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Rural development in Burma/Myanmar

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Title: Country Agency for Rural Development - Myanmar
Description/subject: "CAD (Country Agency For Rural Development) is a Catholic faith based local non-governmental and non-profitable organization working for remote villagers in 3 townships (Hakha, Matupi and Thangtlang) in the central part of Chin state and Monhla village in Ye Oo township of Sagaing division. The inception of CAD is propelled by the backward of Lautu tribe, one of FOUR tribes in Thang Tlang and Matupi Townships in the central part of Chin state. CAD has been spearheading development projects in this region since 2005. CAD has supported our development projects to 23,143 populations at 42 villages in the said townships for 2006. The area’s elevation ranges about 4,250 feet above sea level. Being surrounded by mountains and river fresh air and fish, organic vegetables and crops are available in this region. Furthermore, seasonable flowers are blooming and are exuding different sweet smell of their fragrance around the thick forest."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Country Agency for Rural Development
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: [JICA] Activities in Myanmar
Description/subject: Development Study on Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development for Poverty Reduction Programme in the Central Dry Zone
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Individual Documents

Date of publication: September 2015
Description/subject: "What role for public financial management in deepening social accountability and promoting legitimate governance?...This discussion paper outlines so me of the challenges and opportunities for public financial management (PFM) reform in contributing to deeper social accountability and legitimate governance in the context of Myanmar’s wider decentralization and peace process. The paper poses a set of key questions for development actors to consider as they seek to support inclusive reform in Myanmar..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (443K)
Date of entry/update: 10 October 2015

Title: Socio-­economic Changes in Livelihood of Htantaw Village Amarapura Township, Mandalay Region
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Considering health in the broad term as well–being this study examines changes to villagers’ lives with the effect of privatization and modernization policies. It explores how their economy is related to the changing environment in both time and space. How these villagers cope, struggle and do their best to sustain their living in light of limited resources they had are also presented. This study is conducted in Htantaw Village in the area of Taungthaman Lake locating in the ancient Amarapura Township of Mandalay Division, Myanmar. Villagers, from different ages, occupations and economic status, were interviewed in their homes. Focus groups were used in the first section of the data collection stage. In addition, this study encouraged village leaders participation through the data collection process such as through drawing a Village map, talking through the geographic and social changes in the village and villagers’ struggle and survival strategies. Before 1990, Htantaw; Village is a typical agricultural based village where villagers worked on rice farming, wickerwork and livestock breeding such as duck and cow. Initial socio and economic changes began in 1996 when the water draining in and out was blocked to make a natural Taungthaman Lake as the huge fish–raising ponds by the military government which later issued concession of fishing in a nearby lake owned by a private company. This greatly impacted the villager’s livelihood not only the farming family but also duck and cow raising for milk too, including the rice farmers as their paddy field and agricultural land around the lake had been flooded. The other significant social change was in 2000 due to the establishment of Yadanabon University providing the education for more than twenty thousand students in total a year. The village has become crowded not only with students moving in and from other places but also people who had moved in as workers for the university. Villagers who have some savings started the room rental business and grocery shops. Some started small business es such as restaurants, mobile phone shops and café shops, beauty salon and dress making shops. The social tension between the local and new moving in has been mentioned as well as the increasing struggles in villagers’ life. As the study was conducted by university staff members with the participation of village leaders, its results will be used in further discussions to build a relationship between academic and community people in order to better support the economic and educational development of the village and suggest a model for peaceful learning society in the country.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sandar Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2015

Title: Urbanization: The Structures of Sustainable Urban Landscape of Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "With the major economic system changes, many new developments are observed in every sector of Myanmar. Urban landscaping is an integral part of modern urban construction and also presents the development of economic conditions. One of the most important factors of urbanization is population size. Urbanization is developed rapidly, based on rural-­‐urban migration and natural growth of cities and towns. As urban area develops changes occur in the landscape such as buildings, roads, recreational sites. etc. Although the country’s population remains largely rural because of Myanmar economy is based on agriculture, urban population growth was faster than spatial growth. Yangon is Myanmar’s largest urban area. However, spatially it grew between 2000 and 2010, increasing at a rate of 0.5% a year, from 370 square kilometers to 390. This paper studies many social (traffic congestion, waste disposal, water problems) and environmental issues (pollution) in urbanization and concludes that long-­‐term solutions to these problems. Therefore this paper presents the structure of urban landscape of some significant features within Myanmar and the controlling factors to this urban landscape. If population growth and urbanization are given sufficient attention in economic policies which must seek to manage for the sustainable future urban landscape of Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thin Thin Khaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015

Title: A NEW DAWN FOR EQUITABLE GROWTH IN MYANMAR? Making the private sector work for small - scale agriculture
Date of publication: 04 June 2013
Description/subject: "The new wave of political reforms have set Myanmar on a road to unprecedented economic expansion, but, without targeted policy efforts and regulation to even the playing field, the benefits of new investment will filter down to only a few, leaving small - scale farmers – the backbone of the Myanmar economy – unable to benefit from this growth...KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: If Myanmar is to meet its ambitions on equitable growth, political leaders must put new policies and regulation to generate equitable growth at the heart of their democratic reform agenda. Along with democratic reforms, and action to end human-rights abuses, these policies must: * Address power inequalities in the markets; * Put small-scale farmers at the center of new agricultural investments; * Close loopholes in law and practice that leave the poorest open to land-rights abuses..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: OXFAM
Format/size: pdf (266K-reduced version; 314K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/ib-equitable-growth-myanmar-040613-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 July 2013

Title: Microfinance Supervisory Committee Notification - Government of Myanmar Notification No. 1/2011 (English)
Date of publication: 23 December 2011
Language: English
Source/publisher: Government of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (7K)
Date of entry/update: 05 June 2014

Title: Will junta focus on agricultural reform?
Date of publication: 29 January 2010
Description/subject: New Delhi (Mizzima) 's report recently urged Burma to prioritize its agricultural sector in the fight against poverty, as it has considerable growth potential. However, economic experts have cast doubts that agricultural reform can be feasible under dictatorial rule. The Myanmar Humanitarian Partnership Group meeting, held Wednesday in Burma's former capital of Rangoon, was attended by over 70 experts, including heads of UN agencies, diplomats and aid workers, and highlighted the crucial need of promoting the agricultural sector to address the economic challenges faced by Burma. "Economic growth and poverty alleviation will depend on improvements in productivity and growth of agricultural crops, fisheries and livestock,"Over 70 percent of the population lives in rural areas, and all indicators suggest that the agricultural sector has considerable growth potential."..."
Author/creator: Salai Pi Pi
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mizzima
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.mizzima.com/business/3457-will-junta-focus-on-agricultural-reform.html?tmpl=component&pr...
Date of entry/update: 31 January 2010

Title: Commentary on the visit by Professor Stieglitz and necesary follow-up
Date of publication: 09 January 2010
Description/subject: Commentary of 9 January 2010 by U Myint on the visit by Joseph Stiglitz and necessary follow-up. A major section of the address dealt with how to boost the rice economy in Burma
Author/creator: U Myint
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: pdf (108K)
Date of entry/update: 31 January 2010

Title: Regime Should Heed Advice
Date of publication: January 2010
Description/subject: Joseph Stiglitz offered a realistic assessment of Burma’s economic needs. But were the country’s rulers really listening?... "There is the hope that this is the moment of change for the country,” said Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel Economics laureate and former chief economist of the World Bank, after his visit to Burma in December. Stiglitz was speaking at a press conference in Singapore organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) after attending an economics forum in the Burmese capital, Naypyidaw. During his visit, Stiglitz told Burmese military officials led by Agriculture and Rural Development Minister Maj-Gen Htay Oo and National Development Minister Soe Tha that revenues from oil and gas, if well used, could open up a new era for the country. He called specifically for an increase in spending on education, which he said was necessary because the country is aging and the next generation needs to be prepared to face the challenges of economic development. He especially urged the Burmese regime to improve the economic conditions of the rural poor. Around 75 percent of the country’s estimated 57 million people live in rural areas. Burmese farmers are especially hard hit by crippling loan charges. According to researchers, farmers pay as much as 7 to 10 percent interest a month in Burma—which Stiglitz described as a symptom of serious malfunctioning of the credit system. He stressed this point repeatedly and noted that productivity suffered because of the lack of capital to buy fertilizers..."
Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 18, No. 1
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/print_article.php?art_id=17483
Date of entry/update: 28 February 2010

Title: Credit vital to boosting development in Myanmar, economist says
Date of publication: 23 December 2009
Description/subject: "...With 70 per cent of Myanmar’s population dependent on agriculture, credit reform could help the Asian nation reach its full productivity potential and enhance development, Nobel Prize-winning economist Professor Joseph Stiglitz said after a United Nations-backed visit to the country. “If you’re going to reduce poverty and meet the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs], a focus on agriculture is absolutely essential,” Mr. Stiglitz told reporters after his trip. Surveys, he pointed out, have shown that the cost of credit is very high in Myanmar, with many farmers and casual labourers having to borrow money at interest rates of 10 per cent or more per month. The loans are reminiscent of “pay day” loans in the United States, he said, except that the interest rates charged in Myanmar are even more “usurious.” While in the country, the economist met with Government officials and academics, as well as visiting projects in rural areas. Farmers, he said, told him that while irrigation had increased their productivity, “because they could not get the credit to buy fertilizer and high quality seeds, the full potential was not being realized.”.."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN News Service
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Transcript of Press Conference on the ESCAP/Myanmar Second Partnership Development Roundtable and Forum
Date of publication: 21 December 2009
Description/subject: "...There was general consensus that there were seven issues where ESCAP and the international community could be helpful, and I can share a partial list with you of those priorities that were identified for immediate follow-up. First and foremost is an examination of the country’s credit policies. It is imperative that farmers have access to capital so they can buy seeds and fertilizers and other implements. Research was presented that indicated informal lenders are charging up to 10 per cent a month for credit, which in a matter of a few months, negates all the farmer’s income for that year. So we need to look at what kind of credit is needed and where it is needed. Second, we will look at employment and income security, and human capacity building. Myanmar needs to shift from a labour intensive system to one that is more technologically-based and knowledge-based, which requires education. We also need to look at how the large number of casual labourers is utilized as well as some forms of social protection for farmers, including things like crop insurance and employment guarantees. How do we build the social foundation of more resilient households and communities in Myanmar? And finally, there is a need to take a look at the national revenues, and how to ensure that financial systems are transparent, and revenue is allocated to where they are needed..."
Author/creator: Joseph Stiglitz, Noeleen Heyzer
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCAP
Format/size: pdf (59K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/unis/press/2009/dec/transcript%20ES-Stiglitz%20Press%20Confernece%20-%20revi...
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Myanmar's generals plow a rich furrow
Date of publication: 19 December 2009
Description/subject: "Joseph Stiglitz, the American Nobel economics laureate, advised Myanmar's military-run regime this week that political reform is necessary if the generals hope to revitalize the country's stagnant, mostly agriculture-based economy. Any reform of the rural sector, which employs 70% of the workforce and accounts for nearly half of gross domestic product (GDP), will run up against the widespread and largely institutionalized corruption of the military..."
Author/creator: Brian McCartan
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
Format/size: html, pdf (62K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/Stigliltz03.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Second Development Partnership Roundtable and Development Forum held
Date of publication: 18 December 2009
Description/subject: Jointly organized by Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), Second Development Partnership Roundtable and Development Forum on economic policies for growth and poverty reduction: lessons from the region and beyond was held at the hall of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation here on 15 December. Roundtable on enhancing Myanmar’s rural economy was held at 9 am...Since food security and rural livelihoods contribute to the income of the rural people, increasing agricultural productivity is the core policy for Myanmar. In order to increase agricultural productivity, promoting access to irrigation water and its sustainable uses are the main necessity. Myanmar has heavily invested and constructed 228 irrigation dams, 322 river water-pumping projects, constructing and repairing small irrigation tanks throughout the dryzone, enhancing underground water utilization through more than 7000 tube wells. In addition to promoting access to irrigation water for increasing crop production, rural electrification is also being promoted by installation of mini hydropower along canal drop structures of irrigation networks. On the other hand, regarding access to irrigation water, Myanmar is proactive rather than reactive to adapting climate change and mitigating its effects..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar"
Format/size: pdf (66K)
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Stiglitz Advises Regime to Use Oil and Gas Revenues Wisely
Date of publication: 17 December 2009
Description/subject: "Nobel Economics Laureate Joesph Stiglitz has told a forum in the Burmese capital, Naypyidaw, that revenues from oil and gas, if well used, could open up a new era for the country. If not well used, valuable opportunities would be squandered, Stiglitz told the forum on “Restoring Burma as the Rice Bowl of Asia.” The forum on Monday was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and Burma's Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation and Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. A UN press release said the former World Bank chief emphasized the inseparable nature of economics and politics. Before his visit, some analysts questioned the wisdom of giving economic advice to military generals who had a bad reputation for ignoring the input of experts. For Burma to take a role on the world stage and to achieve true stability and security, there must be widespread participation and inclusive processes, Stiglitz said..."
Author/creator: Ba Kaung
Language: English
Source/publisher: IRROL
Format/size: pdf (58K)
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: ESCAP brings Nobel Laureate Stiglitz to Myanmar to advise on economic policy and rural poverty reduction
Date of publication: 15 December 2009
Description/subject: "The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the Government of the Union of Myanmar today held a wide-ranging dialogue aimed at boosting the country’s agricultural sector and to help it reclaim its status as the rice bowl of Asia. At the invitation of ESCAP, Nobel Prize-winning economist Prof. Joseph Stiglitz and other eminent experts discussed strategies for Myanmar to cut poverty in light of Asia’s regional and subregional experiences. “It is my hope these ideas and analysis will open a new space for policy discussion and a further deepening of our development partnership,” UN Under-Secretary-General and ESCAP Executive Secretary Noeleen Heyzer said at the event held in Myanmar’s capital, Naypyitaw. “These development objectives can only be achieved through the successful engagement of local experts and people who know what is happening on the ground. This development partnership, requested by the Government of Myanmar, provides a unique platform for eminent international scholars and local researchers to exchange experiences and ideas with government agencies and civil society,” Dr. Heyzer added..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNESCAP News Services
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.unescap.org/unis/press/2009/dec/g105.asp
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: BURMA: Nobel Laureate Stiglitz to advise junta on poverty –
Date of publication: 30 November 2009
Description/subject: "...The list of high-profile foreigners heading to Burma to engage and advise the country’s military regime is about to get longer. The latest due to join that flow is Nobel economics laureate Joseph Stiglitz. The former chief economist of the World Bank will fly into Burma, or Myanmar as it is also known, on Dec. 14 for a mission aimed to examine and improve the South-east Asian nation’s rural economy, says Noeleen Heyzer, head of a United Nations regional body based in Bangkok. “He will share his ideas on what kind of economic decision making is critical for growth in the rural economy and poverty reduction,” adds the executive secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). “He will be there for a couple of days.”..."
Author/creator: Marwaan Macan-Markar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Inter Press News Service (IPS)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Rural Households' Food Security Status and Coping Strategies to Food Insecurity in Myanmar
Date of publication: February 2009
Description/subject: "...This study will examine the food (rice) availability at the national level using the official and FAO data. Second, a case study in the rice deficit region (Dry Zone) will present the characteristics and food security status of the farm and non-farm rural households (landless) and the determinants of food security. The Dry Zone was chosen to study because the EC & FAO (2007) classified this region as the most vulnerable area of the country. Furthermore, the FAO projected that the Net Primary Production would be decreased significantly in the Dry Zone in the next two decades. It is essential to collect the primary and secondary data on food availability, access, stability and utilization for understanding the current reality of food security at both macro and micro level... Objectives of the Study: > To assess the food (rice) availability at the national level by using indicators of trend of production index, growth rate of sown area, production and yield, average availability of rice, average per capita rice consumption, rice surplus, dietary energy supply of rice, share of food expenditure in total budget, self-sufficiency ratio, trends in domestic prices of rice and the estimated effects of the Nargis cyclone on rice self-sufficiency. > To investigate the rural household's access to food in terms of human capital, food production, household income, asset ownership, and income diversification of farm and non-farm (landless) households. > To examine the farm and non-farm household's food security status by applying the national food poverty line and the index of coping strategies method along with some indicators such as food share in the household budget, percentage of food expenditure in the total household income, and nutrition security indicators of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, diseases, and number of children death.
Author/creator: Dolly Kyaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (V.R.F. Series No. 444)
Format/size: pdf (656K)
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2009

Title: Rural development and displacement: SPDC abuses in Toungoo District
Date of publication: 13 January 2009
Description/subject: "The SPDC has continued to militarise larger and larger swaths of Toungoo District under the false banner of 'development', subjecting local villagers to forced labour and extortion and forcing others to flee into hiding. Life is hard for villagers both under and outside of SPDC control: villagers living within SPDC-controlled areas are often forced to work for the SPDC rather than focus on their own livelihoods while villagers in hiding continue to struggle with a shortage of food. Ultimately, many residents of Toungoo face a mounting food crisis that is a direct result of SPDC policy. This report discusses incidents that occurred between May and September 2008..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F1)
Format/size: html, pdf (850 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg09f1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009

Title: Status and Potential for the Development of Biofuels and Rural Renewable Energy: Myanmar
Date of publication: 2009
Description/subject: CONTENTS: v Abbreviations... vi Acknowledgment... 1 Introduction: 1 Agroecological Zones and Administrative Divisions... 1 Land Use... 1 Workforce in Agriculture... 3 Expansion of the Irrigation Network... 3 Food Security Situation... 4 Rationale and Objectives..... 6 Energy Market and Outlook: 6 Energy Supply and Demand... 18 Potential Alternative Sources of Energy... 21 Justification of Biofuel as an Alternative Energy Source... 22 Obstacles to the Development of Biofuels in Myanmar..... 23 Resource Base for Biofuels Production: 23 Energy Security and Sustainability... 23 Biofuel Options... 24 Biodiesel Production... 27 Bioethanol Production... 33 Biomass Energy Consumption from Wood Fuel..... 38 Prioritization of Feedstocks: 38 Priority Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production... 40 Priority Feedstocks for Bioethanol Production..... 42 Agribusiness Models: 42 Existing Biofuel Business Model... 42 Opportunities and Constraints to Biofuel Business Development... 45 Integration of Small Farmers into the Agribusiness Chain and Options... for Promoting Biofuel Business Ventures..... 47 Case Studies of Biofuel Ventures in Myanmar..... 56 Policy, Regulatory, and Institutional Support for Biofuel Development: 56 National Policies and Strategies for Biofuel Development... 57 Development Program and Plans to Address Agriculture Sector Objectives... 58 Institutional Analysis for Biofuel Development... 60 Investment and Financing Arrangements... 60 The Way Forward..... 61 Appendix 1: Oil Content of Different Land Races of Jatropha Curcas..... 62 Appendix 2: A Proposed Institutional Structure and Implementation Mechanism for Biofuels Development..... 63 Appendix 3: Indicative National Biofuel Program for Myanmar.
Author/creator: U Hla Kyaw, Thandar Kyi, San Thein, U Aung Hlaing, U Tin Maung Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 December 2009

Title: Cultivating Inequality (Review of Ikuko Okamoto's "Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar" )
Date of publication: July 2008
Description/subject: A Japanese study illustrates how farmers created an agricultural market in spite of the military government’s bureaucrats... "Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar" by Ikuko Okamoto. National University of Singapore Press, 2008... "THE devastation caused by Cyclone Nargis and spiraling global food prices have placed even more pressure on the agricultural sector of Burma, once the world’s largest rice exporter and potentially one of Asia’s most prodigious producers of agricultural staples. The majority of the Burmese labor pool is in farming, and rice production remains not just a national priority but an obsession of the junta. Successive regimes have attempted a number of initiatives to increase agricultural production, first through disastrous socialist policies, and since 1988 with piecemeal open market reforms which have continued to stifle the true promise of the agricultural sector. Ikuko Okamoto’s book looks at one success story in this sad litany of state failure. Economic Disparity in Rural Myanmar is an academic analysis of the rapid increase in production of pulses in one township close to Rangoon. A pulse is a bean, in this case one called pedishwewar, or golden green gram, otherwise known as the mung bean. It is a close study of the relationship between Burmese farm laborers, rural traders, tractor dealers, some available land, rice paddy crops and a fortuitous gap in the global rice market that produced a pulse market where before there was none. The sting is that most of the people on the lower rungs—the farmer-laborers—profited least from their labors. Pulses brought in a total of 3.6 billion kyat (US $3 million) in 2007, mainly due to India, which reduced pulse cultivation, allowing farmers and traders in Burma to fill the demand. Okamoto, a researcher at Japan’s Institute for Developing Economies, spent several years studying production techniques in Thongwa Township, east of Rangoon and home to 64 villages and about 150,000 people. In this well-designed and detailed study, she looks at how the dramatic growth in green gram production produced an export success..."
Author/creator: David Scott Mathieson
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2008

Title: Rural Credit Markets in Myanmar: A Study of Formal and Non-Formal Lenders
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: ABSTRACT: "This paper conducts an empirical investigation of the rural credit market in Myanmar to help guide policy formulation on the microfinance operations in the country. Specifically, it looks into the determinants of credit demand and of rationing loans at the household level, and identifies the similarities, differences and relationships among the various segments of the rural credit market. Data are primarily gathered through a survey covering a total of 301 households among 7 villages in the Dry Zone. The results reveal the characteristics distinguishing the different types of credit sources, implying that the formal and semiformal credit are targeted towards different sets of clientele. The findings also suggest that promoting the semiformal credit sources likewise strengthens the development of formal credit sources".....N. B. there is a confusion about the issue and date of this article -- the header says it is Vol 4, No. 1 (June 2007), while the website gives it as Vol. 3, Nos. 2 & 3 (December 2006)
Author/creator: Tomoko Kaino
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development", Volume 4 No. 1
Format/size: pdf (378K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.searca.org/ajad/archives/v-03/01-02/ajad-v3-n1-n2-kaino-rural-credit-markets-in-myanmar....
Date of entry/update: 01 January 2010

Title: Agricultural Policies and Development of Myanmar’s Agricultural Sector : An Overview
Date of publication: June 2006
Description/subject: Abstract "This paper reviews the development of the agricultural sector in Myanmar after the transition to an open economy in 1988 and analyzes the nature as well as the performance of the agricultural sector. The avoidance of social unrest and the maintenance of control by the regime are identified as the two key factors that have determined the nature of agricultural policy after 1988. A major consequence of agricultural policy has been a clear difference in development paths among the major crops. Production of crops that had a potential for development showed sluggish growth due to policy constraints, whereas there has been a self-sustaining increase in the output of those crops that have fallen outside the remit of agricultural policy."
Author/creator: Koichi FUJITA, Ikuko OKAMOTO
Language: English (also available in Japanese(?)
Source/publisher: IDE Discussion Paper No. 63
Format/size: pdf (344K)
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006

Title: Agriculture authorities forced farmers to grow subsidiary crops
Date of publication: 20 November 2004
Description/subject: "Mudon Township agriculture authorities forced farmers to grow subsidiary crops on farms irrigated by the Win-Pha-None Dam, according to villagers in the area. “A group of township agriculture authorities came to the villages and gathered villagers to grow subsidiary crops such as rice and beans,” a villager said. According to Nai Jorn, a reporter, villagers are dissatisfied with authorities because they were forced to grow crops in previous years and received no benefits for growing them..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency (Mon State)
Format/size: html (8K)
Date of entry/update: 24 December 2004

Title: Rich Periphery, Poor Center: Myanmar's Rural Economy
Date of publication: March 2004
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper looks at the case of Myanmar in order to investigate the behavior and welfare of rural households in an economy under transition from a planned to a market system. Myanmar's case is particularly interesting because of the country's unique attempt to preserve a policy of intervention in land transactions and marketing institutions. A sample household survey that we conducted in 2001, covering more than 500 households in eight villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, revealed two paradoxes. First, income levels are higher in villages far from the center than in villages located in regions under the tight control of the central authorities. Second, farmers and villages that emphasize a paddy-based, irrigated cropping system have lower farming incomes than those that do not. The reason for these paradoxes are the distortions created by agricultural policies that restrict land use and the marketing of agricultural produce. Because of these distortions, the transition to a market economy in Myanmar since the late 1980s is only a partial one. The partial transition, which initially led to an increase in output and income from agriculture, revealed its limit in the survey period."...There are 2 versions of this paper. The one placed as the main URL, which also has a later publication date, seems to be longer, though it is about 30K smaller.
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto, Kyosuke Kurita, Takashi Kurosaki and Koichi Fujita
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE ( Institute of Developing Economies) Discussion Paper No. 23
Format/size: pdf (213K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.econ.yale.edu/conference/neudc03/papers/1d-kurosaki.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003

Title: Agricultural Marketing Reform and Rural Economy in Myanmar
Date of publication: 28 January 2004
Description/subject: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of marketing reforms implemented in the late 1980s in Myanmar. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the reform on the rural economy and its participants, namely farmers, landless laborers and marketing intermediaries. The reform had a positive effect on all these participants through the creation of employment opportunities and increased income. The driving force of this success was "market forces,"absence of bad policy" is emphasized as a key for the success in the context of Myanmar, where excessive and murky government intervention often resulted in failure to induce private sector development.
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: IIDE ( Institute of Developing Economies)
Format/size: pdf (98KB)
Date of entry/update: 08 January 2005

Title: Agricultural diversification and rural industrialization as a strategy for rural income growth and poverty reduction in Indochina and Myanmar
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: Abstract: CONTENTS: Introduction; concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in areas and production of crops and meat production; agricultural exports; future challenges and guiding principles; references....Keywords: Agricultural diversification Economic aspects.; Indochina Economic policy.; Poverty alleviation.; Myanmar Economic policy.; Meat industry and trade.
Author/creator: Francesco Goletti
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Food Policy Research Institute
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008