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Biofuels

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Agrofuels
Description/subject: A collection of articles on bio-fuels
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foundation for Ecological Recovery
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


Individual Documents

Title: Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy: Myanmar
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: CONTENTS: v Abbreviations... vi Acknowledgment... 1 Introduction: 1 Agroecological Zones and Administrative Divisions... 1 Land Use... 1 Workforce in Agriculture... 3 Expansion of the Irrigation Network... 3 Food Security Situation... 4 Rationale and Objectives..... 6 Energy Market and Outlook: 6 Energy Supply and Demand... 18 Potential Alternative Sources of Energy... 21 Justification of Biofuel as an Alternative Energy Source... 22 Obstacles to the Development of Biofuels in Myanmar..... 23 Resource Base for Biofuels Production: 23 Energy Security and Sustainability... 23 Biofuel Options... 24 Biodiesel Production... 27 Bioethanol Production... 33 Biomass Energy Consumption from Wood Fuel..... 38 Prioritization of Feedstocks: 38 Priority Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production... 40 Priority Feedstocks for Bioethanol Production..... 42 Agribusiness Models: 42 Existing Biofuel Business Model... 42 Opportunities and Constraints to Biofuel Business Development... 45 Integration of Small Farmers into the Agribusiness Chain and Options... for Promoting Biofuel Business Ventures..... 47 Case Studies of Biofuel Ventures in Myanmar..... 56 Policy, Regulatory, and Institutional Support for Biofuel Development: 56 National Policies and Strategies for Biofuel Development... 57 Development Program and Plans to Address Agriculture Sector Objectives... 58 Institutional Analysis for Biofuel Development... 60 Investment and Financing Arrangements... 60 The Way Forward..... 61 Appendix 1: Oil Content of Different Land Races of Jatropha Curcas..... 62 Appendix 2: A Proposed Institutional Structure and Implementation Mechanism for Biofuels Development..... 63 Appendix 3: Indicative National Biofuel Program for Myanmar.
Author/creator: U Hla Kyaw, Thandar Kyi, San Thein, U Aung Hlaing, U Tin Maung Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


Title: FMI subsidiary signs biofuel deal
Date of publication: 16 November 2008
Description/subject: "A K30 billion energy deal could be a huge step forward for Myanmar’s production of renewable energy. The deal, with a South Korean company, could lead to the setting up of a refinery in Myanmar. The source of the renewable energy is jatropha Curcas, a biodiesel crop grown in Myanmar. South Korean biofuel giant Enertech, and Myanmar Agri-Tech (MAGT) signed a preliminary memorandum of understanding (MoU) covering the production, export and refining of the fuel in Yangon on November 5...
Author/creator: Ye Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


Title: Biofuel by Decree -- Unmasking Burma's bio-energy fiasco
Date of publication: 01 May 2008
Description/subject: Executive Summary: In December 2005, Burma's Senior General Than Shwe ordered the start of a nation-wide campaign to plant the toxic bush-like tree, Jatropha curcas, for biodiesel production. The country was to plant eight million acres, or an area the size of Belgium, within three years. Two years on, this report documents how Burma's people have endured forced labor, confiscation of farmlands, loss of income and threats to food security under the program. At the same time, testimonies of crop failure and mismanagement from all of Burma's states expose the campaign as a fiasco. Each of Burma's states and divisions, regardless of size, are expected to plant at least 500,000 acres. In Rangoon Division, 20% of all available land will be covered in jatropha. In Karenni State, to meet the quotas, every man, woman and child will have to plant 2,400 trees. Army commanders and state officials have organized mass meetings extolling the virtues of jatropha. Photos of senior officers with watering cans and shovels have appeared in the newspapers; progress reports from around the country have been announced daily. Signboards, advertisements, and pamphlets have bombarded the nation. Since 2006, all sectors of Burma's society have been forced to divert funds, farm lands, and labor to growing jatropha. Teachers, school children, farmers, nurses and civil servants have been directed to spend working hours planting along roadsides, at schools, hospitals, offices, religious compounds, and on farmland formerly producing rice. This radical program was started despite growing international concern about the negative impacts of biofuel production, especially when implemented rapidly or on a large scale. Field research from 32 townships in each of Burma's states, including 131 interviews with farmers, civil servants, and investors, reveals how people have been fined, arrested, and threatened with death for not meeting quotas, damage to the plants, or criticism of the program. One result of the excessive demands for farmlands and labor is a new phenomenon of "jatropha refugees" of whom nearly 800 have already fled from southern Shan State to neighbouring Thailand. Plantations up to 2,500 acres in size have ignored local climate and soil conditions and been planted haphazardly, leaving up to 75% of the plants dead. Improper processing of the oil has left engines damaged and raised serious questions about the existence of adequate infrastructure to realize domestic biodiesel production. A complete ignorance of harvest yields, price, or market for the oil has left farmers and even businessmen cynical about any potential benefits of the program. Burma's agricultural sector is the backbone of the country's economy and society. Policies impacting the sector should be considered carefully and implemented cautiously. However, with disturbing echoes of China's "Great Leap Forward" to increase steel production in the 1950s, Burma's generals are forging ahead with an ill-conceived draconian campaign, ignoring its negative impacts. This report highlights the urgent need for political reform in Burma so that agriculture is not left to the whims of generals. Sustainable agricultural policies are needed that can ensure land rights and human security and allow communities to manage their own natural resources.
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: The Ethnic Community Development Forum (ECDF),
Format/size: pdf (English - 1.2MB; Burmese, 2.67MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecree.pdf
http://www.terraper.org/file_upload/BiofuelbyDecreeBurmese.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 April 2008


Title: Ethnische Minderheiten im Würgegriff
Date of publication: 01 May 2008
Description/subject: Die ethnischen Minderheiten stellen rund 30 Prozent der 50 Millionen Bewohner Burmas. Sie leben überwiegend in den Bergregionen an den Grenzen zu den Nachbarländern. Seit 1948 ringen sie um mehr Selbstverwaltung und Menschenrechte. Während sich die internationale Gemeinschaft nun für die Freilassung der bei der Niederschlagung der Proteste in Rangun Festgenommenen einsetzt, nimmt kaum jemand wahr, dass in den Minderheitengebieten seit Jahren schwerste Menschenrechtsverletzungen andauern; Menschenrechtsverletzungen vor und nach 2007; Chin; Karen; Biosprit; Human rights violations before and after 2007; natural ressources, bio-fuels
Author/creator: Ulrich Delius
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: FMI says K30 billion needed to develop Ayeyarwady Division biofuel plantation
Date of publication: 13 January 2008
Description/subject: "THE chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co Ltd, U Theim Wai, says an investment of K30 billion will be needed for a 100,000-acre biofuel plantation it is developing in Ayeyarwady Division in partnership with SPA Co. FMI’s chairman, U Theim Wai, told shareholders at the company’s annual general meeting in mid-December the group is expected to have a 30 percent share in the project. The balance would be held by SPA Co, he said. U Theim Wai said 700 acres of jatropha curcas has already been planted under the project, launched by FMI Co and SPA Co, in 2006. “We are scheduled to plant another 10,000 acres in 2008,” he told shareholders..."
Author/creator: Ye Lwin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


Title: Big plans for biofuel exports
Date of publication: 09 September 2007
Description/subject: "SINGAPORE – Myanmar plans to export jatropha-based biodiesel as it attempts to tap the growing market for biofuels, a senior Myanmar energy official told a seminar in Singapore on August 27. “By this time next year we hope to have seven million acres (2.8 million hectares) of jatropha plantations in full swing and a large amount of biodiesel for export in the future,” said U Soe Myint, director general of the Energy Planning Department..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Myanmar Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


Title: Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation held
Date of publication: 13 September 2005
Description/subject: "YANGON, 12 Sept — Ministry of Energy of Myanmar and Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency of Thailand jointly held the Workshop on Biofuel Cooperation in A y e y a w a d y - C h a o Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS) at Sedona Hotel here today..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (62K)
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009


Title: Woodfuel Production and Marketing in Myanmar - National Workshop RWEDP Report No.56, 2001
Date of publication: 19 March 1999
Description/subject: "Despite the all-out efforts currently being made by the Myanmar Government to conserve and improve its forest resources, forest degradation and depletion are continuing at an alarming rate, mainly due to shifting cultivation, agricultural encroachment and illicit cutting. The heavy reliance on woodfuel has eroded its supply source in numerous areas and it is clear that unless urgent remedial measures are undertaken the more accessible forests will soon be exhausted and remote areas will have to be exploited instead, involving rising market prices. The National Training Workshop on the Integration of Wood Fuel Production and Marketing in Forest, Agriculture and Tree Production Systems in Myanmar, jointly organised by the Forest And Energy Departments of Myanmar in March 1999, was a milestone in the country's efforts to achieve sustainable bioenergy development. The workshop enhanced the awareness of wood energy amongst foresters and agroforestry practitioners, energy experts and many others directly related to training and research in relevant sectors and led to the recommendation of pragmatic strategies to promote sustainable bioenergy development for future implementation, such as the integration of multipurpose fast-growing trees into the farming system and the incorporation of wood energy into the policies of directly relevant sectors (i.e. energy, forestry, agriculture and rural development)." Technical Papers/Case Studies: 1. Wood Energy in Member Countries; 2. General Position of National energy in Myanmar; 3. Woodfuel Production and Marketing in Yamethin Forest District; 4. A Case Study on Woodfuel Production and Marketing in Toungoo District; 5. Woodfuel Production and Marketing in the Dry Zone with Particular Reference to Sagaing Division; 6. Woodfuel Production and Marketing in Ayeyawady Mangrove Delta; 7. Non-Forest Area Based Woodfuel Production and Its Contribution to the Rural Socio-Economy of Ayeyawady Division; 8. Non-Forest Area Based Woodfuel Production and Its Contribution to the Rural Socio-Economy of Yangon Division; 9. Combustion and Pollution Free Combustion of Biomass; 10. Summary of Earlier Reports and Case Studies on Woodfuel Production, Flow and Utilization in Myanmar.
Language: English
Source/publisher: FAO (Regional Wood Energy Development Programme in Asia)
Format/size: pdf (1.75MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 December 2003


Title: THE NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP ON WOODFUEL TRADE IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: 30 November 1996
Description/subject: "In 1990, fuelwood accounted for some 80% of total energy consumption in Myanmar, equivalent to about 20,000 tons. Since then, the consumption of fuelwood has increased, and this trend is likely to continue in the coming years. Though the country is known for its vast forest resources, in populated areas scarcities of fuelwood are severe and basic fuel needs are not satisfied, particularly in the Dry Zone. The flow and trade of woodfuels in the country may be a key element of balancing supply and demand. RWEDP has for many years cooperated with the Forest Department of Myanmar, which in 1992 resulted in a programme for the introduction of improved stoves. In the same period, a study was undertaken on 'Woodfuel Flows in the Dry Zone of Myanmar' (see RWEDP Field Document No. 39, published in 1993). When the government of Myanmar declared 1995 the Year of Fuelwood Substitution, RWEDP contributed to the national effort by giving expert advice on technologies for densification of biomass residues for fuels. Furthermore, throughout the years, delegates from Mynamar have been active contributors to regional workshops and expert consultations on various aspects of wood energy development. The National Training Workshop on Woodfuel Trade in Myanmar, organized by the Forest Department in 1996 at Yezin, was supported by RWEDP and built on previous experiences as well as presented new studies. The National Workshop also extended the concepts of the Regional Course on Trade in Woodfuel-related Products, organized by RWEDP in 1995 at Peshawar, Pakistan (see RWEDP Report No. 25). More than a hundred participants attended the National Workshop at Yezin, of which the present report gives an account. The report will be of interest not only to the many staff involved in Myanmar itself, but also to experts in other RWEDP member-countries. Thanks are due to the Myanmar Forest Department and to Mr. Tara Bhattarai, Wood Energy Resources Specialist at RWEDP, who assisted in the preparations and overviewed the publication..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Research Institute, Yezin
Format/size: pdf (754K)
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009