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Urban development

Individual Documents

Title: Cultural Heritage Buildings in Mandalay City (Myanmar): A Geographic Approach to the Urban Landscape
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: The cultural heritage buildings give a sense of past and of cultural identity. Those buildings encompassed the historical evidence, artifacts and beliefs. As being a last capital of Myanmar Konbaung Dynasty, there were various kinds of building which are still left out in Mandalay City. Since the City was founded in 1857, the King Mindon intended to be very spacious capital by laying down the systematic town planning. The urbanization is taken placed since that time. Moreover, the study area was experienced by the diverse political systems and is ruled by the different governance. Therefore, the buildings were constructed according to the rulers. In this study the buildings are categorized into 4 groups: religious buildings, institutional buildings, and residential buildings, industrial and commercial buildings. Although the buildings regarding religions and institutions are already recorded by the Government Offices and Archaeology Department, there is lack of record on the commercial or industrial or residential buildings. Nowadays, the urbanization system has been taken place very quickly in the city. The range of pressures facing urban heritage include: population gains propelling rapid, uncontrolled growth and socio-­economic transformations generating functional changes in the city. It caused to renovate or reconstruct the new buildings in the places of previous ones, especially for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It will affect to lose the ancient architectural style of the buildings and their significance. Therefore, the major aim of this research work is put on to define, to record and to locate as the cultural heritage buildings.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Khin Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Urbanism and Cultural Heritage: How to maintain history and forge into modernity in a fast growing Yangon
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report is about urbanism and historical heritage preservation in Yangon, Myanmar. When we look at urbanism, we are as well to view from the perspectives of urban development along with urban planning. The buildings are merely the physical infrastructures for the citizens of Yangon but also the cultural landscape and the history of the place. They have been changing throughout the time along with social and culture values of the local people. To be able to understand fully about the urban development of a certain area, attentive investigation on urban planning is mandatory. Thus, decent urban planning is vital for the positive development. This research report is based on the theories of urbanism, cultural diversity and tangible and intangible cultural heritage but focus mainly on tangible historic architectural buildings conservation. The case study is in the city of Yangon, Myanmar and critical analysis is centered on the Yangon Heritage Trust, the local NGO working on preserving the heritage of the city. The analysis themes are made upon th e benefit and wellbeing of the city dwellers."....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Hay Mann Zaw
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (405K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Urbanization: The Structures of Sustainable Urban Landscape of Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "With the major economic system changes, many new developments are observed in every sector of Myanmar. Urban landscaping is an integral part of modern urban construction and also presents the development of economic conditions. One of the most important factors of urbanization is population size. Urbanization is developed rapidly, based on rural-­‐urban migration and natural growth of cities and towns. As urban area develops changes occur in the landscape such as buildings, roads, recreational sites. etc. Although the country’s population remains largely rural because of Myanmar economy is based on agriculture, urban population growth was faster than spatial growth. Yangon is Myanmar’s largest urban area. However, spatially it grew between 2000 and 2010, increasing at a rate of 0.5% a year, from 370 square kilometers to 390. This paper studies many social (traffic congestion, waste disposal, water problems) and environmental issues (pollution) in urbanization and concludes that long-­‐term solutions to these problems. Therefore this paper presents the structure of urban landscape of some significant features within Myanmar and the controlling factors to this urban landscape. If population growth and urbanization are given sufficient attention in economic policies which must seek to manage for the sustainable future urban landscape of Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thin Thin Khaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: The Foreign Presence in Mandalay during the Konbaung Period: A Review of the Urban Area
Date of publication: 27 December 2014
Description/subject: "Mandalay has many faces. As the last capital of the Konbaung Dynasty, Mandalay is considered the origin of the traditional Myanmar culture. A wide variety of handicrafts remain in practice today and are a focal point of the Buddhist practice. However, Mandalay cannot be discussed in only the narrow framework of Myanmar culture. Mosques, Hindu temples, and Chinese temples stood in a row along its streets, demonstrating the complex history of this city. However, the study of Mandalay’s diversity remains limited. The urban area of Mandalay lies around a square castle, and the towns are ordered as a grid. Such an extremely orderly city attracts attention from researchers, and arguments concentrate on interpretation of the design, the centricity and the cosmology of the city. In addition, a viewpoint assuming Mandalay as a model of the traditional capital of continental Southeast Asia was dominant for a long time. It is necessary to reconsider Mandalay as a hub in the regional trade network. Henry Yule, who visited the city during the Konbaung period records prosperous local trade activity. According to his account, various merchant groups including Chinese and Muslim possessed commercial quarter. The presence of a variety of religious buildings and communities in contemporary Mandalay is difficult to understand without paying attention to the commercial characteristics of the city. Recently, the study of the commercial importance of Mandalay has gradually developed. For example, Thant Myint-U acknowledges the commercial importance of the urban area. From the viewpoint of economic history, Schendel explains in detail a variety of commercial activities of the merchant group based in Mandalay. However, still too few studies address how these various groups were placed in the spatial structure of Mandalay. This paper collects basic information and creates a rough sketch of the formation of Mandalay. I suggest in advance that foreigners assume a considerable part of the city’s functions occur in the urban area. In the western part of the city, the commercial space stood along the Shwe ta waterway. However, the military was concentrated in the eastern, northern, and southern parts of the moat. In military duty, people of various backgrounds provided services for the needs of the royal authority. However, the openness of the social structure did not divide dwellers by ethnicity or religion in the city in those days, and personal relationships with the sovereign were indispensable. Based on such characteristics, we review Mandalay as an inland port city..."
Author/creator: ISHIKAWA Kazumasa
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies, No. 32, 2014... 上智アジア学 第32 号2014 年 目次 ...Burma Studies in Japan: History, Culture and Religion
Format/size: pdf (666K)
Alternate URLs: http://repository.cc.sophia.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/123456789/36548/1/200000079942_000134000_113.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 September 2015


Title: Yangon’s Development Challenges
Date of publication: March 2012
Description/subject: Overview: "Yangon is an attractive and relatively livable city that is on the brink of dramatic change. If the government of Myanmar continues its recent program of economic and political reform, the economy of the country is likely to take off, and much of the growth will be concentrated in Yangon, Myanmar’s largest city and commercial capital. This paper argues that Yangon is poorly prepared to cope with the pressures of growth because it has only begun to develop a comprehensive land use and development plan for the city that would guide the location of key activities including export-oriented industries and port terminals. In addition, the city lacks the financial resources to finance the infrastructure and other public services required to serve the existing population, let alone support a population that is larger and better off. Failure to address these challenges will not only make Yangon a less livable city but will also reduce the rate of economic growth for the entire country. Myanmar needs a dynamic and vibrant Yangon to thrive."..."...In sum, Yangon and Myanmar appear to be on the verge of explosive growth, making up for decades of stagnation or decline. Yangon is almost certain to become a key engine in the nation’s economic growth as Myanmar’s largest city, commercial capital, most important port and tourist destination, and most logical site for export-oriented manufacturing. But how well Yangon fulfills these roles depends on how well the city is managed. Yangon’s slow growth in the past had a hidden benefit in that it preserved many assets—greenery, parks and open spaces and historic buildings—that other Asian cities lost. As a result, Yangon has an opportunity to avoid becoming another sprawling, polluted and highly congested Asian megacity and grow instead into a greener and more livable metropolis. But it will do so only if it prepares a plan before development threatens to overwhelm it. And the plan will succeed only if it is based on thoughtful and realistic analyses of issues like the location of special economic zones and ports and the provision of affordable housing and quality infrastructure."
Author/creator: José A. Gómez-Ibáñez, Derek Bok, Nguyễn Xuân Thành
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ash Center, for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard University
Format/size: pdf (452K)
Date of entry/update: 08 July 2012


Title: A Visit to Chinatown
Date of publication: September 2009
Description/subject: "Chinese influence is growing in Rangoon, but not everyone is happy about it..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 17, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 January 2010


Title: HUMAN SETTLEMENTS SECTOR REVIEW, UNION OF MYANMAR
Date of publication: 1991
Description/subject: The oft-cited UN Habitat report on the 1989-1990 urban resettlement programme in Burma which the report estimates affected 1.5 million people (16 percent of the urban population). "...During the early months of 1990 international attention was focused on the Yangon squatter clearance and resettlement programme launched by the Government in 1989. The Mission found that the programme is not limited to Yangon, but has broad national coverage. The scale and characteristics of the land-development and other works was considered by the Mission to be of such overwhelming significance to the present and future urban situation that the Mission concentrated its resources on attempting to assemble a comprehensive record of the programme and assessing the impacts and implications. The programme consists of: (a) land development for sites-and- services resettlement schemes, and for complete housing units for public servants; (b) new and improved roads; (c) urban rail transport; (d) road, rail and pedestrian bridges; (e) parks and gardens; (f) redevelopment for commercial and residential uses of sites cleared as a result of resettlement and fires; (g) clean-up campaigns, building renovations, and repainting of facades; and (h) rehabilitation of drains and water bodies. For the size of the overall country population and for an urban population of less than 10 million, the scale of works within the time period allocated is probably unprecedented internationally. Based on visits to selected towns, analysis of maps and layout plans, and the data supplied by GAD and HD, the Mission estimates that the total population affected by the resettlement and new housing components is in the order of 1.5 million, or 4 per cent of the total population, and 16 percent of the urban population. Roughly 50 per cent of this number is in Yangon, Mandalay, Taunggyi and Bago, all centres visited by the Mission..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 10 January 2007