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General studies (covering various periods and themes)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Review of History of Myanmar Since Ancient Times
Date of publication: 19 July 2013
Description/subject: "...Being of direct interest to audiences both inside and outside sets Aung-Thwin apart from most other historians of Burma writing in English in recent decades. Aung-Thwin has been explicit in re-evaluating evidence and interpretations that have shaped Burmese history for the past 100 to 150 years.(2) He has argued that much of our understanding of Burmese history comes from the hands of a few colonial-era scholars, such as G. H. Luce. Working in good faith with the skills and understandings that they had, these scholars wrote the best histories that they could, but their interpretations inevitably reflected contemporaneous ideas. Some of these scholars were involved in the subjugation of the Burmese empire or connected with the colonial regime, and so had an interest in portraying aspects of Burmese history and its participants in a particular light... Whatever the specific points of interpretational disagreement that the reader may have with the Aung-Thwins’ work, these should not blind us to all that Michael Aung-Thwin has done over the past several decades. He has shaken up the complacent certainties of the Burmese historiographical landscape, forcing us to reconsider our own positions and understandings by reexamining the available evidence. He has alerted to us that the ground under our feet may not be nearly as solid as we take it to be...."
Author/creator: Patrick McCormick
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


Title: CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS (2005-2015)
Description/subject: A chronology of events by year from 2005-2015 summarising: AID... CHILDREN... DEMOCRACY... DISPLACEMENT... DRUGS... ECONOMY... ENVIRONMENT... ETHNIC ISSUES... HEALTH... HUMAN RIGHTS... INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS... LANDMINES, BOMBS... REGIME... WOMEN
Language: English
Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016


Title: Historical Capitals of Burma/Myanmar (ၿမိဳ.ေတာ္္မ်ားစရင္း)
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 June 2014


Title: History of Burma (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: Contents: 1 Early history (to 9th century CE) 1.1 Prehistory 1.2 Pyu city-states 1.3 Mon kingdoms 2 Pagan Dynasty (849–1298) 2.1 Early Pagan 2.2 Pagan Empire (1044–1287) 3 Small kingdoms 3.1 Ava (1364–1555) 3.2 Hanthawaddy Pegu (1287–1539) 3.3 Shan States (1287–1557) 3.4 Arakan (1287–1784) 4 Toungoo Dynasty (1510–1752) 4.1 First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599) 4.2 Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752) 5 Konbaung Dynasty (1752–1885) 5.1 Reunification 5.2 Wars with Siam and China 5.3 Westward expansion and wars with British Empire 5.4 Administrative and economic reforms 5.5 Culture 6 British rule 6.1 World War II and Japan 6.2 From the Japanese surrender to Aung San's assassination 7 Independent Burma 7.1 1948–62 7.2 1962–88 7.3 Crisis and 1988 Uprising 7.4 1989–2006 7.5 2007 anti-government protests 7.6 Cyclone Nargis 7.7 2011–present 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 27 November 2011


Title: History of Myanmar (Burma)
Description/subject: Articles etc
Language: English
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Prehistory: Prehistory of Burma, Pyu city-states and Mon city-states
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 July 2014


Title: Wikipedia (Burmese) History - ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသမိုင္း ၁၂၈၇ - ၂၀၁၁ - Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Wikipedia (Burmese)
Subscribe: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 December 2013


Individual Documents

Title: Refighting Old Battles, Compounding Misconceptions: The Politics of Ethnicity in Myanmar Today
Date of publication: 02 March 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "• Race, or ethnicity, compounded by religion, was a powerful theme in the Burmese nationalist movement in the 1920s, 30s and ‘40s. Burmese nationalists felt their country was twice colonised, first by the British, and secondly by South Asians. As Burma was governed as an Indian province until 1937, South Asian immigrants and capital freely flowed into the colony. As a consequence, Buddhism was said to be in danger particularly from rapid growth of the South Asian Hindu and Muslim populations. Political activists, including Buddhist monks, are repeating this old cry today. • The issue of race was compounded by the necessity of integrating the ethnically and linguistically diverse northern border regions of Myanmar which had been indirectly ruled together with the directly ruled central and southern parts of the country at the time of independence in 1948. This was further complicated by the special provisions made in British law for ethnic representation in the directly ruled areas. The upshot was continuing armed strife up to today. • During the first period of parliamentary government, under Prime Minister U Nu, race became an issue upon which deals could be done and offers of concessions made in exchange for political support. The military socialist regime of General Ne Win failed to depoliticise the race issue. The current 2008 constitution merely compounds earlier efforts to appease political demands made in the name of ethnicity. • With the re-establishment of constitutional government since 2011, these recurring themes have come back in both domestic and international guises, threatening to endanger the effort to re-establish a viable political system. The so-called Rohingya issue is now being used to fuel political discord. • Only by depoliticising ethnicity and race will it be possible to maintain political order and reasoned politics. As human rights are confused with group aspirations in modern discourse, this will be extremely difficult but if an effort to remove race from discussions of public policy is not attempted, the result could be disastrous for the development of the constitutional order."
Author/creator: Robert H. Taylor
Language: English
Source/publisher: "ISEAS Perspective" - Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Format/size: pdf (182K-reduced version; 872K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/iseas_perspective_2015_12.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 May 2015


Title: River of No Return - a review of Than Myint U's "The River of Lost Footsteps"
Date of publication: July 2007
Description/subject: The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma by Thant Myint-U, Faber and Faber: 2007, P361... Burma’s Famous Waterway Gives a New Biographical-History Book Its Title... "In his latest book, targeting a general readership, Thant Myint-U collages his memoirs, travelogue and genealogy against Burma’s historical background. In the late 1820s, the first Anglo-Burmese war dealt an initial major blow to the Konbaung dynasty. It was then that scholars and Buddhist monks at the court of Ava began to revise and update U Kala’s Chronicle of Burmese Kings. The result was The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, an endeavor Thant Myint-U finds “a fitting thing to do, when the future seemed unclear, the present had become so painful, and the lessons of the past needed a more proper accounting.” This could well have been Thant Myint-U’s own intention..."
Author/creator: Ko Kpo Thett
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 15, No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 May 2008


Title: Crucible of War: Burma and the Ming in the Tai Frontier Zone (1382-1454)
Date of publication: September 2006
Description/subject: Table of Contents: 1. Introduction: In search of “Mong Mao” a. State or chieftainship? b. Historical over-extrapolation: Unified states and Southern Advances c. Geography: Where was Mong Mao? d. A Tai Frontier? e. History of the Tai Frontier: Public or hidden? f. Goals, conventions, sources, and analytical frameworks 2. Tai raids and the founding of Ava (1301-1382) a. Tai raids, a period of crisis, and the founding of Ava (1359-1368) b. Mingyiswasawke builds the state of Ava (1368-1400) 3. The Ming conquest of the Tai Frontier (1382-1398) a. The initial Ming attempts to win Yunnan over (1369-1380) b. The Ming invasion and conquest of Yunnan (1380-1383) c. Si Lun-fa seizes power and submits to the Ming (1382) d. A Tai challenge to Ming rule in Yunnan (1382-1388) e. The Battle of Dingbian 1388: A Ming punitive expedition against the Tais f. The pursuit of Si Lun-fa and war reparations (1388) g. Tai attacks against Ava and a Ming mission to the region (1393-1396) h. Si Lun-fa deposed by a rival Tai leader (1397) i. The reinstatement of Si Lun-fa (1398) 4. The Ava-Pegu and Ming-Vietnam Wars (1401-1427) a. Ming frontier administration reorganized (1402-1406) b. The Ava-Pegu War: Irregular cavalry forces from the Tai frontier (1401-1406) c. Further inroads into the Tai Frontier by Ava under Minyekyawswa (1406-1414) 5. A crucible of war: The aftermath of the Ava-Pegu and Ming-Vietnam Wars (1426-1438) a. The North: Mong Mao expansionary warfare eastwards into Ming Yunnan (1427-1438) b. Political disorder and uncertainty in the Tai Frontier: A small case study c. The South: Tai involvement in Ava’s domestic politics (1426-1440) 6. Burma as Ming proxy in a Tai manhunt: The final Luchuan-Pingmian Campaigns (1442-1454) a. The Third Luchuan-Pingmian Campaign (1443-1444) b. The Fourth Luchuan-Pingmian Campaign (1448-1449) c. The Burmese capture Si Ji-fa (1449-1454) 7. Conclusion a. Who ultimately controlled Mong Yang? b. Historical cycles in the Tai frontier c. Long-run demographic forces behind warfare in the Tai Frontier: Further research d. A brief summary of the history e. Epilogue: Bibliographical notes on Tai history 27 77
Author/creator: Jon Fernquest
Language: English
Source/publisher: SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 4.2 (Autumn 2006)
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 2MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://web.archive.org/web/20071010121234/http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/SBBR4.2/4.2Fernquest.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2010


Title: The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as Seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries
Date of publication: April 2006
Description/subject: Abstract / Description: "This paper proposes a new historical interpretation of pre-modern relations between Burma and Siam by analyzing these relations within the historical context of the formation of Burmese states: the first Toungoo, the restored Toungoo and the early Konbaung empires, respectively. The main argument is that the conflictive conditions leading to the military confrontation between Burma and Siam from the 16th to 19th centuries were dynamic. The changing nature of Burmese states’ conflict with Siam was contingent firstly on the internal condition of Burmese courts’ power over lower Burma and secondly on the external condition of international maritime trade. The paper discusses this in seven parts: 1. Introduction; 2. Previous studies: some limitations; 3. Post-Pagan to pre-Toungoo period; 4. The first Toungoo empire: the outbreak of Burmese-Siamese warfare; 5. The restored Toungoo empire: Mandala without Ayutthaya; 6. The early Konbaung empire: regaining control of Ayutthaya; and 7. The early Konbaung empire: Southward expansion to the Malay Peninsula."...Keywords: Burma; Siam; warfare; state formation; Toungoo; Konbaung
Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore Working Paper 64
Format/size: pdf (272K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps06_064.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 March 2010


Title: Der Traum vom buddhistischen Wohlfahrtsstaat
Date of publication: 29 December 2005
Description/subject: Die hier vorgestellte These besagt, dass es im buddhistischen Birma ein von Menschen aus allen Schichten der Bevölkerung geteiltes geschichtlich überliefertes System von Vorstellungen und Erwartungen gibt, das mit unserem Begriff "Wohlfahrtsstaat" belegt werden kann. keywords: burmese way to socialism, social system, constitution, political culture, welfare state
Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Asienhaus Focus Asien Nr. 26; S. 15-21
Format/size: pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 March 2006


Title: Unfinished Struggle - An Interview with Gen Kyaw Zaw
Date of publication: December 2003
Description/subject: Gen Kyaw Zaw, 84, alias Thakin Shwe, is one of the founders of the Tatmadaw, or Burma’s armed forces. He is one of the Thirty Comrades who went to Japan for military training in 1941. He joined the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) in 1944 and was elected to the Central Committee a year later. In 1956, he was accused of leaking news to the CPB and forced to leave the army. He served as Vice Chief of General Staff of the CPB until the 1989 mutiny. In written correspondence with The Irrawaddy, Kyaw Zaw discussed Burma’s past and the lessons it holds for the country’s future.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 10
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 February 2004


Title: Zum Verständnis ethnischer und politischer Konflikte in Burma / Myanmar
Date of publication: May 2003
Description/subject: Der Artikel beschreibt die historische Entstehung ethnischer Konflikte seit der Kolonialzeit sowie die Instrumentalisierung der ethnsichen Zugehörigkeit unter dem Militär; historical development of ethnic conflicts; instrumentalisation of ethnicity
Author/creator: Hingst, René
Language: German, Deutsch
Source/publisher: Heinrich Böll Stiftung
Format/size: pdf (916.60 KB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.boell.de/downloads/hingst_burma2003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 12 November 2010


Title: "Burmese Heritage": Introduction
Date of publication: October 2001
Description/subject: Introduction by the Guest Editor to "Burmese Heritage", a collection of articles published in the IIAS Newsletter Issue 25, October 2001. "The Union of Myanmar, more commonly known as Burma, has a very rich and culturally diverse heritage. The Burmese are the majority of the population while Kachin, Chin, Arakanese, Shan, and Karen form important minority groups cultivating their own traditions. Since the late eighteenth century, the area covered today by the Union of Myanmar was known to Westerners as Burma. The renaming of the country by the military government a few years ago is still a controversial issue for political opponents, though 'Myanmar' was the usual literary name for the country since the earliest days of Burmese epigraphy..."
Author/creator: Stephan van Galen
Language: English
Source/publisher: Newsletter, Issue 25, International Institute for Asian Studies (Leiden)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Keeping Terror -- and Hope -- at Bay
Date of publication: September 2001
Description/subject: "On Sept 11, the world watched in horror as a wave of devastation swept the United States. The international response to the attacks on New York and Washington, while far from unanimous in its assessment of the underlying causes of this tragedy, was swift in its recognition that a new era of global conflict had been born. The first war of the new millennium had begun, and with it, a dawning sense of the dangers that lie ahead..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 7
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Introduction: Problems in Burma
Date of publication: February 2001
Author/creator: Kei Nemoto
Language: Japanese
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rewriting History
Date of publication: October 2000
Description/subject: The wife of former dictator Ne Win was in Tokyo recently to conduct research for a project to "rewrite modern Burmese history," according to a report from Radio Free Asia's Burmese-language service. Ni Ni Myint, who is also the director of the Historical Research Center in Rangoon, was accompanied by several other historians on her trip to meet Japanese experts on Burmese history. This was her second visit to Japan in two years.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 10 (Intelligence section)
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=718
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: His Story, Not History - a review of of Maung Maung's "The 1988 Uprising in Burma"
Date of publication: August 2000
Description/subject: "The 1988 Uprising in Burma" by Dr Maung Maung (foreword by Franklin Mark Osanka), Monograph 49, 1999, Yale Southeast Asia Studies, New Haven, Connecticut..."Despite its title, this is not an account of the dramatic events that engulfed Burma in 1988. It is an attempt to rewrite history, a whitewash of one of the most brutal massacres in modern Asian history. More precisely, it is a blind eulogy to Burma’s aging strongman Gen Ne Win. And the reverence for the "Old Man," as he is usually referred to in Burma, is extended even to his children and grandchildren. For these reasons alone, Dr. Maung Maung’s book is worth reading because it shows how far an academic sycophant is prepared to go to please his mentor..."
Author/creator: Bertil Lintner
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No.8
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Rights, Justice and Good Governance in Burmese Tradition Burma -- Millennium Special - Part II
Date of publication: March 2000
Description/subject: Rights, Justice and Good Governance in Burmese Tradition. This is the second part of a three-part series on the past thousand years of Burmese history, by historian U Aung Kin. round A.D. 100 the Mon people of what is now lower Burma were said to have established contact with traders from India, from whom they imported astrology, political ideas, and above all, the art of writing. The Mon derived their alphabet from India and the Burmese words came from the Mon. The first mention of the word “Mirma” was found in a Mon inscription dated 1102. The word “Mranma” (now Myanmar) first appeared in an inscription of 1190. And the spelling later changed to “Mramma” around 1332...
Author/creator: U Aung Kin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 8, No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma Millennium Special
Date of publication: February 2000
Description/subject: This is the first part of a three-part series on the past thousand years of Burmese history, by historian U Aung Khin
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 8. No. 2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: An Invented History
Date of publication: July 1999
Description/subject: "Thai histories have long celebrated the epic victory of King Phra Naresuan Maharat during a duel with the Burmese crown prince from elephant back and the subsequent restoration of Thai independence, but recently a new narrative has glorified Naresuan’s sister—Phra Suphankalaya—and her heroic devotion to brother and state which has transformed this figure from a footnote in history to a “magical” being and renewed the interest of Thais in their history with Burma..."
Author/creator: Moe Gyo
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 7. No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: "Honoring Those Who Fought for Freedom" (Letter from Burma)
Date of publication: 01 December 1998
Description/subject: "The nature of time is incomprehensible. Days that crept and months that crawled telescope into years that seem to fly past. Burma is a land of soothsayers. Campaigning in the Irrawaddy division in 1989, I met a young doctor who told me anxiously that after careful astrological calculation, local Buddhist monks had come to the conclusion that nine years would pass before the movement for democracy was crowned with victory. "Nine years," he said with furrowed brow, "Can we bear it for so long?" "Why not?" I replied absently, wondering about the scientifically calculable probability rate of astrological predictions with one part of my mind while the other tried to work out the implications of a decade of struggle. At that time, a decade stretched out mistily into the unforseeable future; but now that almost the whole of it has been left behind, it has shrunk to negligible proportions..."
Author/creator: Aung San Suu Kyi
Language: English
Subscribe: /bdspring99a.html#obit
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmadebate.org/archives/win98bttm.html#ASSK
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Burma: Die Wiederkehr der Gleichen - Historische Reflexion zum 10. Jahrestag der Machtübernahme von SLORC
Date of publication: October 1998
Description/subject: Gedanken zur Geschichte Burmas, 10 Jahre nach der Machtübergabe an SLORC. Kurze Anmerkung zu deutsch-burmesischen Beziehungen, Kolonialzeit, König Thibaw. Reflections about Burma's history ten years after 1988. SLORC - SPDC, King Thibaw, Aung San, Aung San Suu Kyi, German-Burmese relations.
Author/creator: Hans-Bernd Zöllner
Language: Deutsch, German
Source/publisher: Südostasien Jg.14, Nr. 3 - Asienhaus
Format/size: html (28,8K)
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2003


Title: Who Killed Aung San? [Interview With Gen. Kyaw Zaw]
Date of publication: August 1997
Description/subject: "...Q: Who do you think really killed Bogyoke Aung San? A: Who really killed Bogyoke Aung San was the British government. It was their plot. Q: Why do you say that? A: I suppose there were three reasons why he was killed. Firstly, Bogyoke Aung San was the leader who could organise and unite the whole country so they were afraid of the whole of Burma uniting. This was the main reason. Secondly, Bogyoke Aung San could reunite with the Communist Party of Burma. They were worried about that too. And finally, they supposed that they could handle Burma more easily if they removed him. These were the reasons why he was killed..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 4-5
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Governance of Modern Burma
Date of publication: 1960
Description/subject: CHAPTER I - THE BACKGROUND: 1. Form and Function... 2. Geographical Background... 3. The Historical Background... 4. Administrative Background: (a) Territorial administration; (b) Departmental machinery; (c) Local government; (d) The Hill Tribes; e) The Judiciary; f) The Secretariat; g) The Legislature... 5. The Japanese Interregnum... 6. The British Restoration... 7. Effects of Foreign Rule... 8. Problems of Public Administration... 9. The Constitution..... CHAPTER II - THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT: 1. The President (Sections 45 – 64)... 2. Parliament: a) in the Constitution; b) in operation... 3. The'Executive Government: a) in the Constitution; b) The Cabinet and Ministries; c) Planning; (d) Parties and pressure groups... 4. The Administrative Machinery: (a) The Secretariat; (b) The executive services; (cj Autonomous agencies; (d) The judiciary..... CHAPTER III - LOCAL GOVERNMENT: (a) Local Bodies; (b) The village court; (c) Township and District Councils..... CHAPTER IV - REGIONAL GOVERNMENT: 1. Preliminary Negotiations... 2. The Panglong Agreement... 3. The Hill Peoples’ Council... 4. The Rees-Williams Committee... 5. Federation in the Assembly... 6. Federation in the Constitution: general provision... 7. The Shan States... 8. The Kachin State (Section 166-179) ... 9. The Karen state (Section 180 - l8l) ... 10. The Kayah state (Section 182 - 195) ... 11. The Chin Special Division (Section 196 – 198)... CHAPTER V - POST MORTEM..... SUPPLEMENT. THE NE WIN ADMINISTRATION AND AFTER by John Seabury Thompson
Author/creator: J. S. Furnivall
Language: English
Source/publisher: Institute of Pacific Relations
Format/size: pdf (6.4MB-primary link); text (512K) etc., read online,
Alternate URLs: http://archive.org/details/governanceofmode00furn
http://archive.org/stream/governanceofmode00furn#page/n3/mode/2up
Date of entry/update: 05 September 2012


Title: Myanmar and Historical Writing/ မြန်မာတို့ နှင့် ရာဇဝင် ရေးသားမှု
Date of publication: May 1957
Description/subject: This article was written under the pen-name San Aung. Many texts of great value to historians were written during the Myanmar monarchies. After independence the Myanmar Historical Commission was formed and assigned the duty of writing Myanmar's history. The author eulogized Sithu U Kaung, the first chairman of the Burma Historical Commission. His death in a plane crash in 1957 was a great loss for Myanmar's scholars and educators..... Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History ..... 2. Myanmar Historical Commission ..... Key Words: 1. Burma Histor7ical Commission 2. Historical Writing 3. U Kaung
Author/creator: Ba Shin, Col. /ဗိုလ်မှူး ဘရှင်
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Myawaddy" No. 7, May 1957, pp5-7
Format/size: pdf (294K-reduced version; 1.28 MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/BS0003.pdf
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: A Brief History of Burma
Author/creator: Jane Carter 1995?
Language: English
Alternate URLs: http://rubens.anu.edu.au/student.projects/offerings/burma.2.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003