."
Author/creator: Luke Corbin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2014


Title: The New Thailand-Myanmar Axis
Date of publication: 29 July 2014
Description/subject: "With China’s backing, post-coup Thailand and Myanmar– ASEAN’s quasi-democracies– are moving closer together...The Thai military staged a coup on May 22, claiming to restore peace and order after months of protests against the elected government of Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra. In reality, it was a military scheme to take control of politics ahead of an uncertain royal succession. In the process, it destroyed democratic institutions and violated the people’s human rights. Immediately after the coup, an army of Western countries voiced their concern about the disappearance of democratic space. Subsequently, they imposed “soft sanctions,” with the United States suspending its financial support for the Thai military and the European Union freezing all cooperation with the kingdom. Amid international sanctions, the Thai junta has found some comfort in the warm embrace of China. Shortly after the coup, photos surfaced of Army Chief, General Prayuth Chan-ocha– who’s also serving as the interim prime minister– shaking hands with Chinese business owners, demonstrating the Thai tactic of employing China to counterbalance Western sanctions. But China is not Thailand’s only friend in its time of need. On July 4, Myanmar Supreme Commander Senior General Min Aung Hlaing paid a visit to Bangkok, making him the first leader from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to meet the Thai junta after the coup. He held a cozy discussion with Prayuth, purportedly to strengthen ties between Thailand and Myanmar. Disturbingly, Min Aung Hlaing praised the Thai junta for “doing the right thing” in seizing power. He also compared his country’s experience during the political upheaval that took place in Yangon in 1988, when the tatmadaw, or Myanmar’s army, launched deadly crackdowns against pro-democracy activists..."
Author/creator: Pavin Chachavalpongpun
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Diplomat"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2014


Title: Ominous signs for migrant workers in Thailand
Date of publication: 15 June 2014
Description/subject: "Monsoon season is descending upon the Thai-Burmese border town of Mae Sot, but storm clouds are not the only the signs of portent for local residents. At the end of a week in which the military junta has been promoting ‘love and harmony’ among Thais by offering free tickets to see a film about a 16th century Ayutthaya king fighting to rid Siam of the Burmese, a concerted and prioritised effort to ‘solve’ the ‘problem’ of migrant workers from neighbouring Myanmar and Cambodia has been launched. Following several months of delays for migrants wishing to extend their permission to stay in the country under the national verification program and more than a week of raids on migrant communities across the country, the NCPO established a Committee on Solving Migrant Problems on the 10th June.Thai army spokesman Sirichan Ngathong stated during the week that any undocumented migrant workers in Thailand ‘will be arrested and deported’ and Thai government television channels declared this to be part of an ‘environmental cleansing’ operation carried out to build a ‘pleasant’ society. Rumours about the purge and possible mistreatment spread quickly among migrants stoking fears leading to a mass exodus. Over 100,000 Cambodians alone have now left the country. Such purges are regular occurrences in Thailand, where a relatively laissez-faire approach is taken towards undocumented workers when the economy is booming, followed by crackdowns during downturns. But there are reasons to believe that this time may be different; especially as regards migrants from Myanmar. This is due to NCPO attempts to securitise the issue and fast tracking plans for the establishment of special border economic zones. The military claims that migrants are a source of social problems, that they undermine social ‘stability’ and are associated with narcotics, crime, and communicable diseases.While tolerated in border provinces, authorities want to keep them away from metropolitan areas such as Bangkok. In a post-coup environment, it is interesting to note that Prayuth Chan-Ocha’s dissertation research while studying at Thailand’s National Defence College in 2007-2008 was on the role of the army in responding to non-traditional security threats, identifying migrant workers and undocumented persons as one of four urgent and immediate threats to Thai society..."
Author/creator: Charlie Thame
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 July 2014


Title: Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border
Date of publication: 04 May 2012
Description/subject: "BURMA Thai Army Increases Troops by DKBA Border By LAWI WENG / THE IRRAWADDY| May 4, 2012 | Hits: 30 Share on facebook Share on twitter Share on email Share on print The Thai Army has increased troop numbers around Mae Sot. (Photo: Reuters) The Thai Army has deployed more troops at border towns around Mae Sot, in northern Thailand’s Tak Province, due to escalating tensions with the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) after a faction leader was accused of being a drug trafficker. Thai Army chief Gen Prayut Chan O Cha told Thai Rath news on May 3 that his soldiers are taking extra care by the frontier and the number of troops in the area has been increased. “We are already there, but the situation is not yet risky,” he said. The move comes after the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) placed Saw Lah Pwe, the leader of the Brigade 5 breakaway faction of the DKBA, in the top five of its list of Thailand’s 25 most wanted drug dealers..."
Author/creator: Lawi Weng
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 May 2012


Title: Myanmar-Thailand Border Dispute: Prospects for Demarcation
Date of publication: 08 July 2010
Description/subject: "In recent years, Myanmar-Thailand relations have experienced a surge of positive bilateralism due to their common membership in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). However, the thaw in relations still leaves the boundary dispute between two countries largely unresolved. A major clash occurred in February 2001 and tension on the border still prevails. It’s critical to look at the history of this boundary dispute, problems that fester on the border and what implications these could have on Thai-Burma’s effort to demarcate the boundary? Whether the improving economic relations have lessened the tensions or not? What will be the likely future in terms of finding a solution? ..."
Author/creator: Tanvi Pate
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (Delhi)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 November 2010


Title: Cross-border DKBA attack displaces households in Thailand
Date of publication: 30 April 2010
Description/subject: "On April 21st 2010 DKBA soldiers from Battalion #7 of Brigade #999 crossed into Thailand and burned three huts in the Thai village of Hsoe Hta in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province. The raid was ordered by Batallion #7 Column Commander Bpweh Kih, who believed that the villagers had been in contact with the KNLA and were withholding information about four DKBA soldiers who had recently deserted from a DKBA camp at Bpaw Bpah Hta, Pa’an District. The incident falls into a broader recent pattern of cross-border violence and killings by the DKBA, often against suspected KNLA supporters; it also gives substance to statements made by deserters during interviews with KHRG that indicate they would be summarily executed if recaptured by the DKBA..."
Language: English, Karen
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-B7)
Format/size: pdf (454K)
Alternate URLs: https://web.archive.org/web/20100922142937/http://khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b7.pdf
Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


Title: Functionally Refoulement: Camps in Tha Song Yang District abandoned as refugees bow to pressure
Date of publication: 01 April 2010
Description/subject: "Two temporary refugee camps established during June 2009 in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand, to provide refuge for villagers that fled increased conflict and exploitative abuse in Pa’an District have now been all but entirely abandoned. The camps were home to more than 2,409 refugees as recently as January 2010; over the last two months, the camp populations have dwindled as small groups have departed one by one. On March 31st and April 1st, the last residents of the Nong Bua and Mae U Su sites left in two large groups, of 24 and 102 families respectively. This report details the circumstances of the refugees’ departure, including interviews that indicate refugees left because of a persistent campaign of harassment by soldiers of the Royal Thai Army (RTA), who pressured the refugees to return to Burma in spite of warnings that safe return is not currently possible. The report also details the dangers returned refugees may face, including risks from landmines as well as violent and exploitative abuse by the DKBA and SPDC Army. This section also includes details regarding the death and injury of two young boys that accidentally detonated an unexploded M79 round they found outside the village of Mae La Ah Kee on March 31st 2010. Highlighting the risks returned refugees may face, the boys came from a family that had been forced out of the Mae U Su site by RTA soldiers at the end of the rainy season 2009."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-F3)
Format/size: html, pdf (522K and 756K - report; 214K and 308K - appendices)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/KHRG-2010-04-01-Functionally_Refoulement_Camps_in_Tha_Song_Yang_...

https://web.archive.org/web/20100429223031/http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10f3.pdf

https://web.archive.org/web/20100429223046/http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10f3_Appendixes.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 October 2010


Title: Between Democracy and Dictatorship
Date of publication: April 2010
Description/subject: Thailand’s policies toward Burma will change if the planned election installs a new regime with a seemingly democratic face. When the Burmese government allowed foreign envoys to meet with detained opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi in May 2009, she reportedly whispered into the ear of the Thai envoy, “I would like to thank Thailand for its support for my fight for democracy in Burma. I will visit Thailand one day to show my appreciation.” The return of the Democrat Party to power in Thailand should have lifted Suu Kyi’s spirits because it was under Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai’s Democrat Party-led government (1997-2001) that relations between Thailand and Burma’s became strained as Thailand expressed the right to voice concerns over the political situation in Burma under its “flexible engagement policy.”
Author/creator: Pavin Chachavalpungpun
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2010


Title: Abhisit Needs to Set a New Course on Burma
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: "Thai prime ministers have frequently treated Burma as a bargain basement for shady business deals. Will Abhisit be any different? HERE'S some good news: Abhisit Vejjajiva, Thailand’s new prime minister, says he shares the West’s desire for change in Burma. Of course, this doesn’t mean that his government is about to impose sanctions on Burma’s recalcitrant rulers. But it does signal a welcome departure from the approach of some of Abhisit’s predecessors, who treated Burma as a bargain basement for shady business deals, rather than as a nation of people desperate to rid themselves of tyranny..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 February 2009


Title: Thaksin and the Generals
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "Why the fate of Thailand’s fugitive ex-premier has captured attention in Naypyidaw... BURMA’s generals must be following with more than passing interest the drama of former Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s flight into exile. It lies beyond the wildest imagination to believe they could ever join their erstwhile business crony in seeking refuge in the West. Nevertheless, in a world where the cat’s cradle of international treaties and alliances of convenience is constantly changing, the number of countries where they are assured of a welcome is possibly shrinking..."
Author/creator: Jim Andrews
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


Title: Thai Premier’s ‘Flashback’ Visit to Burma
Date of publication: April 2008
Description/subject: Samak’s trip to Burma in March was reminiscent of a Thai government delegation 20 years ago ... "THAILAND'S “neighborly engagement” policy with the Burmese junta seemed to have paid off after Thai Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej returned from an official visit to Naypyidaw with a basket full of sweet business deals. The Thai premier came away from his trip to Burma in March not just a richer, but also a wiser man. During his stay in the regime’s capital, Samak got the lowdown on the country’s “road map to democracy” straight from the horse’s mouth—Snr-Gen Than Shwe himself..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: Junta Sees Friendly Faces in New Thai Government
Date of publication: March 2008
Description/subject: A Thaksin-style foreign policy means more cooperation, less pressure on the generals... "Burma’s ruling generals are probably smiling over what has happened in Thailand in recent months. The People Power Party, a reincarnation of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s Thai Rak Thai party, won the elections in December. The new Thai government’s diplomacy is unlikely to be different from Thaksin’s business-oriented diplomacy before he was ousted. The junta no doubt views new Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej as a proxy for Thaksin. That’s one reason to make them smile. But in terms of the two political systems, Burma and Thailand are no longer the same, following Thailand’s democratic election after more than one year of military-backed rule..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2008


Title: SURAKIART ON THAKSIN'S SUDDEN VISIT TO BURMA
Date of publication: 03 August 2006
Description/subject: Summary: "On August 3, Deputy Prime Minister Surakiart discussed with Ambassador Prime Minister Thaksin's "sudden and puzzling" trip to Burma the previous day. Surakiart said that he was "personally appalled" by the trip and confirmed that there was no advance planning. He claimed to have only learned of the trip on the morning of Tuesday, August 1. He said that Thaksin met privately with Than Shwe and Maung Aye while the rest of the Thai delegation met with their respective counterparts. According to Surakiart, the main message that Thaksin hoped to deliver was that Thailand and ASEAN want to draw Burma out of its self-imposed isolation, and that in order to do so, Burma needs to keep ASEAN informed of what it is doing and be willing to open up more to the international community." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, New Delhi, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/08/06BANGKOK4725.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: RTG LOOKS FOR ALTERNATIVE TO BURMA UNSC RESOLUTION
Date of publication: 03 July 2006
Description/subject: "On July 3, Poloff spoke by telephone with Minister-Counselor Kallayana Vipattipumiprates of MFA's East Asia Affairs Department regarding the RTG's position on the proposed UN Security Council Resolution on Burma. Kallayana stated that the RTG is working with ASEAN member states "and others" to try to come up with a "viable alternative" to the resolution. He said that the RTG wants the Burmese to take some concrete step forward, but feels that Burma "must be offered some carrot, not just the stick." He said that the RTG is working to get the Burmese government to open a dialogue with ASEAN to discuss precisely what actions the regime could take to demonstrate progress..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: HTML
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/07/06BANGKOK3913.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: UNSC BURMA RESOLUTION DEMARCHE DELIVERED
Date of publication: 02 June 2006
Description/subject: Ambassador delivered Reftel demarche to MFA Permanent Secretary Krit Garnjana-Goonchorn. In addition, Post delivered demarche to working-level contacts in MFA's Department of East Asian Affairs, Department of American Affairs, and Department of ASEAN Affairs. While none of these contacts had an immediate response, Permanent Secretary Krit said that he hopes the US will inform and work closely with the RTG Mission to the UN in New York on this matter.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/06/06BANGKOK3345.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: BURMA: DEMARCHE ON UPCOMING ASEAN FM MEETING IN BALI
Date of publication: 12 April 2006
Description/subject: "In a meeting with MFA's East Asian Affairs Director for Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Brunei Mr. Damrong Kriakruan on April 12, Poloff delivered reftel demarche and asked for RTG views. Damrong noted that ASEAN's credibility is on the line, but the RTG still believes that engagement is the best option for ASEAN. He said that the Bali meeting is a "retreat" and that, as such, no formal public statements are anticipated. However, he acknowledged that the ministers are likely to face questions from the media on Burma and it will be up to each country to decide how to respond. The RTG feels that it would not help matters to "bombard" Burma with public criticism, but it should be made clear that ASEAN will continue its efforts and will look for ways to achieve substantive progress toward democratization in Burma...."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/04/06BANGKOK2135.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
Format/size: pdf (272K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps06_064.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


Title: The Politics of Representation
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Media has helped bridge the gap between ethnic cousins the Thais and Burma's Shan minority, but old suspicions linger on
Author/creator: Ampika Jirat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 December 2006


Title: REFUGEES ARRIVE FROM SITE OF BURMA'S NEW CAPITAL
Date of publication: 16 March 2006
Description/subject: Summary. "About 1,000 Karen refugees have recently arrived from Burma at a refugee camp in northern Thailand, reportedly as a result of SPDC military activities aimed at creating a security cordon around its new capital at Pyinmana. Consistent with long-standing policy, the Thai have kept the border open to these new arrivals. A USG determination for refugee resettlement purposes that the Karen National Union (KNU) is a terrorist entity could undermine our ability to argue for a continuation of this policy should that ever become necessary." End summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/03/06BANGKOK1625.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: When the Gloves Come Off
Date of publication: March 2006
Description/subject: Boxing goes back to basics on the Thai-Burmese border... "The whining notes of an amplified oboe, pounding drums, the smell of liniment and whisky, four dangling 800-watt globes hanging from poles under a tree in a monastery, bandaged fists, blood, guns, money, and an audience of Burmese, Thai, Karen, Muslims, Buddhists, Christians, soldiers, monks, migrants and refugees. "I come to the boxing to cheer my people,"I love my nationality. I love my native country." Aung Naing fled the Burmese military regime and is now a refugee in Thailand. "This is why I like to come to the boxing. Here we do not have slave" he says. Katchii, the form of boxing found on the Thailand–Burma border, is muay thai kick-boxing stripped back to its basics. Gone are traditional pre-fight dances, gone are point-awarding ringside judges, and gone are the gloves. Crepe bandages wrap knuckles to stop hands from breaking upon impact, and victory is by knockout or (in) voluntary retirement..."
Author/creator: Timothy Syrota
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: BURMESE MIGRANT LABORER MURDER TRIAL IN THAILAND CONTINUES
Date of publication: 24 February 2006
Description/subject: Summary. "The next trial hearing in the death of Ma Suu, a 17-year-old Burmese migrant worker who was allegedly murdered by her employer, will be on March 8-9, 2006. Ma Suu left Burma to seek work in Thailand, and found a job as a domestic servant for a wealthy Thai military officer in 2001. While it remains unclear whether Ma Suu was originally trafficked across the border, her ensuing employment situation clearly amounts to a trafficking case. Held against her will in an abusive employment situation, she escaped and notified police, only to be returned to her employer and eventually killed. She died on July 16, 2002 from extensive beatings and acid burns. The public prosecutor, with help from the Thai Law Society, is seeking cooperation from key witnesses, but fear of retribution -- and the defendant's high ranking military status -- has caused some to hesitate in cooperating." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/02/06BANGKOK1117.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: Straining to Bridge the Divide
Date of publication: February 2006
Description/subject: In building a new “Friendship Bridge,” Thailand and Burma hope to consign their troubles to the past and increase cross-border trade... "Burma’s Foreign Minister Nyan Win and his Thai counterpart, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, shook hands and smiled warmly. The January 22 opening of the second “Friendship Bridge”—connecting the Thai town of Mae Sai and, across the river in Burma, Tachilek—would help promote cross-border contact and “alleviate” the tense relationship between the two countries, they said. It should also provide a massive boost to trade relations between the traditionally wary neighbors..."
Author/creator: Clive Parker
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: THAI MFA DISCUSSES THAI INVOLVEMENT WITH BURMESE DAMS, MALAYSIAN FM'S PENDING VISIT TO RANGOON
Date of publication: 06 January 2006
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "On January 4, Poloff and Econoff met with Mr. Damrong Kriakruan, the Burma desk officer at the Thai MFA. Damrong confirmed press and NGO reports that the state-owned power company EGAT Plc has signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with Burma,s Ministry of Electric Power on December 9, 2005 to conduct a joint two-year feasibility study with respect to construction of a dam on the Salween (Thanlwin) River at Hat Gyi inside Burma,s Karen State. Consistent with EGAT,s strategy of securing access to low-cost electric power from neighboring nations, the project is envisioned as one of five hydroelectric power projects involving Burma. The MFA expressed its awareness of the sensitivity of projects involving Burma and asserted that the MOA involves completion of the above feasibility study only. EGAT apparently has yet to obtain long-term financing for actual construction. Thus, the reason for conducting the study now is to allow Thailand to keep its energy supply options open. The Embassy expects both EGAT and Thailand,s energy bureaucrats to pursue the development of electric power generating capacity in cooperation with Burma because they expect any potential outcry to be less bothersome than the opposition certain to arise in response to large-scale power generating projects within Thailand. Poloff commended ASEAN on their decision to send the Malaysian FM to visit Rangoon to check up on Burma,s progress with "democratic reform", and also for making a request to meet with ASSK. Damrong noted that Burma had not responded to official Malaysian requests to set dates for the visit, and suggested that Burma,s response to Malaysia vis--vis a proposed meeting with ASSK might be seen as a gauge of how willing Burma is to cooperate with ASEAN." END SUMMARY
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2006/01/06BANGKOK113.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: DEMARCHE: BRINGING BURMA BEFORE THE UNSC - THAI INVOKE ASEAN SOLIDARITY
Date of publication: 13 October 2005
Description/subject: Summary: Thailand is not prepared to support the proposal to bring Burma before the UN Security Council. The Thai MFA believes that other ASEAN members also will not support the proposal, although none are willing to leap to Burma's defense with the vigor that Burma has requested. End summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/10/05BANGKOK6511.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: The Shadow of 1767
Date of publication: October 2005
Description/subject: Old enmities still weigh on Thai-Burmese relationship... "The recent visits to Burma by Thailand’s foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, and the supreme commander of the Thai armed forces, Gen Chaisit Shinawatra, appear to indicate that relations between the two neighbors are back to normal. A question mark had hung over the state of ties between Burma and Thailand following the downfall of prime minister Gen Khin Nyunt last October, a purge that effectively closed the channel of communications between the two countries. Thailand now seems to be intent on reestablishing communications with the generals. Several key issues, such as drug suppression, border demarcation and the identification of Burmese migrants in Thailand, have still to be solved in a permanent settlement between the two countries. Yet the drug issue alone—a national agenda item in Thailand—is sure to remain intractable, given the importance of the narcotics trade to the economic life of the junta’s allied ethnic armed Wa, who provide a buffer between the Burmese army and the Shan, another ethnic community..."
Author/creator: Aung Lwin Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: A Win-Win-Win Proposition for Thaksin
Date of publication: August 2005
Description/subject: If the Thai prime minister adopted a more principled stance on Burma, it would improve Thailand’s image... "The SPDC’s recent diplomatic retreat on the Asean chairmanship is likely to affect the fluctuating geopolitical dynamics of South and Southeast Asia. Although Burma may now be nudged closer to China’s embrace, with India as a rival suitor, Asean has staked its position. For Thailand to play a leading role befitting its frontline status, akin to its efforts vis-a-vis Cambodia throughout the 1980s, it needs to firm up its Burma policy. If Thailand’s firmer posture elicits constructive changes in Rangoon, Bangkok will earn international credibility. If nothing changes in Rangoon, the international community will still respect Thailand. A more principled stance on Burma would also allow Thaksin to keep the domestic criticisms of his conflicts of interest at bay. This is a win-win-win proposition that would enhance Deputy Prime Minister Surakiart Sathirathai’s bid to be the next UN secretary general. It would also elevate Thaksin’s statesmanship and international stature in his stumbling but ongoing quest for regional leadership."
Author/creator: Thitinan Pongsudhirak
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 8
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/demo/article.php?art_id=4900
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


Title: UN SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR ON BURMA TO SPDC: WHAT DO YOU WANT?
Date of publication: 21 June 2005
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "During a visit to Bangkok, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, the UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Burma, expressed frustration with Burma's ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and called upon the Burmese junta to clarify what steps they plan to take in the democratic reform process. The Special Rapporteur met separately with the Thai Foreign Minister (FM) Kantathi Supamongkhon and the Bangkok diplomatic community. The Thai FM expressed his hope to Pinheiro that National League for Democracy (NLD) leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (ASSK) be freed next year when elections might be held following the ratification of a new Burmese constitution. Pinheiro said that he hoped neither the US or the EU would agree to a possible ASEAN compromise with the SPDC which would allow Burma to assume the ASEAN chairmanship in 2006, but only if the meetings take place in another country." END SUMMARY.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/06/05BANGKOK4063.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: BURMESE DISSIDENT GROUPS IN THAILAND DENY INVOLVEMENT IN RANGOON BOMBING
Date of publication: 09 May 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "Burmese exile groups based in Thailand have denied any connection to the bombings in Rangoon on May 7, 2005. Most speculated, without any providing any hard evidence, that former associates of ousted Prime Minister Khin Nyunt and the military intelligence services might be responsible. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) stated that 128 Thai citizens attending a Thai trade fair in Rangoon had returned safely to Bangkok on May 8." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/05/05BANGKOK3074.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: THAI GIVE APPROVAL TO PRM DAS RYAN FOR BURMA BORDER CAMP REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM
Date of publication: 09 May 2005
Description/subject: Summary. "During an April 18-23 visit by PRM Bureau DAS Kelly Ryan, the Thai government gave its approval for a multi-year program to resettle Burmese refugees residing in camps along the Thai-Burma border to the United States. DAS Ryan told Thai officials that the United States wanted to begin this program in the Tham Hin camp, was prepared to offer resettlement to all eligible registered refugees in camp, and would be able to begin processing before the end of ¶2005. Thai National Security Council head General Winai expressed some concern that such a program could pull more Burmese into Thailand and asked the United States to pursue the program as discreetly as possible. DAS Ryan agreed that it was important to try and deter a pull factor and said that the USG viewed Tham Hin as a pilot and would make decisions about how best to proceed in resettling refugees from the other camps after further analysis. The Thai also told Ryan that the long-delayed Provincial Admissions Boards for screening Burmese refugees would begin operations in May. General Winai indicated that the Thai government was looking favorably at establishing the site currently being used to process Hmong for U.S. resettlement as a more permanent facility for Burmese resettlement processing. DAS Ryan lauded the Thai decision to permit expanded vocational and educational training for Burma border camp refugees and urged the Thai to permit income generation as well. DAS Ryan also urged the Thai to permit UNHCR access to Chinese dissident Lu Decheng." End summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/05/05BANGKOK3073.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: THAILAND'S POSITION ON BURMA AND ASEAN: NEW FACE, SAME POLICY
Date of publication: 01 April 2005
Description/subject: Summary: "The appointment of a new foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, will not substantially change Thailand's "constructive engagement" policy towards Burma, according to a key Foreign Ministry (MFA) official responsible for Burma. Kantathi has already publicly (and privately) made clear that Thailand will not join a movement to thwart Burma from assuming the ASEAN chairmanship in 2006 if it has not implemented democratic reforms before then. The MFA official said the Burma chairmanship issue will be discussed informally in Cebu, but he doubted that other ASEAN governments -- despite some recent statements -- were serious about pressuring Burma on that issue. On related matters, the "Bangkok Process" appears dead because the SPDC does not want to engage potential critics while it still has not achieved any reform progress with which to respond. The Thai believe that the European Union (EU) is on the verge of softening its policy towards Burma." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/04/05BANGKOK2318.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: ASEAN INTER-PARLIAMENTARY BURMA CAUCUS VISITS BANGKOK
Date of publication: 03 March 2005
Description/subject: Summary. "Several members of the informal Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus visited Thailand this week, hosted by Senator Kraisak Choonhavan, Chairman of the Thai Senate Foreign Relations committee. In a March 2 press conference, the Caucus called for the release of Aung San Suu Kyi (ASSK) and a more open and democratic National Convention process in Rangoon. The Caucus also stated that Burma should not be allowed to assume the rotational chairmanship of ASEAN next year, unless significant progress is made on democratic reforms. Caucus members met with Foreign Minister Surakiart Sathirathai, who told the group that their concerns and suggestions for change in Burma should be taken seriously by ASEAN member governments. Surakiart also confirmed that the Royal Thai Government (RTG) would continue its policy of "constructive engagement" with the Burmese regime, although he said privately that the RTG did not object to the parliamentarians' public criticism of the military government in Burma." End Summary.
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Embassy, Bangkok, via Wikileaks
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2005/03/05BANGKOK1578.html
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2011


Title: Monumental Warfare
Date of publication: March 2004
Description/subject: "In the absence of war, ancient Thai-Burmese conflicts are relived and revived through statue-building... The King Bayinnaung statue glowers down malevolently on the Thai border town of Mai Sai from higher ground in Tachilek, Burma just across from the river that marks the frontier. His bronze likeness also stands atop a hill at Burma’s southernmost Victoria Point, surveying Thailand’s Ranong Province across the estuary. The long-dead monarch is revered in Burma as a great warrior-king who conquered Siam. Thais, however, remember Bayinnaung as a brutal foreign invader who, on capturing Ayudhaya in 1569, looted the Siamese capital of its treasure, white elephants and many thousands of slaves. The provocative Burmese monument to the conquest of Siam is not a relic from a period of heightened tensions between the two countries. It was unveiled in 1996 as cooperation and business links between Bangkok and Rangoon were stronger than at any period since before World War II..."
Author/creator: Rungrawee Chalermsripinyorat
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 12, No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2004


Title: Thaksin and the Tyrants
Date of publication: November 2003
Description/subject: "The Thai prime minister risks jeopardizing long-term relations by doing business with Burma’s military rulers... Many observers have tapped Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra to be Southeast Asia’s next preeminent leader. One thing that may trip up the Thai PM on his road to regional leadership, however, is his tack on Burma. Thaksin’s friendly approach towards Burma’s military regime just may mar his efforts to win the respect of other world leaders. While many leaders are piling on the criticism, isolating the junta and championing speedy change, Thaksin is defending the generals, investing in the country and promising piecemeal progress. His administration has also cracked down on Burmese who seek economic and political refuge in the kingdom, raising concerns about a conflict of interests and Thailand’s ability to act as an honest broker to Burma’s political standoff..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2004


Title: Burma in the Thai Press
Date of publication: October 2003
Description/subject: The Thai-language press must be less emotional and more responsible and objective when covering Burma... "The Thai-language mainstream press rarely publishes news about Burma. And when it does, rarely is the coverage constructive. That Thailand’s media should harbor such deep resentments against its next-door neighbor is peculiar, and its reasons are rather complex. About a dozen Thai-language and two major English-language daily newspapers dominate the market. Of course, many differences between the two should be expected, but when it comes to covering Burma, the Thai- and English-language papers are worlds apart..."
Author/creator: Wandee Suntivutimetee
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 8
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=3132
http://www.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=3132
Date of entry/update: 06 December 2003


Title: Mon Language in Thailand: The endangered heritage
Date of publication: 11 May 2003
Description/subject: "This paper will give the picture of Mon language situation in Thailand both spoken and written language from the earliest time to the present day. The written language will include inscriptions, palm leaf manuscripts, and printed books..."
Author/creator: Paphatsaun Thianpanya,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Kao Wao News Group
Format/size: html (60K)
Date of entry/update: 12 May 2003


Title: Border Blowout
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: A changing balance of power along the Thai-Burma border has forced Thailand to re-think its buffer zone policy. As long as anybody can remember, Burma�s armed ethnic groups operating along the Thai-Burmese border have always provided a buffer between the two nagging neighbors. First, it was the Karen rebels who had taken the fight to the outskirts of Rangoon a half century ago following independence. This has been followed by the Burmese students� exodus by the thousands to the Thai border following a bloody crackdown in 1988. Then, the Mon rebels were crushed to pieces half a decade ago to make way for a lucrative gas pipeline running from Burma�s Yadana gas field to Thailand. Now, only a handful of Shan and Karen groups, some of whom have surrendered in return for amnesty, function as the buffer zone between the Thai and Burmese armies..."
Author/creator: Don Pathan
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Our Fraternal Greetings to the Siamese people
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: "This speech was delivered by Burmese independence hero Aung San at the Orient Club, Rangoon, on April 17, 1947�three months before his assassination. Aung San founded the Burma Independence Army in Bangkok on Dec 26, 1941."
Author/creator: Aung San
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Suspicious Neighbors: Neither Friend Nor Foe
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: "Protestations of friendship aside, Thailand and Burma remain fundamentally at odds over key issues. Thaksin Shinawatra became the first Thai prime minister to openly admit that Thailand has been practicing a buffer zone policy in regards to Burma�s ethnic nationalities. Thaksin recently said that Bangkok would abandon its policy of supporting ethnic rebels. But the question remains: Can Thailand really afford to abandon its buffer zone policy?..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thaksin�s Border Blues
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: "Thai PM Thaksin Shinawatra�s bid to forge better relations with Burma is failing in the face of renewed tensions along the two countries� volatile border. The recent border skirmishes between Thailand and Burma are not the first to erupt between the two neighbors, and they certainly won�t be the last. And as always, this battle is also being fought in the press, where a war of words is heating up. When Thailand�s Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra came into office early last year, Thai officials held high hopes of ending the cycle of mutually damaging confrontations between these two historical enemies. Applying a personal, business-centered approach to relations with his country�s western neighbor, tycoon-turned-PM Thaksin believed he could ease long-standing tensions. So far, however, he has failed to end the violence and the seemingly endless recriminations coming from both sides..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The War of Words : What the Leaders Say
Date of publication: May 2002
Description/subject: Quotes from: [Thai] Defense Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, [Burmese] Deputy Intelligence chief Maj-Gen Kyaw Win, [Thai] Army Chief Gen Surayud Chulanont, Lt-Gen Udomchai Ongkhasingh [Thai] Third Army Commander [Thai] Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra, a Democrat MP and former deputy foreign minister [of Thailand], Lt- Gen Suraphan, [Thai] defense ministry spokesman, [Thai] Foreign Minister Surakiart Sathirathai, [Burmese] Defense intelligence officer Lt-Col Myint Lwin, [Burmese] Deputy Foreign Minister Khin Maung Win, Shan State Army (SSA) Colonel Yawd Serk, One of Wei Hseuh-kang's officers [Wa].
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 10, No. 4, May 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Unsettling Moves: The Wa forced resettlement program in Eastern Shan State
Date of publication: April 2002
Description/subject: "Beginning 1999 up to March this year (2002), hundreds of thousands of Wa people, who had impressed British travelers as 'exceedingly well-behaved, industrious, and estimable race', were forcibly moved to border areas adjacent Thailand. The report is about them, why and how they were uprooted, what happened to the native people where the Wa were forced to resettle and what the reader can do to help both categories of victims..." Important, timely and well-produced document, complete with maps and photos.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lahu National Development Organization
Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Art for Politics’ Sake
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: "Burmese and Thai officials are using an alluring tactic in an attempt to heal a rift in bilateral relations. Thailand’s government and members of its business sector have worked hard with the Burmese government to mend ties since relations deteriorated over a series of border skirmishes between the two countries last February. While the countries have engaged in several bilateral diplomatic exchanges, private initiatives sponsored by members of the government and business sector are employing cultural diplomacy as a means to promote business interests..."
Author/creator: John S. Moncreif and Greta Khiel
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 10, No. 1
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Challenges to democratization in Burma: Perspectives on multilateral and bilateral responses. Chapter 5 - Thai–Burma relations
Date of publication: 14 December 2001
Description/subject: I Thai perceptions of Burma; II Ties with Thailand: a short history; III Border trade from 1948–1999; IV Evolution of Thailand’s constructive engagement policy; V Thai-Burmese technical cooperation 123VI Key issues; VII New Thai policy towards Burma; VIII Conclusions. "...Thai-Burmese relations have reached a critical juncture. Never before have Thai policy-makers expressed such frustration over bilateral ties, especially over the issue of narcotics suppression. Before the extensive political reform in Thailand in 1997, Thai-Burmese ties were mainly driven by personal friendship. For instance, the leaders of the armed forces from the two countries met often and resolved conflicts on an ad hoc basis and through gentlemen’s agreements. That helped explain why certain problems could be settled quickly and other problems dragged on. It must be noted that some of the issues settled through political expediency have returned to haunt the leaders of the two countries. In the past, strong military ties omitted and obliterated other key policy-makers including the Foreign Ministry, the National Security Council, the Interior Ministry and other related organizations. But with reform, the Foreign Ministry took the lead in the formation and execution of Burma policy. The international community would like to see Thailand take a firm stand against the Burmese junta. As in the Cambodian conflict between 1978 and 1992, Thailand was able to provide leadership during the 14-year conflict and was a prime mover behind ASEAN solidarity and policy initiatives. Unfortunately, during the crucial days of Burma–ASEAN relations between 1995 and 1997, when key ASEAN decisions were made, Thailand was troubled by political uncertainty at home. However, the political reform that has taken place since 1997 should serve as political bedrock. However, when the government under Prime Minister Thaksin Sinawatra came to power in early 2001, he turned the Burmese policy upside down. With strong support from his coalition partner, Defense Minister Gen Chavalit Yongchaiyudh, he has followed a policy of appeasement to further economic ties and, in particular, gain cooperation in narcotics suppression. The long-term prospects of joint anti-narcotic suppression and proposed demarcation of the border remain doubtful. With an absolute majority in the house, the Thaksin government is likely to continue the current policy which stimulates cross border trade regardless of political conditions inside the country..."
Author/creator: Kavi Chongkittavorn
Language: English
Source/publisher: International IDEA
Format/size: pdf (208K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.idea.int/asia_pacific/burma/upload/challenges_to_democratization_in_burma.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 September 2010


Title: Burmese Children in Thailand: Legal Aspects
Date of publication: December 2001
Description/subject: "People from Burma have become the major group of displaced persons in Thailand. Most of them are currently being sheltered along the Thai-Burma border, particularly in the Thai provinces of Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kanchanaburi and Ranong. It is estimated that there are some 40,000 children from Burma under the age of 15 accompanying their parents. In addition, thousands of unaccompanied children are driven across the border by the desperate circumstances in Burma. ..."
Author/creator: Nyo Nyo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 10 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma and Thailand seek closer ties
Date of publication: 04 September 2001
Description/subject: Background and comment on Gen. Khin Nyunt's visit to Thailand
Author/creator: Larry Jagan
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC
Alternate URLs: http://listserv.indiana.edu/scripts/wa.exe?A2=ind0109&L=maykha-l&D=1&O=A&P=7232
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Burmese Juntas Impediment to Thai-Burma Relations
Date of publication: August 2001
Description/subject: "The recent border clashes between Burma and Thailand have brought the issue of Thai-Burma relations into focus. The earlier mass exodus of refugees from Burma to Thailand did not cause panic. The voluminous drug inflow into the kingdom also did not shake the Thais, although the sex trade and import of HIV and Aids roused Thai conscience. The on-and-off border clashes were taken in their strides. But the last straw in the camels back was the intentional insult hurled at the Thai monarchy, the most revered institution in Thailand, by allegations made through a series of articles published in the state-run The New Light of Myanmar. The Burmese junta has shown its complete contempt for Thai policy makers. No country has ever done that before. Prime Minister Thaksin said that his government is reviewing its Burmese policy. But does it have one? The ruling political party has one conception, the opposition has another, the bureaucracy yet another, and the military of course has the prime onehence, four different approaches. When a nations national security is at stake, this situation is lamentable..."
Author/creator: B.K. Sen
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 9 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in "Legal issues of Burma Journal" No. 9 at http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%209.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Drugs, Generals and Neighbors
Date of publication: June 2001
Description/subject: Drug production, once the domain of insurgents fighting against Rangoon, has become the cornerstone of the mainstream economy. Burma's reputation as a major drug producer is well earned, despite the ruling junta's insistence that it is doing everything in its powers to combat the trade in narcotics. Aung Zaw finds out from drug-industry insiders how the business flourishes under military rule, and examines its impact on relations with Burma's neighbors.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thai-Burma Relations, Back on Track?
Date of publication: June 2001
Description/subject: In May, amid growing border tensions between Thailand and Burma, five artillery shells from Burma landed in the compound of the Royal Project at Doi Angkang in northern Thailand's Chiang Mai province. It was a deliberate act ofprovocation, Thai army leaders charged. At about the same time, in Rangoon, a more powerful shot was fired in The New Light of Myanmar, the junta's mouthpiece. In a series of commentaries, Burmese historian Dr Ma Tin Win insulted Thailand's revered Royal Family by accusing a nineteenth-century monarch of selling out his country to Western imperialists in order to preserve his own status...
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thai Prisoners Face Tough Times
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: As relations with neighboring Thailand continue to deteriorate, prison authorities in Burma have revoked the prison rights of Thai prisoners, according to an informed source.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thais are Very Angry With the Burmese, Mainly Because of Drugs
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: In this interview Senator Kraisak Choonhavan, head of Thailand's Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs, speaks frankly about his country's troubled relations with Burma. Drugs top the agenda of bilateral issues, says the senator, who adds that Asean needs to reconsider how it deals with its most recalcitrant member.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddy.org/interview_show.php?art_id=2241
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: War Returns to the Region
Date of publication: May 2001
Description/subject: The border war that has erupted between two members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations has shown again that solidarity and good faith are not strong among its members.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 4
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Back to the Marketplace
Date of publication: April 2001
Description/subject: Thailand's CEO-like Prime Minister is having a hard time getting relations with Burma back to business as usual.
Author/creator: John S. Moncreif/Bangkok
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Chavalit Looking Forward to Returning to the Past
Date of publication: April 2001
Description/subject: April 11, 2001 -- The recent offer by Defense Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh to assist Burma has indicated an attempt to shift Thai policy toward its western neighbor. Yet this shift may spell disaster for both Burma and Thailand.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Let's Have a Media War
Date of publication: April 2001
Description/subject: Earlier this year, a high-ranking official at Thailand's Foreign Ministry reportedly approached his colleagues with a bold proposal: "Let's have a media war with Burma," he declared. The rest, as they say, is history.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 3 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Zunehmende Spannungen an der Grenze zwischen Thailand und Myanmar
Date of publication: 16 February 2001
Description/subject: Grenzgefecht fordert zwei Tote - Drogenkrieg? "Beziehung auf dem Tiefpunkt" Rising tensions in the border regions of Thailand and Myanmar
Author/creator: Thomas Berger
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: AG Friedensforschung an der Uni Kassel
Format/size: html (7,8k)
Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


Title: Pushing the Envelope
Date of publication: February 2001
Description/subject: "Both sides in a recent conflict between Thai and Burmese forces appear to be testing the limits of their strained relationship..."
Author/creator: Aung Zaw in Mae Sai
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 9. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thaksin Should be Firm With Burma
Date of publication: February 2001
Description/subject: "New Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s plan to visit Burma is ill advised. Such a trip so soon after taking power would send wrong signals to the junta as well as to the international community, which is waiting to see further positive developments from the dialogue between the ruling junta and the opposition in Rangoon..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy, Vol. 9. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Some Thoughts on Burma-Thai Relations
Date of publication: September 2000
Description/subject: Any attempt to understand Burma-Thai relations today must begin by recognizing the existence of misunderstandings on both sides, open criticism of each other, friction and conflict. Why is this so?...Today, Burma and Thailand face a continuing stream of new issues and crises in their relations. With no rule of law that they both accept, no courts to which they can turn to adjudicate their disputes, and no real will on either side to bury the long past and create a new foundation for their relations based on trust, openness and honesty, the present state of their relations will continue into the future."
Author/creator: Josef Silverstein
Language: English
Source/publisher: Legal Issues on Burma Journal No. 6 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
Alternate URLs: The original and authoritative version of this article may be found on http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%206.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Ayutthaya and the End of History
Date of publication: August 2000
Description/subject: Thai views of Burma revisited... The spectre of Ayutthaya and a century of nation-building still cast long shadows over Thailand's perception of its neighbor, even as the notion of the nation-state faces obsolescence in the global marketplace.
Author/creator: Min Zin/Chiang Mai
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Tangled Ties
Date of publication: July 2000
Description/subject: Gen Surayud Chulanont, Thailand's new army chief, has brought a no-nonsense approach to relations with Burma's military regime. Now, as Thailand struggles to contain a growing drug menace originating across the border in Burma, a war of words between the two sides threatens to escalate into military conflict. Aung Zaw reports from the Thai-Burma border.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Mutual Interests
Date of publication: April 2000
Description/subject: Democratization in Burma will foster a more conducive environment to drug eradication and offers Thailand a remedy from the current drug epidemic.
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thailand's Democratic Detour
Date of publication: February 2000
Description/subject: "...Obviously, however, another consideration has taken precedence over the security of Thai citizens—namely, the profitable relationship that some high-ranking officials have formed with the Burmese regime. Rather than sacrifice such ties, Thai authorities have forced dissidents to operate underground, supported by a handful of local and international NGOs engaged in relief and educational efforts "under the radar", while extracting as much information as they can get to support their woefully inadequate efforts to defend Thailand’s border with Burma..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: La Thaïlande, cheval de Troie de la Birmanie: une alliance paradoxale
Date of publication: January 2000
Description/subject: "TROIS mois après la prise d'otages à l'ambassade de Birmanie à Bangkok - le 2 octobre 1999 - dont le dénouement pacifique avait causé la fureur de la junte de Rangoun, les frontières terrestres avec la Thaïlande ont été rouvertes. La fermeture, qui avait paralysé une partie de l'économie birmane, illustre la relation tumultueuse qu'entretiennent les deux voisins, de plus en plus alliés bien que souvent tiraillés par des intérêts contradictoires...Sous le sacro-saint prétexte du développement, et au nom de la lutte contre la crise économique, les Thaïlandais risquent de donner un feu vert aux dirigeants birmans pour poursuivre en toute tranquillité leur répression des populations appartenant principalement aux minorités ethniques..."
Author/creator: André et Louis Boucaud
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Le Monde Diplomatique
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Suu Kyi, Sukhumpand Square Off Over Asean's Role
Date of publication: July 1999
Description/subject: Thai Deputy Foreign Minister M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra has taken the unusual move of writing a rebuttal to an article written by Aung San Suu Kyi calling on the regional grouping to "nudge Burma towards democracy." Below is a brief summary of their respective positions. Source: The Nation, July 13 and 16
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Old Enemies, New Friends?
Date of publication: February 1999
Description/subject: Thailand needs to consider whether Burma's military regime is really ready to start treating its neighbor with respect.
Author/creator: Aung Naing Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Thai-Burmese BRIDGE Open, Sort of
Date of publication: August 1997
Description/subject: "...The ‘Opening’ of the Thai-Burmese Friendship Bridge on August 15 was anticlimactic, despite the fanfare provided by a set of Burmese dancers. The bridge spans the Moei River, connecting Thai town Mae Sot, which lies on Route A-1, to the Burmese town Myawaddy. On the opening day, some 3,000 enthusiastic Thai spectators attending the opening were disappointed when informed that Burmese authorities were not yet prepared for the Thai public. According to Burmese officials, the bridge would be open for public use only when the 400-km road linking Myawaddy and Rangoon is completed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: It's a Family Affair
Date of publication: May 1997
Description/subject: Since his first official visit to Rangoon in 1988, Thai Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh has developed a habit of calling his Burmese counterparts "brothers".
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Halockani Incident and the Redefinition of a Boundary Issue between Burma and Thailand
Date of publication: October 1994
Description/subject: "...The Halockani incident cannot be viewed as an isolated event. It needs to be understood in terms of the history of boundary delimitation and demarcation between Burma and Thailand (or more precisely Siam) and in terms of contemporary, regional political developments, i.e. in ASEAN and bilateral economic developments between Burma and Thailand..."
Author/creator: Ananda Rajah
Language: English
Source/publisher: IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin October 1994
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2009


Title: Culture accepted from Thailand
Date of publication: 1974
Description/subject: Analyzes how Thai culture influenced everyday life in Myanmar, especially in the performing arts, music and handicrafts. The article also describes how Burmese theater adapted Tai Ramayana Court Drama.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Civilization, 2. Myanmar - Social life and customs, 3. Myanmar - Foreign relations - Thailand, 4. Myanmar Literature, 5. Myanmar Music.....Key Words: 1. Culture, 2. Ramayana, 3. Performing arts, 4. Handicraft.....Annotation: "
Author/creator: PE MAUNG TIN, U
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Nawarat Ko-thwe", 2nd edition, 1974, pp28-46, Sabei Oo Literature, via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (322K-reduced version; )
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/CU0003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 October 2014


Title: We got nothing except a place to stay in the rubbish dump
Description/subject: "Htay Htay is a half Karen half Burman woman who came to Thailand in search of a better life. Now, she lives in a rubbish dump in the outskirts of the border town of Mae Sot on the Thailand-Burma border. Htay Htay is one of about 400 people who live in the dump, all barely making a living by picking up and selling rubbish. Htay Htay says that although they really don’t want to live amidst the rubbish, they have no choice. Read her story to find out why she feels that life ‘living in the dirt’ is better than life in her home country."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Link
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2016