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Burma's political opposition
The actual groups in opposition vary, of course, with the fortunes of elections

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: National League for Democracy (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: "The National League for Democracy (Burmese: အမ်ဳိးသားဒီမုိကေရစီအဖြဲ႔ခ်ဳပ္, IPA: ...; NLD) is a democratic socialist and liberal democratic political party in Myanmar (Burma), currently serving as the co-ruling party in Parliament alongside the military . Founded on 27 September 1988, it has become one of the most influential parties in Myanmar's pro-democracy movement. Special Honorary President of the Socialist International and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi serves as its President. The party won a substantial parliamentary majority in the 1990 Burmese general election. However, the ruling military junta refused to recognise the result. On 6 May 2010, the party was declared illegal and ordered to be disbanded by the junta after refusing to register for the elections slated for November 2010. In November 2011, the NLD announced its intention to register as a political party to contend future elections and on 13 December 2011, Burma's Union Election Commission approved their application for registration. In the 2012 by-elections, the NLD contested 44 of the 45 available seats; winning 43, and losing only one seat to the SNDP. Party leader Aung San Suu Kyi won from the seat of Kawhmu. In the 2015 general election, the NLD won an absolute majority in both houses of the Assembly, possibly paving the way to democracy after decades of military rule."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 April 2016


Title: Union Solidarity and Development Party
Description/subject: "The Union Solidarity and Development Party (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စုကြံ့ခိုင်ရေးနှင့်ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေးပါတီ), which was registered on 2 June 2010 by the Union Election Commission, currently standing as a opposition political party, is the successor to the Burmese government's mass organisation, the Union Solidarity and Development Association. It is headed by former Burmese President Thein Sein and its headquarters are in Naypyidaw's Dekkhinathiri Township.[1] According to the 2008 Constitution, government officials/civil servants, including government ministers like Thein Sein, are not allowed to form political parties, although the Electoral Commission has approved the party nonetheless.[2]..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 August 2016


Individual Documents

Title: Paying the Debt: 25 Years Later, Burma’s Struggle for Freedom Isn’t Over
Date of publication: 19 August 2013
Description/subject: "... It doesn’t mean that we don’t recognize the very substantial flaws inherent in the process so far. They include the flawed constitution that the military adopted in 2008 to entrench its supremacy in politics by reserving 25 percent of seats in parliament, by allowing the generals to appoint the three most important cabinet ministers, by authorizing the armed forces to take power in case of state emergency, and by limiting meaningful autonomy for ethnic minorities. Meanwhile we are still contending with the effects of simmering civil war and ethnic conflict, rising nationalism and communal violence, deepening poverty and a widening gap between rich and poor. The military has allowed unprecedented popular participation in Burmese politics, but they still control real political and economic power by means of the 2008 constitution and highly skewed wealth distribution. Access to power has been dramatic ally broadened, but the exercise of power remains in the same hands: the military’s. For this reason, all of us who attended the reunion felt acutely that our mission still has not been accomplished. There is one 8-8-88 memory that has never let go of me. When we were marching during the 1988 democracy movement, the people had nothing to eat, but they made rice bags for us so that we could eat and keep marching. When we collected the rice bags, we always promised them: "You will get democracy one day." So far, we haven’t kept our promise..."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Foreign Policy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 March 2015


Title: Oposition Movements in Burma: The Question of Relevancy
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: "Since Burma’s independence from British rule in 1948, the Burmese polity has been fraught with contentious politics ranging from armed insurgencies to non-violent movements against the state. The history of Burma’s opposition movements, originating from the colonial period, can be understood as five different forms of struggle—legal political means, armed insurrections, underground (clandestine) activities, above-ground engagements (through civil society groups and the domestic media), and international advocacy (through lobbying, grassroots campaigns, and the foreign media including Burmese language broadcasts). This paper will examine how opposition movements since 1988 have played out until now and how they will remain relevant after the 2010 elections. Generally, relevancy is defined as a means to increase the likelihood of accomplishing the professed goal,1 treating the goal more in terms of consequence (the actual outcome as opposed to the morality of intention). Public support or legitimacy plays a key role in determining relevancy. However, in the context of opposition movements in Burma, we must consider their moral ground. This paper will probe the question of relevancy for Burmese opposition movements from two perspectives— legitimacy and outcome."
Author/creator: Min Zin
Language: English
Source/publisher: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.
Format/size: pdf (173K)
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2010


Title: Burma's opposition movement: A house divided
Date of publication: 28 November 2008
Description/subject: Burma’s opposition movement has always been strong, but never united. After 20 years of struggle, with no sign that the military government is weakening, the fissures in the movement seem to be more pronounced and the divisions more obvious. This could have far-reaching consequences.
Author/creator: Andrew Selth
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Interpreter" - weblog of the Lowy Institute for International Policy
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 December 2010