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Burma: opium and heroin

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Title: Third Myanmar Opium Farmers’ Forum - 14 December 2015 Report
Date of publication: 14 December 2015
Description/subject: "Current drug control polices in South-east Asia are repressive and criminalise opium farmers, greatly affecting the lives of communities cultivating opium. Most policy responses – including from some armed opposition groups – focus on eradication of poppy fields and the implementation of strict bans on opium cultivation... Projects: Myanmar in Focus, UN Drug Control, Drugs & Democracy The Third Myanmar Opium Farmers’ Forum was held in September 2015 in Pyin Oo Lwin, Myanmar. It brought together around 30 representatives of local communities involved in poppy cultivation in Myanmar’s major opium growing regions: Chin State, Kachin State, northern and southern Shan State and Kayah State. Farmers and community representatives from Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayan, Pa-O, Shan and Ta-ang (Palaung) ethnic communities took part in the forum. Current drug control polices in South-east Asia are repressive and criminalise opium farmers, greatly affecting the lives of communities cultivating opium. Most policy responses – including from some armed opposition groups – focus on eradication of poppy fields and the implementation of strict bans on opium cultivation. As these communities depend on opium as a cash crop to solve immediate food security problems and sustain their livelihoods, such repressive policies are driving communities further into poverty. Currently only very few Alternative Development (AD) programmes are offered to opium-growing communities to address these problems. Furthermore, opium cultivation often takes place in conflict-affected areas, and links between drugs and conflict affect local communities. Until now these communities have had little or no influence on the design of the drug control policies that have great impact on their lives and livelihoods. They have also had little participation in the design, implementation and monitoring and evaluation of AD programmes that are supposed to help them. The forum’s aim was to identify the main concerns of opium farmers, and formulate alternative policy options that respect the rights of producer communities and involve them in the decision-making processes. To this end the forum adopted a statement with recommendations to policy makers nationally and internationally. The meeting was held under Chatham House rules because of the sensitivity of the subject, and the names and places of origin of the participants remain confidential. This report reflects participants’ views and captures the main conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the forum... Conclusion: At the end of the forum the farmers issued a statement with recommendations to policy makers nationally and internationally. The forum also agreed on follow-up activities that would help draw attention to the challenges they face."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (133K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/report_from_third_myanmar_opium_farmers_forum.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 December 2015


Title: Statement of 3rd Myanmar Opium Farmer Forum (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 12 September 2015
Description/subject: "On 11 and 12 September 2015 opium farmers and representatives of opium farming communities from Kayah State, Shan State, Kachin State and Chin State, came together in Upper Myanmar to discuss the drug policies affecting their lives. Following from the discussions the farmers issued a statement with recommendations to policy makers nationally and internationally."
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (52K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/files/article-downloads/statement_of_3rd_myanmar_opium_farmer_forum_burmese_fin...
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2015


Title: Statement of 3rd Myanmar Opium Farmer Forum (English)
Date of publication: 12 September 2015
Description/subject: "On 11 and 12 September 2015 opium farmers and representatives of opium farming communities from Kayah State, Shan State, Kachin State and Chin State, came together in Upper Myanmar to discuss the drug policies affecting their lives. Following from the discussions the farmers issued a statement with recommendations to policy makers nationally and internationally."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (35K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/TNI-2015-09-statement_of_3rd_myanmar_opium_farmer_forum-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 26 September 2015


Title: Myanmar's Jade Curse (video)
Date of publication: 28 November 2014
Description/subject: "China's jade obsession drives a multi-billion dollar black market that fuels a drug-infested jade mining industry....Gold is valuable but jade is priceless, so goes a Chinese saying. For centuries, the Chinese consider jade an imperial stone with mystical properties. Today it is coveted all over China as a status symbol, a collectible and an investment. Demand from increasingly wealthy Chinese drives the value of jade through the roof. At this year's Shanghai World Jewellery Expo, auctioneers put the opening bid for top grade jade items at more than $160 a gram, exceeding four times the price of gold. Intricately designed pieces, made from top grade jade known as jadeite, are viewed as attractive investments despite the lack of scientific valuation methods. In recent years, jadeite has provided better returns than real estate. But the imperial stone delivers a death sentence to treasure hunters in Myanmar, where China's jadeite comes from. Most of Myanmar's raw jade enters a murky black market. Its official revenue from jade exports over from 2011 to 2014 was $1.3bn. But Harvard University's Ash Center estimates total jade sales - including through unofficial channels - were $8bn in 2011 alone, suggesting most of the revenue does not go into government coffers. The Myanmar government will not speak to us on camera. But our investigations reveal a corrupt senior government official who works with businessmen in the illegal trade of raw jade, including helping to falsify tax documents. In northern Kachin state, we follow jade smugglers to the remote Hpakant mining town, the source of the world's best jade. The men are part of the government's border guard force. The officer in charge tells us how he pays off army and police commanders along the smuggling trail to China..."
Author/creator: Chan Tao Chou
Language: English
Source/publisher: Aljazeera (101 East)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (28 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 30 November 2014


Title: Financing Dispossession - China’s Opium Substitution Programme in Northern Burma
Date of publication: February 2012
Description/subject: "Northern Burma’s borderlands have undergone dramatic changes in the last two decades. Three main and interconnected developments are simultaneously taking place in Shan State and Kachin State: (1) the increase in opium cultivation in Burma since 2006 after a decade of steady decline; (2) the increase at about the same time in Chinese agricultural investments in northern Burma under China’s opium substitution programme, especially in rubber; and (3) the related increase in dispossession of local communities’ land and livelihoods in Burma’s northern borderlands. The vast majority of the opium and heroin on the Chinese market originates from northern Burma. Apart from attempting to address domestic consumption problems, the Chinese government also has created a poppy substitution development programme, and has been actively promoting Chinese companies to take part, offering subsidies, tax waivers, and import quotas for Chinese companies. The main benefits of these programmes do not go to (ex-)poppy growing communities, but to Chinese businessmen and local authorities, and have further marginalised these communities. Serious concerns arise regarding the long-term economic benefits and costs of agricultural development— mostly rubber—for poor upland villagers. Economic benefits derived from rubber development are very limited. Without access to capital and land to invest in rubber concessions, upland farmers practicing swidden cultivation (many of whom are (ex-) poppy growers) are left with few alternatives but to try to get work as wage labourers on the agricultural concessions. Land tenure and other related resource management issues are vital ingredients for local communities to build licit and sustainable livelihoods. Investment-induced land dispossession has wide implications for drug production and trade, as well as border stability. Investments related to opium substitution should be carried out in a more sustainable, transparent, accountable and equitable fashion. Customary land rights and institutions should be respected. Chinese investors should use a smallholder plantation model instead of confiscating farmers land as a concession. Labourers from the local population should be hired rather than outside migrants in order to funnel economic benefits into nearby communities. China’s opium crop substitution programme has very little to do with providing mechanisms to decrease reliance on poppy cultivation or provide alternative livelihoods for ex-poppy growers. Chinese authorities need to reconsider their regional development strategies of implementation in order to avoid further border conflict and growing antagonism from Burmese society. Financing dispossession is not development."
Author/creator: Tom Kramer & Kevin Woods
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/tni-financingdispossesion-web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2012


Title: South-East Asia Opium survey 2011: Lao PDR, Myanmar
Date of publication: December 2011
Description/subject: "...Opium Poppy Cultivation: In 2011, for the fifth year in a row, opium poppy cultivation increased in Myanmar. The total area under opium poppy cultivation was estimated at 43,600 ha, an increase of 14% compared to 2010 (38,100 ha). This upward trend started in 2007 after six years of decline between 2001 and 2006. Shan State accounted now for 91% of opium production in Myanmar, while the largest increase in poppy cultivation was observed in Kachin State (+27%). In Shan State most of the increase in the area cultivated took place in South Shan (+21%) followed by North Shan (+17%). There was no significant change in East Shan (+1%)...Opium yield and production In 2011, the national average opium yield was estimated at 14.0 kg per hectare, which represents a decrease of 8% compared to last year’s yield. Nevertheless, the larger area under cultivation resulted in an increase in total opium production of 5%, from 580 mt in 2010 to 610 mt in 2011... Opium prices: Opium prices in Myanmar have significantly increased in 2011. The average farm-gate price of opium (weighted by the estimated area under cultivation) was US$ 450/kg in 2011, up some 48% from US$ 305/kg in 2010. Opium prices have continued to increase since 2002. The most recent increase can be explained by the strong demand in opium from neighbouring countries as well as the depreciation of the Kyat against the US$ (by some 14% over the past year)... Household income from opium: The average annual cash income of opium-producing households increased by almost 24% in the Shan State, from US$ 830 in 2010 to US$ 1,030 in 2011. However, opium farmers in Myanmar generally remain poorer than non-opium growing farmers. For non-opium cultivating households (including those that never cultivated or have stopped opium poppy cultivation), the average annual cash income was almost US$ 1,200. On average, income from opium accounts for 54% of total cash income among poppy-growing farmers and in South Shan even more than 60%. For Myanmar opium survey 2011 44 these farmers, opium cultivation is the principal income to survive, which is illustrated by the comments of farmers that had stopped cultivating opium and had to purchase food on credit or borrow food and rely on relatives and friends... Addiction: Data on opium and other drug addiction was collected via interviews with village headmen. Headmen were asked about the number of daily opium users and the number of ‘regular’ users of other drugs (without specifying frequency of use). According to the headmen, daily opium use in Shan State and in Kachin affects 0.8% of the population aged 15 years and above. As in previous years, the prevalence rate was higher in opium-growing villages (1.3%) than in non-opiumgrowing villages (0.4%). Although the number of amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) users is increasing, the prevalence rate remained very low, at 0.2% of the population in opium-growing areas which is almost the same ratio as last year. Heroin use is also reported to be very low, affecting less than 0.1% of the population aged 15 and above. However, information on drug use must be interpreted with caution, as respondents may have been reluctant to report opium, heroin and ATS consumption in the context of the Government’s efforts to curb drug use and addiction... Reported Eradication: This survey did not monitor or validate the results of the eradication campaign carried out by the Government of Myanmar (GOUM). According to the GOUM, a total of 7,058 ha were eradicated in the 2010-2011 opium season, which is 15% less the area eradicated in 2009-2010. Most of the eradication continued to take place in Shan State (85% of the total), notably in South Shan (51%). 44% of the eradication concentrated in three townships in the southern part of South Shan, namely Pinlaung, Pekong and Sisaing townships... Food security and coping strategies: Food security remains a major problem in almost all regions where the survey took place for both poppy-growing and non-poppy-growing villages. The erosion of food security is of particular concern because it could trigger a further increase in opium cultivation. In order to meet their food deficit, households across all regions most frequently sought assistance from friends and/or took loans to buy food. The high (and rising) price of opium in Myanmar is making opium production more attractive. In fact, as a proportion of total income, opium income has increased among opium growing farmers. Among opium growing farmers, the proportion of total household income derived from opium production is also now increasing. Between 2003 and 2009, the income generated by opium was a declining proportion of opium-growing farmers’ total cash income falling (from 70% to about 20% during the period). However, in 2010, this trend reversed and the proportion of total cash income coming from opium is now 54%. With the cultivation of one hectare of opium farmers earned 9 times more than from rice cultivation in low lands, and 15 times more than rice cultivated in uplands. This makes it more difficult to convince farmers to abandon opium and switch to other crops. Nonetheless, this survey provides important information to help design and target alternative livelihood-programmes..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf Myanmar section: 1.6MB (low res); Full text: 4.8MB - OBL version; 6.36MB - original
Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/sea/SouthEastAsia_2011_web.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/UNODC-Opium_Survey_2011.pdf
Date of entry/update: 21 December 2011


Title: Still Poisoned - Opium cultivation soars in Palaung areas under Burma’s new regime (English, Burmese press release)
Date of publication: October 2011
Description/subject: Summary: "Almost one year after Burma’s long-awaited elections were held in November 2010, Palaung communities in northern Shan State are suffering from the effects of an even greater upsurge in opium cultivation than in previous years. Local paramilitary leaders, some now elected into Burma’s new parliament, are being allowed to cultivate and profi t from drugs in return for helping the regime suppress ethnic resistance forces in Burma’s escalating civil war. As a result, drug addiction has escalated in the Palaung area, tearing apart families and communities. Burma’s drug problems are set to worsen unless there is genuine political reform that addresses the political aspirations of Burma’s ethnic minority groups. Research carried out by Palaung Women’s Organisation in Namkham Township shows that: 􀂃 Opium cultivation across 15 villages in Namkham Township has increased by a staggering 78.58% within two years. 􀂃 12 villages in the same area, which had not previously grown opium, have started to grow opium since 2009. 􀂃 A signifi cant number of these villages are under the control of government paramilitary “anti-insurgency” forces, which are directly profi ting from the opium trade. 􀂃 The most prominent militia leader and druglord in the area, “Pansay” Kyaw Myint, from the military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party, was elected as an MP for Namkham in November 2010; he promised voters that they could grow opium freely for 5 years if they voted for him. 􀂃 Government troops, police and militia continue to openly tax opium farmers, and to collect bribes from drug addicts in exchange for their release from custody. 􀂃 Drug addiction in Palaung communities has spiralled out of control. In one Palaung village, PWO found that 91% of males aged 15 and over were addicted to drugs. Drug addiction is causing huge problems for families, with women and children bearing the burden of increased poverty, crime and violence."
Language: English, Burmese
Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization (PWO)
Format/size: pdf (417K; Burmese press release 68K; English press release 85K))
Alternate URLs: http://www.palaungwomen.com
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Still_Poisoned-PR(bu).pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs12/Still_Poisoned-Press_Release(en).pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2011


Title: South-East Asia Opium survey 2010: Lao PDR, Myanmar - Myanmar section
Date of publication: December 2010
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "The Government of the Union of Myanmar (GOUM) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) jointly conducted the 2010 Opium Survey in Myanmar. Through satellite imagery and village and field surveys, information was gathered to determine the extent of opium poppy cultivation and production, as well as the socio-economic status of farmers. While current levels of opium cultivation remain below the alarming levels of the mid-90s and increases measured in the last three years are still modest, there are two worrying changes: farmers’ incomes remain distressingly low and food security has worsened. Given the high price of opium in Myanmar, this situation makes the growing of opium more attractive. In fact, as a proportion of total income, opium income has increased among opium growing farmers. Between 2003 and 2009, the income generated by opium had a diminishing impact on opium-growing farmers’ total cash income (i.e. the proportion of their income that came from opium fell from 70% to about 20%). In 2010, this trend reversed. Opium poppy is now by far the most lucrative crop for farmers that illicitly cultivate it. With the cultivation of one hectare of opium earning 6.5 times more than that earned from rice cultivation in low lands, and 13 times more than rice cultivated in uplands, the income proportion from opium increased to more than 43%. This makes it difficult to convince farmers to abandon opium and switch to other crops. Nonetheless, this survey provides important information to target alternative livelihood programmes and identifies what crops farmers would be willing to cultivate instead of opium. Opium farmers in Myanmar remain poorer than non-opium farmers. The great majority of farmers who cultivate opium do so to buy food. For them, opium cultivation remains a subsistence exercise. Tellingly, many farmers who stopped cultivating opium, had to purchase food on credit or borrow food and rely on relatives and friends. The pattern of opium poppy cultivation is also changing: some areas became opium-free while others increased their level of cultivation. In South Shan State, farmers introduced new practices such as multi-cropping. Generally, opium fields moved further away from villages and, in certain regions, were subject to eradication. In addition, cultivation shifted to areas previously considered opium-free or to climatically less favourable regions. All these considerations, combined with reduced accessibility and the expected change in cropping pattern, influenced the 2010 survey methodology..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (3.7MB - Myanmar section; 6.6MB - full report)
Alternate URLs: http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/sea/SEA_report_2010_withcover_small.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 December 2010


Title: Alternative Development or Business as Usual? China’s Opium Substitution Policy in Burma and Laos
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: Conclusions & Recommendations: • The huge increase in Chinese agricultural concessions in Burma and Laos is driven by China’s opium crop substitution programme, offering subsidies and tax waivers for Chinese companies. • China’s focus is on integrating the local economy of the border regions of Burma and Laos into the regional market through bilateral relations with government and military authorities across the border. • In Burma large-scale rubber concessions is the only method operating. Initially informal smallholder arrangements were the dominant form of cultivation in Laos, but the topdown coercive model is gaining prevalence. • The poorest of the poor, including many (ex-) poppy farmers, benefit least from these investments. They are losing access to land and forest, being forcibly relocated to the lowlands, left with few viable options for survival. • New forms of conflict are arising from Chinese large-scale investments abroad. Related land dispossession has wide implications on drug production and trade, as well as border stability. • Investments related to opium substitution plans should be carried out in a more sustainable, transparent, accountable and equitable fashion with a community-based approach. They should respect traditional land rights and communities’ customs.
Author/creator: Rob Cramb, Vongpaphane Manivong, Jonathan Newby, Kem Sothorn, Patrick Sujang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational InstituteDrug (Policy Briefing No. 33)
Format/size: pdf (304K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/node/595/by-country/Burma
Date of entry/update: 15 November 2010


Title: Poisoned Hills - Opium cultivation surges under government control in Burma (Burmese)
Date of publication: 26 January 2010
Description/subject: Executive Summary: Community assessments by the Palaung Women's Organisation during the past two years reveal that the amount of opium being cultivated in Burma's northern Shan State has been increasing dramatically. The amounts are far higher than reported in the annual opium surveys of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and are flourishing not in "insurgent and ceasefire areas," as claimed by the UN, but in areas controlled by Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Between 2007-2009, PWO conducted field surveys in Namkham and Mantong townships, and found that the total area of opium cultivated increased almost fivefold over three years from 964 hectares in the 2006-7 season to 4,545 hectares in the 2008-9 season. Namkham and Mantong are both fully under the control of the SPDC. The areas have an extensive security infrastructure including Burma Army battalions, police, and pro-government village militia. These militia are allowed to engage in illicit income-generating activities in exchange for policing against resistance activity, and are being expanded in the lead up to the regime's planned 2010 elections. Local authorities, in "anti-drug teams" formed by the police in each township, have been systematically extorting fees from villagers in exchange for allowing them to grow opium. During the 2007-8 season in Mantong township, at least 37 million kyat (US$37,000) in bribes in total were collected from 28 villages. PWO data shows that the "anti-drug teams" are leaving the majority of opium fields intact, and are filing false eradication data to the police headquarters. PWO found that only 11% of the poppy fields during the 2008-9 season had been destroyed, mostly only in easily visible places. The fact that authorities are profiting from drug production is enabling drug abuse to flourish. In one village surveyed in Mantong, it was found that that the percentage of men aged 15 and over addicted to opium increased from 57% in 2007 to 85% in 2009. Around the town of Namkham, heroin addicts flock openly to "drug camps," and dealers sell heroin and amphetamines from their houses. PWO's findings thus highlight the structural issues underlying the drug problem in Burma. The regime is pursuing a strategy of increased militarization in the ethnic states to crush ethnic resistance movements, instead of entering into political negotiations with them. For this, it needs an ever growing security apparatus, which in turn is subsidized by the drug trade. The regime's desire to maintain power at all costs is thus taking precedence over its stated aims of drug eradication. Unless the regime's militarization strategies are challenged, international funding will make little difference to the drug problem in Burma. A negotiated resolution of the political issues at the root of Burma's civil war is urgently needed to seriously address the drug scourge which is impacting the region..."
Language: Burmese
Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
Format/size: pdf (3.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/Poisoned_Hills-PWO.pdf (English)
Date of entry/update: 29 January 2010


Title: Poisoned Hills - Opium cultivation surges under government control in Burma (English)
Date of publication: 26 January 2010
Description/subject: Executive Summary: Community assessments by the Palaung Women's Organisation during the past two years reveal that the amount of opium being cultivated in Burma's northern Shan State has been increasing dramatically. The amounts are far higher than reported in the annual opium surveys of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and are flourishing not in "insurgent and ceasefire areas," as claimed by the UN, but in areas controlled by Burma's military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Between 2007-2009, PWO conducted field surveys in Namkham and Mantong townships, and found that the total area of opium cultivated increased almost fivefold over three years from 964 hectares in the 2006-7 season to 4,545 hectares in the 2008-9 season. Namkham and Mantong are both fully under the control of the SPDC. The areas have an extensive security infrastructure including Burma Army battalions, police, and pro-government village militia. These militia are allowed to engage in illicit income-generating activities in exchange for policing against resistance activity, and are being expanded in the lead up to the regime's planned 2010 elections. Local authorities, in "anti-drug teams" formed by the police in each township, have been systematically extorting fees from villagers in exchange for allowing them to grow opium. During the 2007-8 season in Mantong township, at least 37 million kyat (US$37,000) in bribes in total were collected from 28 villages. PWO data shows that the "anti-drug teams" are leaving the majority of opium fields intact, and are filing false eradication data to the police headquarters. PWO found that only 11% of the poppy fields during the 2008-9 season had been destroyed, mostly only in easily visible places. The fact that authorities are profiting from drug production is enabling drug abuse to flourish. In one village surveyed in Mantong, it was found that that the percentage of men aged 15 and over addicted to opium increased from 57% in 2007 to 85% in 2009. Around the town of Namkham, heroin addicts flock openly to "drug camps," and dealers sell heroin and amphetamines from their houses. PWO's findings thus highlight the structural issues underlying the drug problem in Burma. The regime is pursuing a strategy of increased militarization in the ethnic states to crush ethnic resistance movements, instead of entering into political negotiations with them. For this, it needs an ever growing security apparatus, which in turn is subsidized by the drug trade. The regime's desire to maintain power at all costs is thus taking precedence over its stated aims of drug eradication. Unless the regime's militarization strategies are challenged, international funding will make little difference to the drug problem in Burma. A negotiated resolution of the political issues at the root of Burma's civil war is urgently needed to seriously address the drug scourge which is impacting the region..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Palaung Women's Organization
Format/size: pdf (3.38MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/Poisoned_Hills-PWO-bu-red.pdf (Burmese)
Date of entry/update: 26 January 2010


Title: From Golden Triangle to Rubber Belt ? - The Future of Opium Bans in the Kokang and Wa Regions
Date of publication: July 2009
Description/subject: "In the Kokang and Wa regions in northern Burma opium bans have ended over a century of poppy cultivation. The bans have had dramatic consequences for local communities. They depended on opium as a cash crop, to buy food, clothing, and medicines. The bans have driven poppy-growing communities into chronic poverty and have adversely affected their food security. Very few alternatives are being offered to households for their survival... Conclusions & Recommendations: • The opium bans have driven communities into chronic poverty and have adversely affected their food security and access to health care and education. • The Kokang and Wa authorities have promoted Chinese investment in mono-plantations, especially in rubber. These projects are unsustainable and do not significantly profit the population. • Ex-poppy farmers mainly rely on casual labour and collecting Non-Timber Forest Products as alternative source of income. • Current interventions by international NGOs and UN agencies are still limited in scale and can best be described as “emer-gency responses”. • If the many challenges to achieving viable legal livelihoods in the Kokang and Wa regions are not addressed, the reductions in opium cultivation are unlikely to be sustainable. The Kokang and Wa cease-fire groups have implemented these bans following international pressure, especially from neighbouring China. In return, they hope to gain international political recognition and aid to develop their impoverished and war-torn regions. The Kokang and Wa authorities have been unable to provide alternative sources of income for ex-poppy farmers. Instead they have promoted Chinese invest-ment in monoplantations, especially in rubber. These projects have created many undesired effects and do not significantly profit the population. The Burmese military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has also been unwilling and unable to provide assistance. The international community has provided emergency aid through inter-national NGOs and UN agencies. However, current levels of support are insufficient, and need to be upgraded in order to provide sustainable alternatives for the population. The international community should not abandon former opium-growing communities in the Kokang and Wa regions at this critical time..."
Author/creator: Tom Kramer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Insititute (Drug Policy Briefing Nr 29)
Format/size: pdf (217K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tni.org/briefing/golden-triangle-rubber-belt

http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs07/Golden_Triangle_to_Rubber_Belt.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia:: Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2008)
Date of publication: December 2008
Description/subject: "...In 2008, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar is estimated at 28,500 hectares, representing an increase of 3 per cent from 27, 700 hectares in 2007. Opium poppy cultivation is concentrated, primarily, in Shan State, where 89 per cent of the total opium poppy was grown. The weighted national average opium yield for 2008 is estimated at 14.4 kilograms per hectare, leading to an estimated potential opium production of 410 metric tones. Compared to the estimated yield of 16.6 per cent and the estimated potential opium production of 460 metric tones in 2007, the estimates this year indicate a drop both in the yield and production of opium by 13 and 11 per cent, respectively..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (6.29MB)
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2010


Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia: Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2007)
Date of publication: October 2007
Description/subject: "...In 2007, opium cultivation in Myanmar rose by 29% while production was up 46% thanks to higher yields. These increases are dwarfed by the opium boom in Afghanistan, that produces 20 times more drugs than Myanmar. But they flash a warning sign that reminds us that Myanmar is still, by far, the world's second largest opium producer (at 460 tonnes). Myanmar needs a more effective counter narcotics strategy and more assistance, if it is to reach its target of being opium free by 2014. The situation is particularly worrisome in the South Shan State. Although access for our ground surveyors was difficult, there are signs of significant opium cultivation in this region. Furthermore, there is evidence that double cropping, irrigation and fertilization are resulting in higher yields than in other parts of the country. As in parts of Afghanistan and Colombia where drugs and insecurity overlap, various groups are taking advantage of the situation in the South Shan State to profit from instability. More rural development assistance is essential to reduce the vulnerability to cultivate drugs stemming from poverty. Ridding the Golden Triangle of opium, which has taken a generation, could be quickly undone if farmers see no improvement in their living standards. In Laos, for example, as opium production has fallen, prices have gone up – by 500% in the past five years. Returning to opium is a serious temptation in poor communities which have yet to see the benefits of abandoning poppy. Opium growing regions would also benefit from improved drug treatment in order to cope with disproportionately high rates of addiction. The signs from South East Asia have been encouraging over a number of years. But there is no guarantee that progress can be sustained over time. To consolidate the gains made until recently, national governments and all stakeholders in an opium-free region need to continue their engagement. The Golden Triangle should not be forgotten now that it is no longer notorious..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (9.863K)
Date of entry/update: 11 October 2007


Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation in the Golden Triangle - Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand (2006)
Date of publication: October 2006
Description/subject: Acreage down, yield up...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "...The 2006 Opium Survey in Myanmar was conducted jointly by the Government of the Union of Myanmar (GOUM) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). An extensive survey, combining the use of satellite images and ground verification, was conducted in Shan State where most of the opium poppy cultivation takes place. A rapid ground survey was conducted in Special Region 2 (Wa) to certify its opium free status. Limited ground surveys were also conducted in townships of Kachin and Kayah States to assess the level of cultivation in these areas and monitor possible displacement of opium poppy cultivation. Opium poppy cultivation In 2006, the total area under opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar was estimated at 21,500 hectares, representing a decrease of 34% compared to 2005 (32,800 hectares). The largest cultivation areas were found in South Shan where 72% of the national cultivation took place. 21% was cultivated in East Shan State. In North Shan State cultivation continued to decrease and reached a negligible level. In Kayah State, which was surveyed for first time this year, only a few hectares could be found. In 2006, there was also some limited cultivation in Kachin accounting for 5% of the total opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar. The most remarkable change was recorded in Special Region 2 (Wa), where there was no opium poppy cultivation this year, while in 2005 this region represented 30% of the national opium poppy cultivation. Opium poppy cultivation in Myanmar has been decreasing continuously over the last years. Since 1998, the year of the United Nations Special Session on Drugs, the area under opium poppy decreased by 83% from 130,000 ha to 21,500 ha. Since 2002, the year of the first joint GoUM /UNODC survey, opium poppy cultivation fell by 73%.Opium yield and production The weighted national average opium yield for 2006 was estimated at 14.6 kg/ha (against 9.5 kg/ha in 2005). Yields ranged from only 8.9 kg/ha in East Shan State over 16.6 kg/ha in South Shan State up to 21.4 kg/ha on the best irrigated fields in Kachin State. In general, weather conditions were favourable for opium production (sufficient and timely rainfall). In addition, irrigation of opium poppy fields and multistage cropping contributed to yield increases. The considerable yield increase in 2006 offset the decrease in the cultivation area. In 2006, the potential production of opium remained with 315 metric tons almost at the level of 2005 (312 metric tons). The survey results show that the largest increase in production took place in South Shan State. Overall opium production in Myanmar has decreased by 75% since 1998 but the downward trend of recent years has come to a halt due to the production increases in East and South Shan State in 2006..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (5.32MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 October 2006


Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2005
Date of publication: 01 November 2005
Description/subject: "...Opium cultivation in Myanmar has steadily declined since 2000, and two-thirds of poppy crops have disappeared. Compared with the peak in 1996, the number of hectares devoted to opium has been reduced by 80% in 2005, from 163,000 hectares to 32,800 hectares. When adding the weather factor, influencing opium yields on the fields, an 82% decline in the opium production is registered over the same period of time. While the data included in the report is largely positive, certain worrying factors, with a potential to undo this rapid progress, need addressing. Compared to the previous year, opium production has doubled in the southern Shan State despite the acreage showing only a slight increase. This is in part due to additional rains, however, and more disquieting, also due to improved cultivation practices. The latter, in turn, is an indication of more sophisticated criminal activity, transcending poverty, and not dissimilar to the trends witnessed with ATS production: cross-border networking and transfer of new and improved techniques. Even so and taking note of the exception mentioned, general figures overwhelmingly associate opium with marginal economic conditions typical to remote mountainous areas in which most of the opium is grown. Shocking for anybody less familiar to the opium problem in Myanmar, is the low income of farmers in the Shan State. Non-opium growing households in the Shan State earn an average US$364 annually, against only US$292 for an opium farming household, consisting of both parents and two to four children. Half of the households surveyed in the Shan State report food insecurity; a figure that rises to an astounding 90% in concentrated poppy-cultivation areas. With the loss of opium income, these poor farmers and their families not only lose their coping mechanism to deal with endemic poverty and a chronic food shortage; they equally lose access to health services and to schools. They end up very vulnerable to exploitation and misery – from human right abuses to enforce the opium bans, to internal displacement or human trafficking to survive the bans. For the United Nations, replacing one social evil (narcotics) with another (hunger and poverty) is wrong. Therefore the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime calls on the international community to provide for the basic human needs of those affected. The situation in the Golden Triangle is similar to the one in Afghanistan and the Andeans: some of the poorest people are being affected by the loss of income from drugs as cultivation declines. Thus, the international community must have the wisdom to fight drugs and poverty simultaneously, to eliminate both the causes and the effects of these twin afflictions. In other words, the world will not condone counter-narcotic measures that result in humanitarian disasters. If there is one concrete measure that the Government and its development assistance partners can take now to ensure Myanmar’s future, it is this: food security and income generation programmes must remain in place and be strengthened to support both the farmers’ decisions not to plant opium, and enforcement measures to eradicate the opium that is planted against the law..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


Title: Downward Spiral: Banning Opium in Afghanistan and Burma
Date of publication: June 2005
Description/subject: "...Opium farmers in Afghanistan and Burma are coming under huge pressure as local authorities implement bans on the cultivation of poppy. Banning opium has an immediate and profound impact on the livelihoods of more than 4 million people.These bans are a response to pressure from the international community. Afghan and Burmese authorities alike are urging the international community to accompany their pressure with substantial aid. For political reasons, levels of humanitarian and alternative development aid are very different between the two countries. The international community has pledged several hundred millions for rural development in poppy growing regions in Afghanistan. In sharp contrast, pledged support that could soften the crisis in poppy regions in Burma is less than $15 million, leaving an urgent shortfall. Opium growing regions in both countries will enter a downward spiral of poverty because of the ban.The reversed sequencing of first forcing farmers out of poppy cultivation before ensuring other income opportunities is a grave mistake.Aggressive drug control efforts against farmers and small-scale opium traders, and forced eradication operations in particular, also have a negative impact on prospects for peace and democracy in both countries. In neither Afghanistan nor Burma have farmers had any say at all in these policies from which they stand to suffer most. It is vital that local communities and organisations that represent them are given a voice in the decision-making process that has such a tremendous impact on their livelihoods..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (340.59 K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.idpc.net/php-bin/documents/TNI_BP_OpiumAfghAndBurma_EN.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: A young Rakhaing woman was caught red-handed with about 5 grams of heroin
Date of publication: 30 May 2005
Description/subject: Cox's Bazaar, May 30, 2005: "A young Rakhaing woman aged 22 was arrested holding 5 grams of heroin by the Narcotics Department in Cox's Bazaar, the southernmost district town of Bangladesh near the Burmese border, on 28 May, according to a local townsperson. She was caught red-handed when narcotics officers raided the woman's house during the day..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Narinjara News
Format/size: html (8K)
Date of entry/update: 02 June 2005


Title: Two Bangladeshi Arakanese women have been arrested for dealing in heroin
Date of publication: 11 April 2005
Description/subject: Cox's Bazar, April 11: "Two Bangladeshi Arakanese women were arrested by police in Cox'sbazar, a southern district town of Bangladesh near Burma, for heroin-dealing. The arrest occurred on April 7th, reported a Cox'sbazar-based Bangali newspaper..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Narinjara News
Format/size: html (9K)
Date of entry/update: 23 April 2005


Title: Arakan’s Border Security Chief accused of being involved in heroin traffic
Date of publication: 25 November 2004
Description/subject: Maungdaw, Nov 25: "The Acting Chief of the Burmese Border Security forces, or Nasaka, from Maung Daw has been charged with involvement in heroin traffic on November 13, said a police officer but he denied to disclose his name. Lieutenant Colonel Myint Oo was detained at the base of the Light Infantry Division (233) at Buthi Daung Township, and the Chief of Arakan Police Nyo Win is heading the investigation on the Lt. Col’s involvement..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Narinjara News
Format/size: html (8K)
Date of entry/update: 25 December 2004


Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2004
Date of publication: 11 October 2004
Description/subject: "Today, Myanmar, located in the heart of the “Golden Triangle,” is the main opium producer in Southeast Asia. However, despite its reputation as a leading producer, during the last decade, Myanmar has demonstrated a steady and remarkable reduction in opium poppy cultivation. While the number of hectares devoted to opium cultivation was estimated at 160,000 in the mid-1990s, by early 2004, opium poppy cultivation stood at 44,200 hectares - - a reduction of 73% from the peak in 1996. Together with the parallel decline in opium cultivation in Laos, this trend, if sustained, signals a potential end to more than a century of opium production in the Golden Triangle, a fitting close to one of the most tragic chapters in the history of narcotic drugs. However, as history has proved in other countries, often with tragic consequences, Myanmar now faces a critical, two-fold challenge. First, the country needs to support the decline in its opium supply. Second, Myanmar must strive to prevent the humanitarian disaster threatening opium-growing families who at present live on, or below, the poverty line. These two processes must be implemented simultaneously. Supply control will bring more stability to a country that has been plagued by ethnic tensions, tensions that have often been exacerbated by narco-trafficking. At the same time, without provisions designed to ensure that the basic needs of affected families are met, without the necessary human rights guarantees, the current opium reduction programme may prove unsustainable. Democratization and national reconciliation in Myanmar, as well as a national commitment to drug control, are goals the United Nations has re-affirmed on several occasions. I would thus encourage the Government of Myanmar to adopt the steps recommended by the Secretary- General in his report on the human rights situation in Myanmar, along with the reduction of opium cultivation. The international donor community also carries a responsibility to support this process by providing alternative sources of income to those families in Myanmar whose livelihoods are affected by the loss of opium-generated revenue. The world has watched as various countries have struggled to eliminate the cultivation of opium. Some states have succeeded – others have failed. Those who were able to realize a reduction in poppy cultivation brought both stability and progress to their nations and their citizens. Those who failed at curtailing the production of opium also failed at providing the security the citizens of these nations need and deserve, both within and beyond national their national borders. While the United Nations welcomes any significant progress in opium reduction, we are very much aware that, in Myanmar, there remains a very fine line between success and failure. We continue to believe, however, that the proposed compact between the Myanmar government and the international community is a powerful alternative to failure, and that this compact has both the potential and the support to turn the current crop reduction effort in Myanmar into a sustainable and successful process..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Format/size: pdf (3.02MB)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


Title: About 30 smugglers killed each other before SPDC seized 830 kilograms heroin
Date of publication: 06 August 2004
Description/subject: August 6, 2004: "About 30 heroin smugglers killed each other in the Martaban Sea, southwestern part of Burma, before the the military regime SPDC authorities and Military Intelligence (MI) seized about 830 kilograms (1, 660 pounds) heroin from a Mon smuggler in Hnit-kayin, a coastal village, Ye township, southern Mon State, according to the villagers..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Independent Mon News Agency
Format/size: html (11K)
Date of entry/update: 13 August 2004


Title: MYANMAR Opium Survey 2003
Date of publication: 18 June 2003
Description/subject: Executive Summary:- "In Myanmar, the problem of opium and heroin production has deep historical roots that reach back to the 19th century. Second source of illicit opium and heroin in the world after Afghanistan during the last decade, the country has recorded an encouraging decline of illicit opium poppy cultivation since the mid-1990s. Results of the extensive fieldwork and satellite imagery analysis conducted by the last UNODC-supported opium survey confirm the continuation of the positive trend in 2003. With a further one-year decline of 24%, opium poppy cultivation is now down to 62,200 ha (against 81,400 ha in 2002). Since 1996, cultivation has declined by more than 100,000 ha, or 62%...[chart]... The largest cultivation decrease this year took place in the Northern Shan State (- 50%). It is attributed to farmers’ compliance with the Government’s request not to plant opium poppy. Important decreases also took place in the Southwestern (-18%) and Southeastern areas (-26%) of the Shan State. By contrast, cultivation increased by 21% in the Wa Special Region 2, and 6% in the Central Shan region. As a result, the Wa Special region 2 now ranks first for opium poppy cultivation, with 34% of the national total, and the Northern Shan region second with 29%, in 2003. Based on an estimated harvest of about 810 metric tons of opium, and a price of approximately 130 US$/kg, the total farmgate value of the 2003 opium production in Myanmar would amount to around US$ 105 million. The estimated 350,000 households who cultivated opium poppy in the Shan State this year would earn an average of about US$ 175 from the sale of their individual opium harvest. Although seemingly very small, this income makes opium by far the first source of cash for those families, accounting for 70% of their total annual cash income (about US$ 230)"... Table of contents:- INTRODUCTION... FINDINGS: OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION; YIELD AND PRODUCTION OPIUM PRICES AND CASH INCOME; FIELD DAMAGE; ADDICTION; ERADICATION... WA ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT SURVEY FINDINGS: OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION; OPIUM YIELD AND PRODUCTION; OPIUM PRICES METHODOLOGY: ORGANISATION AND STAFF; OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION ESTIMATES; YIELD ESTIMATION... ANNEXES: Annex 1 Satellite images used for the 2003 Opium Survey; Annex 2 Calculation for Opium Area Estimates; Annex 3 Opium Cultivation Area and Production by township; Annex 4 Opium Survey Results By Administrative Zones for 2002 and 2003... Maps: Map 1 2003 Survey Regions; Map 2 2003 Distribution of Opium Poppy Cultivation over Agricultural Areas; Map 3 2003 Opium Poppy Cultivation (by Township); Map 4 Shan State - Change in Opium Poppy Cultivation 2002-03; Map 5 2003 Opium Production (by township); Map 6 WADP townships; Map 7 Sampled village tracts in the Shan State; Map 8 Landsat7 and IKONOS map used for the 2003 Myanmar opium survey; Map 9 Shan State – Administrative Regions.
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Drugs and Crime
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 December 2003


Title: REPLACING OPIUM IN KOKANG AND WA SPECIAL REGIONS, Shan State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: "In March 2003, a joint assessment team comprising international NGOs and UN agencies operating in Myanmar traveled to the Kokang and Wa Special Regions in north-eastern Shan State. Their purpose was to assess the humanitarian impact of the opium ban in the Kokang region, and the potential impact of a similar ban due to go into effect in the Wa region in June 2005. The following is the report submitted by this team after their mission. It is unedited and unabridged. Maps used in the report have been removed to reduce the file size. They are available from the UNODC Myanmar Office upon request."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Joint Kokang-Wa Humanitarian Needs Assessment Team
Format/size: pdf (83K)
Date of entry/update: 01 November 2005


Title: Les territoires de l
Date of publication: October 2002
Description/subject: "Quelles réalités économiques, politiques et militaires se cachent derrière les phénomènes de société que sont la production de drogues illicites dans les pays du Sud et leur consommation dans les pays industrialisés? Si l'opium est produit et consommé depuis la plus haute Antiquité, sa production à large échelle en Asie est, quant à elle, étroitement liée à la colonisation britannique d'abord et à la guerre froide par la suite. En effet, après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, les troupes nationalistes chinoises dans le Triangle d'Or et, plus récemment, les moudjahidins afghans puis les talibans dans le Croissant d'Or, ont eu recours à l'économie de l'opium pour financer leurs guerres, en bénéficiant de l'appui bienveillant de la CIA dans leurs luttes contre le communisme. Aujourd'hui, ces groupes, ayant perdu leurs motivations et apparences idéologiques, ont donné naissance à d'autres groupes, bien organisés et puissamment armés et qui, à travers leur rôle dans l'économie des drogues illicites, demeurent plus actifs que jamais. En Asie, l'opium, du nerf de la guerre en est devenu l'enjeu, avec ses multiples conséquences géopolitiques dans les pays du Sud et ses retombées sociales et économiques dans nos sociétés occidentales. En comparant l'Afghanistan et la Birmanie, à travers les deux espaces majeurs de production d'opium et d'héroïne que sont le Croissant d'Or et le Triangle d'Or, l'auteur a effectué un véritable travail d'investigation et d'analyse pour identifier les acteurs, localiser les réseaux, évaluer les enjeux géopolitiques et expliquer les logiques fondamentales d'une production qui alimente un marché aux profits vertigineux et aux implications mondiales..." Table des matieres, Introduction, cartes, Compte-rendus et critiques et liens a d'autres documents de l'auteur.
Author/creator: Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy
Language: Francais, French
Source/publisher: Editions d
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.pa-chouvy.org/territoiresopium.htm
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Myanmar Opium Survey 2002
Date of publication: 27 August 2002
Description/subject: "...The 2002 opium poppy survey was the first comprehensive survey implemented throughout the Shan State of Myanmar by the Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control (CCDAC) of the Government of Myanmar in co-operation with UNDCP, in the framework of UNDCP?s Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme (ICMP)...The present report consists of three main chapters. Chapter one describes the methodology and the implementation of the survey. Chapter two presents the main findings of the opium survey. A third chapter presents a brief socio-economic profile of the northern Wa Special Region which accounts 22% of the poppy cultivation in Myanmar. This study, the first of its kind, could be used for planning activities to tackle the supply and demand sides of opium use in this area. Several annexes present the breakdown of the estimates as well as maps illustrating some of the survey findings..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDCP/CCDAC
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB) 77 pages
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: How Junta Protects Mr Heroin
Date of publication: 08 April 2001
Description/subject: John Sweeney in Rangoon uncovers the links between Burma's drug barons and a repressive regime that likes to trumpet to the world its tough anti-drugs policy
Author/creator: John Sweeney
Source/publisher: The Observer
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Opium Poppy Cultivation and Heroin Processing in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: Contents: origin and history of the opium poppy, the opium poppy plant, Opium poppy growing areas, Field selection and land clearing, Land preparation and cultivation methods, opium harvesting methods, Cooking opium, Extraction of morphine from opium, Conversion of morphine to heroin base, Conversion of heroin base to heroin No. 3, Conversion of heroin base to heroin No. 4.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), U.S. Department of Justice.
Alternate URLs: http://www.usdoj.gov:80/dea/pubs/intel/20026/20026.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The price dynamics of Southeast Asian heroin
Date of publication: February 2001
Description/subject: Drug Intelligence Brief Synopsis: "This report provides an analysis of available data on opium and heroin prices in Mainland Southeast Asia (Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam). The report is documented with detailed descriptions of the general wholesale price structure of opium and heroin in Asia. While the heroin market spans the globe, much of the Southeast Asian opium and heroin product is sold and consumed within the region. Therefore, the focus in this report is on prices in Southeast Asia with only limited reference made to United States prices. The data used to prepare this analysis are drawn from numerous sources. Opium price data are derived from anecdotal reports provided by confidential sources of the Thai police. Heroin price data are acquired from a variety of sources to include law enforcement reporting, intelligence reports, and open sources of information. There are many factors impacting drug prices..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Intelligence Division, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the US Dept. of Justice
Alternate URLs: http://www.usdoj.gov:80/dea/pubs/intel/01004-intellbrief.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Heroin and HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Burma
Date of publication: December 1998
Description/subject: Review of "Out of Control 2"..."...A new report, titled “Out Of Control 2”, issued by the Southeast Asian Information Network [SAIN] shows the involvement of Burmese regime officials in narcotics trafficking and the correlation of increased drug trade and rising HIV/AIDS rates in Burma and beyond its borders..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 6, No. 6
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: JUNTA FORCES FARMERS TO GROW OPIUM
Date of publication: 10 May 1998
Description/subject: "Burma's military junta is evicting thousands of villagers from previously drug-free areas for refusing to transform their rice fields into poppy plantations as part of a United Nations-backed "drug control" programme. The regime has told its UN sponsors that it is moving villagers away from regions where drugs are being produced and uprooting the poppy fields left behind. However, an investigation by The Sunday Times and two independent human rights organisations, has found that the junta is secretly expanding the number of opium farms in these designated drug control areas. Video footage of burning poppy fields presented to the UN in support of funding applications for schemes worth millions of pounds has been faked."
Author/creator: Adrian Levy and Cathy Scott-Clark
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Sunday Times"
Format/size: html (10K)
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2007


Title: Birmanie, la dictature du pavot
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: La drogue, petrole, la junte birmane, la France...Le livre de Francis Christophe (moins Introduction et Annexe). DU ROI THEBAW A LA FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION; LA MONTEE DE l'OPIUM EN BIRMANIE; L'ARRIVEE EN FORCE DU SLORC; LA REDDITION-REHABILITATION DE KHUN SA; LE SLORC, REINCARNATION DE LA DICTATURE PRECEDENTE; PARRAINAGES ET RESEAUX; LE PARAVENT DE L'ENGAGEMENT CONSTRUCTIF; LES AMIS DU SLORC; INDE-BIRMANIE: L'HEROINE BOUSCULE LE STATU-QUO; NARCO-REACTION EN CHAINE; EXCEPTION FRANCAISE; LA CHUTE de MANDALAY; MIRAGE ET TABOU SUR LA DROGUE; DIPLOMATIE PETROLIERE TOTAL EN BIRMANIE, L'IMPLANTATION; LE FARDEAU BIRMAN; SUCCES SUR LE TERRAIN, DIFFICULTES MEDIATIQUES; LES CIRCUITS POLITIQUES ET ECONOMIQUES; UNE FRENCH-SLORC-CONNECTION? UN ENGAGEMENT DESTRUCTEUR.
Author/creator: Francis Christophe
Language: Francais, French
Format/size: 270K
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: The Burma-Singapore Axis: Globalizing the Heroin Trade
Date of publication: 1998
Description/subject: Singapore's economic linkage with Burma is one of the most vital factors for the survival of Burma's military regime," says Professor Mya Maung, a Burmese economist based in Boston. This link, he continues, is also central to "the expansion of the heroin trade.") Singapore has achieved the distinction of being the Burmese junta's number one business partner -both largest trading partner and largest foreign investor. More than half these investments, totaling upwards of $1.3 billion, are in partnership with Burma's infamous heroin kingpin Lo Hsing Han, who now controls a substantial portion of the world's opium trade. The close political, economic, and military relationship between the two countries facilitates the weaving of millions of narco-dollars into the legitimate world economy Singapore has also become a major player in Asian commerce. According to Steven Green, llS Ambassador to Singapore, that city-states free market policies have "allowed this small country to develop one of the world's most successful trading and investment economies." Singapore also has a strong role in the powerful 132-member country World Trade Organization. Indeed, the tiny China Sea island of three and a half million people is known far and wide as the blue chip of the region-a financial trading base and a route for the vast sums of money that flow in and out of Asia.
Author/creator: Leslie Kean and Dennis Bernstein
Language: English
Source/publisher: Third World Traveler
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 28 September 2010


Title: The Opium Kings
Date of publication: 20 May 1997
Description/subject: Film by Adrian Cowell
Author/creator: Adrian Cowell
Source/publisher: "Frontline", PBS USA
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Opium and Heroin Production in Burma
Date of publication: 1996
Description/subject: Based on Ronald Renard's "The Burma Connection" UNRISD 1996
Author/creator: Ronald Renard
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Global Hangover Guide
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: BRIEF INTERVIEWS REGARDING OPIUM: Testimony of two escaped porters from Shan State
Date of publication: 01 February 1993
Description/subject: "Testimony of two escaped porters from Shan State"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg93/93_02_01a.html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: THE BONDAGE OF OPIUM: THE AGONY OF THE WA PEOPLE -
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: THE PROPOSAL: "We, the leadership of the United WA State Party (UWSP) and the United WA State Army (UWSA) propose to anyone who might be interested, that we eradicate opium growing and stop the production of heroin in all the territory controlled by the WA. This we are willing to do. It can be done very quickly. I have full authority to speak for the United WA State Party and the United WA State Army which has ample power to carry out this proposal... THE PLEA" The plea is a necessary part of the proposal. We need food for our people while we develop substitute crops. Our people are already so poor that to take away opium production without giving them food would mean starvation. Beyond that, we need help of every appropriate kind to make the transition from an opium-based economy to a new agricultural economy..."
Author/creator: Ta Saw Lu
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Wa State Party (UWSP) Foreign Affairs Department
Format/size: html (42K)
Date of entry/update: 23 July 2003


Title: The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (full text)
Date of publication: 1972
Description/subject: The classic 1972 study, subsequenstly updated and expanded in McCoy's "The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade" (NY 1991).
Author/creator: Alfred W. McCoy
Language: English
Source/publisher: Drugtext.org
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Politics_of_Heroin_in_Southeast_Asia
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010