VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Human Rights > Various Rights > Various rights: reports of violations in Burma
Hide Links
Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Various rights: reports of violations in Burma
Not a comprehensive list. For more, including updates, go to the publishers' home pages and search, go to the specific rights area in the Human Rights section of OBL and also use the OBL search function.

  • Various rights: reports of violations against several ethnic groups

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: SAFFRON REVOLUTION
    Date of publication: 24 March 2008
    Description/subject: The protests: Students and opposition activists protested after the unannounced 15 August decision to increase fuel prices by 500%. On 5 September, SPDC security forces used force against monks to break up a peaceful demonstration in Pakokku, Magwe Division. The military refused to apologize by the monks' 17 September deadline, and monks began to lead daily non-violent protests. Civilians joined as the protests quickly gained momentum and grew in size. Between 18 and 28 September, thousands of monks joined and led demonstrations. Between 19 August and 31 October, hundreds of thousands of monks, nuns, and citizens participated in over 150 protests spread across nearly every State and Division in the country. See complete list of protests...... The crackdown: The crackdown began on 26 September and involved the use of deadly force, raids on monasteries, and the arrest of thousands of protesters. The regime arrested over 3,000 people, killed at least 31 during the crackdown, and sentenced to prison at least 33. SPDC authorities detained 18 elected MPs, several thousand monks, 274 NLD members, and 25 88 Generation Students members. At least 18 detainees died in custody due to poor conditions and harsh interrogations. The regime continued to hunt for protesters in the months following the peak of the protests. As of 25 January 2008, 700 people involved in the protest remained in custody with 80 unaccounted for...... The international response: The international community was quick to condemn the arrests of protesters in August, and criticism intensified as calls for a peaceful approach to September protests and genuine political dialogue went unheeded. ASEAN expressed "revulsion"strongly deplored" the violent repression of demonstrators. ..... Worldwide demonstrations: People in over 35 countries organized rallies, vigils, marches, petitions, and protests during and following the Saffron Revolution. Some expressed their support for and solidarity with the peaceful protesters. Many demonstrations focused on the policies of Burma's military regime, with calls for the release of political prisoners and an end to the violent crackdown of the protests. Demonstrators also urged the UN and governments worldwide to intervene. See complete list of worldwide solidarity actions...... Related reports: • Saffron Revolution: Recap; • Fuel price hikes inflame Burmese people; • Face off in Burma: Monks vs SPDC; • Saffron Revolution: Update; • Burma Bulletin - August 2007; • Burma Bulletin - September 2007; • Burma Bulletin - October 2007; • Burma Bulletin - November 2007; • Burma Bulletin - December 2007......The documents include also a photo gallery of the events, maps of the demonstrations and crackdowns, a 12MB! Flash presentation of the background and photos of the international solidarity protests around the world and an invitation to buy the T-shirt.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: html etc.
    Date of entry/update: 28 March 2008


    Title: Advanced Search results for Myanmar Reports on the AI site
    Description/subject: Advanced Search results for "Myanmar" Reports. (for Urgent Actions, Media etc. go to Library from the home page, use Advanced Search -- type in Myanmar, and check the item(s) you want. The site has reports on Myanmar from 7 November 1990 up to the present.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: AHRC Burmese-language blog (Burmese and English) အာရွ လူ႔ အခြင့္အေရး ေကာ္မရွင္
    Description/subject: Useful articles, videos and links..."The AHRC Burmese-language blog is also updated constantly for Burmese-language readers, and covers the contents of urgent appeal cases, related news, and special analysis pieces..."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: html/pdf
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2011


    Title: AHRC Burmese-language blog (Burmese)
    Description/subject: Very useful page... "The AHRC Burmese-language blog is also updated constantly for Burmese-language readers, and covers the contents of urgent appeal cases, related news, and special analysis pieces..."
    Language: Burmese
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2011


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Search for Myanmar
    Description/subject: 304 documents (June 2011)
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Association of Humanitarian Lawyers: Archive of Documents
    Description/subject: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law...Several written and oral statements on Burma to U. S. and U.N. bodies. Focus on international humanitarian law (laws of war, armed conflict. Keywords: Karen, Karenni, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, International law, violations of human rights law, violations of humanitarian law, armed conflict, Laws of War, Self-Determaination, United States Policy.
    Author/creator: Karen Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.guidetoaction.org/parker/index.html
    http://www.guidetoaction.org/
    http://www.humanlaw.org/
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)
    Description/subject: Various reports on Burma, notably the reports of CSW vists to the border areas.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://dynamic.csw.org.uk/country.asp?s=id&urn=Burma
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Derechos: Human Rights in Burma
    Description/subject: Last updated about 1998. Some docs in Spanish
    Source/publisher: Derechos
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Forum of Democratic Leaders of the Asia/Pacific
    Description/subject: Lots of good human rights, academic and other links. The Burma-specific links were dead, August 2001, but we can hope...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: FDLAP
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human rights in Burma
    Description/subject: Contents: 1 Forced labour... 2 Freedom of speech and political freedom: 2.1 Trade Unions; 2.2 Freedom of the press... 3 Freedom of religion... 4 State-sanctioned torture and rape... 5 Children's rights... 6 Cases... 7 Minorities... 8 See also... 9 References... 10 External links.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 August 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
    Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma)
    Description/subject: DOCUMENTATION: The range of human rights violations in Burma is extensive, and each ND-Burma member organization focuses on certain violations that are particularly relevant to their mission. To provide a framework for collaboration among members, ND-Burma has developed a “controlled vocabulary” of the categories of human rights violations on which the network focuses... DOCUMENTATION MANUAL SERIES: Based on ND-Burma's controlled category list ND-Burma has developed a documentation manual series to support its members to effectively document human rights violations. 1. Killings & Disappearance 2. Arbitrary Arrest & Detention 3. Recruitment & Use of Child Soldiers 4. Forced Relocation 5. Rape & Other Forms of Sexual Violence 6. Torture & Other Forms of Ill-Treatment 7. Forced Labor 8. Obstruction of Freedom of Movement 9. Violations of Property Rights 10. Forced Marriage 11. Forced Prostitution 12. Human Trafficking 13. Obstruction of Freedoms of Expression and Assembly 14. General Documentation... TRAINING: ND-Burma's Training Team organises and provides training to its members, affiliates and invited organisations. Human Rights Documentation training and Martus software training is held regularly. Other traning provided includes; * International Human Rights legal systems * Project Management * Finance * Film Shooting/Editing Workshop * Taxation systems * Interview techniques * Advocacy * Training of Trainers... HUMAN RIGHTS DATA MANAGEMENT: All members use the same software for documentation, called “Martus”, allowing for analysis and storage of encrypted incident reports, called “bulletins,” on a secure common server. ND-Burma provides training and suppport on using Martus to its members... ADVOCACY: ND-Burma promotes its work and those of other Burmese human rights organizations through its website. ND-Burma provides human rights information to relevant advocacy campaigns and through publishing reports analyzing its data. ND-Burma is currently working on a report about Arbitary Taxation and its impact on the livilihoods of people in Burma. ND-Burma collaborates with its members and other human rights organizations’ campaigns.
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: ND-Burma
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 September 2009


    Title: Search results(Google) for "Burma" on the Asian Human Rights Commission site
    Description/subject: 511 results, March 2004
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 12 March 2004


    Title: Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights, Myanmar
    Description/subject: Reports, resolutions, press releases etc.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights.
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/AsiaRegion/Pages/MMIndex.aspx
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: UN human rights documents on Burma (Myanmar), by year (from 1991)
    Description/subject: Resolutions of the General Assembly and Commission on Human Rights; reports by the Secretary-General and the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar; written statements by NGOs; reports with references to Myanmar by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Special Rapporteur on toxic wastes, Special Rapporteur on Torture, Report of the High Commissioner on human rights and mass exoduses, Report of the Secretary-General on the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, Report of the Secretary-General on the national practices related to the right to a fair trial.
    Language: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
    Source/publisher: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US Department of State: Burma page
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US Department of State: Semi-Annual Reports to Congress on Conditions in Burma and US Policy Towards Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY: ESTABLISH CLEAR BENCHMARKS TO ADDRESS CONTINUING ABUSES IN MYANMAR
    Date of publication: 09 October 2013
    Description/subject: "Wartime Abuses in Kachin State, “Ethnic Cleansing” in Rakhine State, Tens of Thousands Denied Access to Aid ...The United Nations General Assembly should adopt a strong and comprehensive resolution on the situation of human rights in Myanmar to promote much-needed human rights reform in the country, Fortify Rights said today. When it considers a forthcoming resolution on Myanmar, the UN General Assembly should condemn the wide range of ongoing human rights violations by the government and armed forces of Myanmar and provide clear benchmarks for measurable improvement, including establishing the presence of the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Myanmar. “Positive political changes have come to Myanmar but the human rights situation is deeply concerning,” said Matthew Smith, executive director of Fortify Rights. “The pending resolution should acknowledge Myanmar’s political progress but shouldn’t gloss over the immense amount of work that remains to be done.”..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Fortify Rights
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2014


    Title: Myanmar: The slow road to democracy
    Date of publication: 22 June 2012
    Description/subject: While Aung San Suu Kyi's freedom marks a step towards normality, the fallout from ethnic conflict remains
    Author/creator: Donna Jean Guest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 23 June 2012


    Title: New rights, old wrongs in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 May 2012
    Description/subject: "Amid myriad changes taking place in Myanmar, Amnesty International concluded its first official visit to the country in nearly a decade on May 23. Our two-week mission consisted of a diverse collection of 49 meetings with government officials, political parties and their members of parliament; members of the diplomatic community; lawyers and other civil society actors; ethnic minority activists; former political prisoners as well as the families of current political prisoners; and a representative of the National Human Rights Commission. The mission provided a preliminary opportunity to assess Myanmar's current human-rights situation, which Amnesty International has monitored for the past 25 years. What has improved since the new government came into power a little more than a year ago? What human rights violations have persisted or even worsened? And what new human-rights challenges have the country's recent reform efforts engendered or brought to the fore?...Our delegation was sometimes reminded that "Rome wasn't built in a day". To the extent that the only thing less desirable than a lack of legal reform is legal reform poorly done, this reminder was well-received. The same is true to varying degrees on matters of accountability; the full realization of social, economic, and cultural rights; and the determination of who is a political prisoner and who is not. Capacity is limited and the development of certain "human-rights infrastructure" is advisable before particular changes are made. But insofar as prisoners of conscience can be readily identified and set free, and as attacks against civilians can stop in response to clear orders, it takes less than a day to undertake some important human-rights changes. Myanmar should continue to improve its human-rights record accordingly."
    Author/creator: Benjamin Zawacki and Donna Jean Guest
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via "Asia Times Online"
    Format/size: html; pdf (69K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Ben+Donna-report-2012-05-23.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


    Title: Revisiting human rights in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 May 2012
    Description/subject: "On 23 May 2012, Amnesty International concluded its first official visit to Myanmar since 2003. During two missions that year, we spent the vast majority of our time either being escorted to and from meetings with government officials, or privately interviewing 35 political prisoners in Insein, Bago, and Moulmein prisons, where we actually felt most free. For fear of putting civil society at risk, we did not request to speak with those actors, while outreach to ethnic minority representatives was similarly cautious. In contrast, our recent two-week mission to Yangon and Naypyidaw consisted of a very diverse collection of 49 meetings, the majority of which, though confidential, were held in public places. Unfortunately, time did not permit us to travel to an ethnic minority state. We appreciated the opportunity to speak with government officials; political parties and their Members of Parliament; members of the diplomatic community; lawyers and other civil society actors; ethnic minority activists; former political prisoners as well as the families of current political prisoners; and a representative of the National Human Rights Commission. Amidst a myriad of changes taking place in Myanmar, dating back to the late 2010 national elections, these meetings afforded Amnesty a preliminary opportunity to assess Myanmar’s current human rights situation. What has improved since the new government came into power a little more than a year ago? What human rights violations have persisted or even worsened? And what new human rights challenges have the country’s recent reform efforts engendered or brought to the fore? In addition to general impressions, we consider these questions under five broad and sometimes overlapping headings most relevant to Amnesty’s work on Myanmar over the last 25 years..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/003/2012)
    Format/size: pdf (115K)
    Date of entry/update: 28 May 2012


    Title: Human Rights and Democracy: The 2011 Foreign & Commonwealth Office Report (Burma section)
    Date of publication: April 2012
    Description/subject: Extract on Burma/Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office
    Format/size: pdf (82K)
    Date of entry/update: 12 July 2012


    Title: Report on the Human Rights Situation in Burma, March 2011-March 2012
    Date of publication: March 2012
    Description/subject: "The periodic report of the Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma) documents the human rights situation in Burma from March 2011 - March 2012 the period marking President Thein Sein and his government being in office. The ND-Burma periodic report provides up-to-date information on human rights violations (HRVs) and highlights pressing issues and trends within the country. The information gathered covers 16 categories of human rights violations (HRV's), documented in all 14 states and regions across Burma...There is still a serious concern for the human rights situation in Burma. The ongoing civil war in ethnic areas has directly resulted in killings, land confiscation, forced labour, child soldiers, forced relocation, torture and ill treatment. Fighting in Karen State intensified after the 2010 election, until a ceasefire agreement was reached between the KNU and the government's peace negotiation team in January 2012. The Burmese armed forces continue to launch offensives against the Shan State Army (south) and the Shan State Army (North) even though a ceasefire agreement was signed more than four months ago. Finally, a seventeen year ceasefire agreement between the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Burmese armed forces fell apart when the military attacked a strategic KIA post on June 9 2011, despite President Thein Sein ordering the army to haft offensives in Kachin State..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Network for Human Rights Documentation - Burma (ND-Burma)
    Format/size: pdf (382K - OBL version; 1.6MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.nd-burma.org/reports/item/download/89.html
    http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/HRsituation2011-2012.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 11 May 2012


    Title: The serious human rights situation in Myanmar requires the Human Rights Council’s continued attention
    Date of publication: 13 February 2012
    Description/subject: "Amnesty International’s written statement to the 19th session of the UN Human Rights Council (27 February – 23 March 2012) Over the past year, Myanmar’s human rights situation has improved notably in some respects but has significantly worsened in others. Freedoms of assembly and expression remain restricted; there still are hundreds of political prisoners and many prisoners of conscience. In several ethnic minority areas the army continues to commit violations of international human rights and humanitarian law against civilians, including acts that may constitute crimes against humanity or war crimes..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: pdf (108K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/001/2012/en/8859ff1c-28c9-4143-ae91-3463e3ab86f8/asa160012012en.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 27 February 2012


    Title: Burma: From blinkered to market-oriented despotism?
    Date of publication: 10 December 2011
    Description/subject: "Since a new quasi-parliamentary government led by former army officers began work in Burma (Myanmar) earlier this year, some observers have argued that the government is showing a commitment to bring about, albeit cautiously, reforms that will result in an overall improvement in human rights conditions. The question remains, though, as to whether the new government constitutes the beginning of a real shift from the blinkered despotism of its predecessors to a new form of government, or simply to a type of semi-enlightened and market-oriented despotism, the sort of which has been more common in Asia than the type of outright military domination experienced by Burma for most of the last half-century. "
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: pdf (457K - OBL version; 516K - original )
    Alternate URLs: http://www.humanrights.asia/resources/hrreport/2011/AHRC-SPR-004-2011.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 09 December 2011


    Title: Request for Inquiry: Service history of Myanmar Ambassador to South Africa
    Date of publication: 25 November 2011
    Description/subject: "This briefing document summarises research conducted by KHRG regarding the service history of Tatmadaw Brigadier General Myint Naung, and documented incidents of abuse reported to have been perpetrated by units Brigadier General Myint Naung may have commanded as Operation Commander of Tatmadaw Military Operation Command (MOC) #4. This information raises serious questions and concerns regarding the background of the current Myanmar Ambassador U Myint Naung. The South Africa government should therefore seek to obtain further information from the Myanmar government that can clarify the Ambassador's service record in the Tatmadaw, and follow up with inquiries regarding any specific incidents of serious abuse perpetrated by units under his command. Such steps are within South Africa's rights under international law governing diplomatic relations, and consistent with all states' duty under customary international humanitarian law to ensure respect for international humanitarian law erga omnes. KHRG believes that such an inquiry would contribute to raising opportunity costs for potential perpetrators of serious abuse in Burma as well as supporting domestic reforms, potentially precipitating positive changes in abusive Tatmadaw practices that could ultimately reduce the frequency with which certain abuses occur, while supporting the strategies used by local communities in Burma to claim their human rights on a day-to-day basis. This document was compiled by KHRG in response to queries by journalists and advocacy organisations in South Africa regarding the background of the Myanmar Ambassador."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (842K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg1104.html
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: The State of Human Rights in Burma in 2010
    Date of publication: 09 December 2010
    Description/subject: BURMA: Government by confusion & the un-rule of law: "The first elections held in Burma for two decades on 7 November 2010 ended as most people thought they would, with the military party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party, taking a vast majority in the national parliament through rigged balloting. Almost a week later, after days of disgruntlement and debate about the outcome of the elections, the military regime released the leader of the National League for Democracy, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, from house arrest. Although Aung San Suu Kyi’s release was expected, since November 13 was the deadline on the period of imprisonment imposed through a fraudulent criminal case against her in 2009, it perplexed many foreign observers, who asked questions about why the military would acquiesce to her release at a time that it may provoke and create unnecessary problems during the planned transition from full-frontal army dictatorship to authoritarian clique in civilian garb. What most of these persons have not yet understood about the nature of the state in Burma is that government by confusion is an operating principle. For them, as military strategists and planners who think in terms of threats and enemies, the most effective strategies and plans are those where both outside observers and as many people in the domestic population as possible are left uncertain about what has happened and why, what may or may not happen next, and what it all means. This principle of government by confusion underpins the un-rule of law in Burma to which the Asian Human Rights Commission has pointed, described and analyzed through careful study of hundreds of cases and attendant information over the last few years. Whereas the rule of law depends upon a minimum degree of certainty by which citizens can organize their lives, the un-rule of law depends upon uncertainty. Whereas rule of law depends upon consistency in how state institutions and their personnel operate, the un-rule of law depends upon arbitrariness. Whereas rule of law is intimately connected to the protection of human rights, the un-rule of law is associated with the denial of rights, and with the absence of norms upon which rights can even by nominally established. In this annual report, the AHRC points more explicitly to the links between this operating principle and the un-rule of law..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC-SPR-002-2010)
    Format/size: pdf (307K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 January 2011


    Title: Annual Report on Human Rights 2009
    Date of publication: March 2010
    Description/subject: "...The human rights situation in Burma continued its downward trend in 2009. Daily life in Burma continues to be characterised by the denial of almost all fundamental rights, and a pervasive military and security presence. Expressions of opposition to the regime often result in arrest and extended detention without trial. Despite international pressure, the regime made no attempt in 2009 to engage in substantive political dialogue with the democratic opposition and ethnic groups. Both were disenfranchised by the National Convention process and flawed referendum in May 2008 on the new Constitution, which is designed to ensure continued military control of the country. The key event in Burma in 2010 will be elections, based on the Constitution, that form the final step in the military authorities’ seven-step “Roadmap” towards “disciplined democracy”. Opposition and ethnic groups now have to decide whether to participate in a skewed electoral process, which offers them little prospect of any real power, or to stand aside. We expect further human rights abuses in 2010 as the regime maintains a tight grip on internal security in the months leading up to elections..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Kingdom Foreign & Commonwealth Office
    Format/size: pdf (1MB - Burma section; 5.35MB - full report)
    Alternate URLs: http://centralcontent.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/pdf/human-rights-reports/human-rights-report-2009
    http://books.google.co.th/books?id=PTomVxWT74UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Annual+Report+on+Human+Rights+2009&source=bl&ots=GIjbBzdr4B&sig=ogq1Dws_4-z3wO5texVasQXxvaE&hl=en&ei=7wXmTMaqAo-SuwPGx4TDCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
    http://www.humansecuritygateway.com/showRecord.php?RecordId=32512
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


    Title: The repression of ethnic minority activists in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 16 February 2010
    Description/subject: "...Planning this year to hold its first national and local elections since 1990, the Myanmar government has prepared itself in many ways, including, as Amnesty International’s findings indicate, by repressing ethnic minority political opponents and activists. While these human rights violations certainly preceded the February 2008 announcement that elections would be held—as the late 2007 crackdown on the Saffron Revolution showed—the coming elections have given the government new resolve in repressing political dissent in all of Myanmar’s seven ethnic minority states and among its ethnic minority peoples. This repression has included arbitrary arrests and detention; torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment; unfair trials; rape; extrajudicial killings; forced labour; violations of freedom of expression, assembly, association, and religion; intimidation and harassment; and discrimination. This repression of political opponents and activists has also run completely contrary to the Myanmar government’s repeated claims since 2004, to be embarking and continuing on a ‘Roadmap to Democracy’ and increasing the level of political participation in the country. With almost no exception, authorities and officials have enjoyed impunity for their violations. The repression of political opponents and activists has resulted in the violation of ethnic minorities’ human rights, and the violation of international human rights and humanitarian law: Myanmar is bound by its legal obligations under the Conventions on the Rights of the Child and on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; the 1949 Geneva Conventions; and customary international law. It is also obliged, as a member of the United Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), to uphold the provisions of both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the ASEAN Charter..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: pdf (758K), html (258K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/001/2010/en/183ebaaa-6f76-4d61-952b-8555034d56fd/asa160012010en.html
    Date of entry/update: 16 February 2010


    Title: Myanmar: Beneath The Surface (video)
    Date of publication: 23 December 2009
    Description/subject: "Two years ago the world watched in dismay as Myanmar's military junta brutally crushed the so-called Saffron Revolution. It was the only show of mass opposition to have occurred inside the country in almost 20 years. Filmmaker Hazel Chandler entered the country undercover for People & Power to find out how Myanmar's people are fairing, and to investigate disturbing claims that the regime may be trying to develop nuclear weapons."
    Author/creator: Hazel Chandler
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Al Jazeera (People and Power)
    Format/size: Adobe Flash (23 minutes)
    Date of entry/update: 25 December 2009


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008 - Chapter 18: Ethnic Minority Rights
    Date of publication: 23 November 2009
    Description/subject: "...Under British Colonial rule, Burma was divided into two zones: the centrally located ‘Ministerial Burma’, which mostly consisted of the Buddhist Burman ethnic group, and the ‘Frontier Areas’, located in the mountainous regions situated along what are recognized today as Burma’s international borders. These Frontier Regions were where most of the ethnic minorities resided. While the British essentially destroyed the local government systems in Ministerial Burma and employed their own systems of administration and government, the area also received some development and investment. On the other hand, while the Frontier Areas retained their systems of governance and some autonomy, their natural resources were exploited by the British and they received little in regard to health, education, economic development, or political representation at the national level.1 Even though Burma has long been free of British rule, this system of exploitation and neglect continues to this day..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (872K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 December 2009


    Title: U.S. Policy Toward Burma (video)
    Date of publication: 21 October 2009
    Description/subject: Witnesses Panel: The Honorable Kurt M. Campbell Assistant Secretary Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State... Mr. Tom Malinowski Advocacy Director Human Rights Watch... Chris Beyrer, M.D., MPH Professor of Epidemiology, International Health, and Health, Behavior, and Society Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health... Mr. Aung Din Executive Director U.S. Campaign for Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs
    Format/size: Webcast [Real Player] (2.5hours)
    Date of entry/update: 28 October 2009


    Title: U.S. Policy Toward Burma - Testimony of Chris Beyrer MD, MPH
    Date of publication: 21 October 2009
    Description/subject: Testimony of Chris Beyrer MD, MPH Professor of Epidemiology and International Health Director, Center for Public Health and Human Rights Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U. S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs
    Format/size: pdf (50K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.internationalrelations.house.gov/
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Animal Farm
    Date of publication: August 2009
    Description/subject: "...Below are some excerpts from my interviews with inmates at Rangoon zoo. A nervous elephant, the only tusker in the zoo willing to talk to me, shivered as he remembered an incident on September 27, 2007:..."
    Author/creator: Satya Sagar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=16449&page=1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 December 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2009 - Events of 2008: Burma section
    Date of publication: 14 January 2009
    Description/subject: Burma’s already dismal human rights record worsened following the devastation of cyclone Nargis in early May 2008. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) blocked international assistance while pushing through a constitutional referendum in which basic freedoms were denied. The ruling junta systematically denies citizens basic freedoms, including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. It regularly imprisons political activists and human rights defenders; in 2008 the number of political prisoners nearly doubled to more than 2,150. The Burmese military continues to violate the rights of civilians in ethnic conflict areas and extrajudicial killings, forced labor, land confiscation without due process and other violations continued in 2008....Cyclone Nargis...Constitutional Referendum...Human Rights Defenders...Child Soldiers...Continuing Violence against Ethnic Groups...Refugees and Migrant Workers...Key International Actors
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: THE STATE OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN BURMA ‐ 2008 -- A DOUBLE‐DISASTER IN THE 2007 PROTESTS’ AFTERMATH
    Date of publication: 10 December 2008
    Description/subject: "Perhaps the two most significant features of the human rights landscape in Burma during 2008 were the morally bankrupt and blatantly repressive response of the country’s military regime to the Cyclone Nargis disaster in May, and the continued detaining, charging and sentencing of persons involved in last September’s nationwidut also domestic law...WORLD’S WORST RESPONSE TO A NATURAL DISASTER..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: pdf (675K)
    Date of entry/update: 23 December 2008


    Title: Saffron Revolution Imprisoned, law demented
    Date of publication: September 2008
    Description/subject: Contents: SPECIAL EDITION: SAFFRON REVOLUTION IMPRISONED, LAW DEMENTED... Foreword: Dual policy approach needed on Burma Basil Fernando... Introduction: Saffron Revolution imprisoned, law demented Editorial board, article 2... Ne Win, Maung Maung and how to drive a legal system crazy in two short decades, Burma desk, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong... Ten case studies in illegal arrest and imprisonment..... APPENDIX: Nargis: World’s worst response to a natural disaster, Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Article 2 (Vol. 7, No. 3)
    Format/size: pdf (1.31MB)
    Date of entry/update: 15 November 2008


    Title: BULLETS IN THE ALMS BOWL - An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution
    Date of publication: March 2008
    Description/subject: Table of Contents: Acronyms and Abbreviations... Maps... Map of Burma Showing Protest Locations... Map of Rangoon... I Executive Summary... II Government by Exploitation: The Burmese Way to Capitalism?... Macroeconomic Policy... Fiscal Policy... Monetary Policy... The Economic Cost of Militarization... The Straw that Broke the Camel’s Back... III Growing Discontent: The Economic Protests... Early Signs of Dissatisfaction... Protesting the Fuel Price Rise....... IV The Saffron Revolution... The SPDC and the Sangha... Interdependence of the Monastic and Lay Communities... Pakokku and the Call of Excommunication... Nationwide Protests Declared... V Crackdown on the Streets... Wednesday, 26 September 2007... Shwedagon Pagoda... Downtown Rangoon... Thakin Mya Park... Yankin Post Office... Thursday, 27 September 2007... South Okkalapa Township... Sule Pagoda... Pansodan Road Bridge... Thakin Mya Park... Tamwe Township State High School No3... Friday, 28 September 2007... Pansodan Road... Pazundaung Township... Latha Township ... Saturday, 29 September 2007, onwards... VI The Monastery Raids... Invitations to ‘Breakfast’ ... Maggin Monastery ... Ngwe Kyar Yan Monastery ... Additional Raids in Okkalapa ... Thaketa Township... Raids in Other Locations around the Country...Arakan State Mandalay Division... Kachin State... Continued Raids... VII A Witch Hunt... Night Time Abductions... Arrested for Harbouring... Arrests in Lieu Of Others... Collective Punishment of Entire Neighbourhoods... Release of Detainees... Continuing Arrest and Detention of Political Activists... VIII Judicial Procedure and Conditions of Detention... Prolonged Detention without Charge... Judicial Procedure... Conditions of Detention... Interrogation and Torture of Detainees.... Denial of Medical Care... Deaths in Custody... Treatment of Monks... IX Analysis of the Crackdown: Intent to Brutalise, Cover Up and Discredit... Hired Thugs... Targeted and Intentional Killings... Removal of the Dead and Wounded... Treatment of the Injured... Secret Cremations... Suppression of Information... The Internet... Telephone Networks Severed... The National Press... Deliberate Targeting of Journalists... Providing Information to the Media... Defamation of the Sangha... The Pro-SPDC Rallies... X Conclusion... XI Recommendations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
    Format/size: pdf (4.8MB)
    Date of entry/update: 13 March 2008


    Title: Arbitrary Confiscation of Farmers’ Land by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Military Regime in Burma
    Date of publication: February 2008
    Description/subject: Abstract" "This research was framed by a human rights approach to development as pursued by Amartya Sen. Freedoms are not only the primary ends of development but they are the principle means of development. The research was informed by international obligations to human rights and was placed within a context of global pluralism and recognition of universal human dignity. The first research aim was to study the State Peace and Development Council military regime confiscation of land and labour of farmers in villages of fourteen townships in Rangoon, Pegu, and Irrawaddy Divisions and Arakan, Karenni, and Shan States. Four hundred and sixty-seven individuals were interviewed to gain understanding of current pressures facing farmers and their families. Had crops, labour, household food, assets, farm equipment been confiscated? If so, by whom, and what reason was given for the confiscation? Were farmers compensated for this confiscation? How did family households respond and cope when land was confiscated? In what ways were farmers contesting the arbitrary confiscation of their land? A significant contribution of this research is that it was conducted inside Burma with considerable risk for all individuals involved. People who spoke about their plight, who collected information, and who couriered details of confiscation across the border into Thailand were at great risk of arrest. Interviews were conducted clandestinely in homes, fields, and sometimes during the night. Because of personal security risks there are inconsistent data sets for the townships. People revealed concerns of health, education, lack of land tenure and livelihood. Several farmers are contesting the confiscation of their land, but recognise that there is no rule by law or independent judiciary in Burma. Farmers and their family members want their plight to be known internationally. When they speak out they are threatened with detention. Their immediate struggle is to survive. The second aim was to analyse land laws and land use in Burma from colonial times, independence in 1948, to the present military rule by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The third aim was to critically review international literature on land tenure and land rights with special focus on research conducted in post-conflict, post-colonial, and post-socialist nations and how to resolve land claims in face of no documentation. We sought ideas and practices which could inform creation of land laws, land and property rights, in democratic transition in Burma."
    Author/creator: Dr. Nancy Hudson-Rodd; Sein Htay
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Burma Fund
    Format/size: pdf (11MB)
    Date of entry/update: 29 March 2008


    Title: BURMA/MYANMAR: AFTER THE CRACKDOWN
    Date of publication: 31 January 2008
    Description/subject: "The violent crushing of protests led by Buddhist monks in Burma/Myanmar in late 2007 has caused even allies of the military government to recognise that change is desperately needed. China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have thrown their support behind the efforts by the UN Secretary-General's special envoy to re-open talks on national reconciliation, while the U.S. and others have stepped up their sanctions. But neither incomplete punitive measures nor intermittent talks are likely to bring about major reforms. Myanmar's neighbours and the West must press together for a sustainable process of national reconciliation. This will require a long-term effort by all who can make a difference, combining robust diplomacy with serious efforts to address the deep-seated structural obstacles to peace, democracy and development. The protests in August-September and, in particular, the government crackdown have shaken up the political status quo, the international community has been mobilised to an unprecedented extent, and there are indications that divergences of view have grown within the military. The death toll is uncertain but appears to have been substantially higher than the official figures, and the violence has profoundly disrupted religious life across the country. While extreme violence has been a daily occurrence in ethnic minority populated areas in the border regions, where governments have faced widespread armed rebellion for more than half a century, the recent events struck at the core of the state and have had serious reverberations within the Burman majority society, as well as the regime itself, which it will be difficult for the military leaders to ignore. While these developments present important new opportunities for change, they must be viewed against the continuance of profound structural obstacles. The balance of power is still heavily weighted in favour of the army, whose top leaders continue to insist that only a strongly centralised, military-led state can hold the country together. There may be more hope that a new generation of military leaders can disown the failures of the past and seek new ways forward. But even if the political will for reform improves, Myanmar will still face immense challenges in overcoming the debilitating legacy of decades of conflict, poverty and institutional failure, which fuelled the recent crisis and could well overwhelm future governments as well. The immediate challenges are to create a more durable negotiating process between government, opposition and ethnic groups and help alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis that hampers reconciliation at all levels of society. At the same time, longer-term efforts are needed to encourage and support the emergence of a broader, more inclusive and better organised political society and to build the capacity of the state, civil society and individual households alike to deal with the many development challenges. To achieve these aims, all actors who have the ability to influence the situation need to become actively involved in working for change, and the comparative advantages each has must be mobilised to the fullest, with due respect for differences in national perspectives and interests..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Asia Report N°144)
    Format/size: pdf (806K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2008 - Events of 2007: Burma section
    Date of publication: 31 January 2008
    Description/subject: Burma’s deplorable human rights record received widespread international attention in 2007 as anti-government protests in August and September were met with a brutal crackdown by security forces of the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Denial of basic freedoms in Burma continues, and restrictions on the internet, telecommunications, and freedom of expression and assembly sharply increased in 2007. Abuses against civilians in ethnic areas are widespread, involving forced labor, summary executions, sexual violence, and expropriation of land and property......Violent Crackdown on Protests...Lack of Progress on Democracy...Human Rights Defenders...Continued Violence against Ethnic Groups...Child Soldiers...Humanitarian Concerns, Internal Displacement, and Refugees...Key International Actors.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Burma’s "Saffron Revolution” is not over - Time for the international community to act
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Executive summary" "The situation in Burma after the “Saffron Revolution” is unprecedented. The September 2007 peaceful protests and the violent crackdown have created new dynamics inside Burma, and the country’sfuture is still unknown. This led the FIDH and the ITUC to conduct a joint mission along the Thai-Burma border between October 13th-21st 2007 to investigate the events and impact of the September crackdown, and to inform our organizational strategies and political recommendations. The violence and bloodshed directed at the monks and the general public who participated in the peace walks and protests have further alienated the population from its current military leaders. The level of fear, but also anger amongst the general population is unprecedented, as even religious leaders are now clearly not exempt from such violence and repression. This is different from the pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988, when monks were not directly targeted. In present-day Burma, all segments of the population have grown hostile to the regime, including within the military’s own ranks. The desire for change is greater than ever. Every witness -from ordinary citizens to monks, and Generation ‘88 leaders- told mission participants the movement was not over, despite the fear of reprisals and further repression. The question is what will happen next, and when? The future will depend of three factors: the extent to which the population will be able to organize new rounds of a social movement, the reaction of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), and the influence the international community can exert on the junta. What happened in Burma since the crackdown has proven that the international community has influence on the regime. The UN Secretary General's Special Envoy Ibrahim Gambari’s good offices mission was accepted. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights, Sergio Pinheiro was allowed access to the country for the first time in four years, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and members of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were given permission to meet with each other for the first time since Daw Suu was placed under renewed house arrest, in May 2003. Yet these positive signs are still weak: a genuine process of political change has not started yet. Such a process, involving the democratic parties and ethnic groups, is fundamental to establishing peace, human rights and development in Burma. To achieve that, the international community must keep its focus on Burma, and maximise its efforts and capacity to help bring about political transition..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Federation Internationale des Droits de l'Homme (FIDH)
    Format/size: pdf (388K)
    Alternate URLs: http://burmalibrary.org/docs4/FIDH-ITUC-Saffron-rev..pdf
    Date of entry/update: 14 December 2007


    Title: Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 Popular Protests in Burma
    Date of publication: December 2007
    Description/subject: Summary: "In August and September 2007, Burmese democracy activists, monks and ordinary people took to the streets of Rangoon and elsewhere to peacefully challenge nearly two decades of dictatorial rule and economic mismanagement by Burma’s ruling generals. While opposition to the military government is widespread in Burma, and small acts of resistance are an everyday occurrence, military repression is so systematic that such sentiment rarely is able to burst into public view; the last comparable public uprising was in August 1988. As in 1988, the generals responded this time with a brutal and bloody crackdown, leaving Burma’s population once again struggling for a voice. The government crackdown included baton-charges and beatings of unarmed demonstrators, mass arbitrary arrests, and repeated instances where weapons were fired shoot-to-kill. To remove the monks and nuns from the protests, the security forces raided dozens of Buddhist monasteries during the night, and sought to enforce the defrocking of thousands of monks. Current protest leaders, opposition party members, and activists from the ’88 Generation students were tracked down and arrested – and continue to be arrested and detained. The Burmese generals have taken draconian measures to ensure that the world does not learn the true story of the horror of their crackdown. They have kept foreign journalists out of Burma and maintained their complete control over domestic news. Many local journalists were arrested after the crackdown, and the internet and mobile phone networks, used extensively to send information, photos, and videos out of Burma, were temporarily shut down, and have remained tightly controlled since. Of course, those efforts at censorship were only partially successful, as some enterprising and brave individuals found ways to get mobile phone video footage of the demonstrations and crackdown out of the country and onto the world’s television screens. This provided a small window into the violence and repression that the Burmese military government continues to use to hold onto power..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (1.88MB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 December 2007


    Title: Myanmar: Briefing Paper: No Return to "Normal"
    Date of publication: 09 November 2007
    Description/subject: "The violent suppression by the Myanmar authorities of peaceful demonstrations in 66 cities country-wide from mid-August through September 2007 provoked international condemnation. Amnesty International continues to document serious human rights violations. The situation has not returned to normal. Based on numerous first-hand accounts from victims and eye-witnesses, this briefing paper outlines some key human rights abuses committed since the start of the crackdown."
    Language: English, Francais, Espanol
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/037/2007)
    Format/size: pdf (55.7K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/037/2007
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/55be999b-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa160372007fr.pdf (Francais)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/037/2007/en/53392708-d358-11dd-a329-2f46302a8cc6/asa160372007es.pdf (Espanol)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar - Von der Kolonie zum Armenhaus
    Date of publication: 07 September 2007
    Description/subject: Die knapp 60 Jahre mit ständigem Wechsel von bewaffneten Konflikten, BürgerInnenkriegen und "sozialistischer" Militärdiktatur sind der Grund für die heutige Lage eines der ärmsten Länder der Welt. Der Artikel schildert die ethnischen KOnflikte, den Terror des Militärs und die Lage der Menschenrechte in Myanmar; Ethnic minorities; terror; human rights; education; Karen;
    Author/creator: Sebastian Nagel
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Grüne Jugend
    Format/size: Html (47kb)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.gruene-jugend.de/show/382223.html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2007 - Events of 2006: Burma section
    Date of publication: 11 January 2007
    Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Burma’s international isolation deepened during 2006 as the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continued to restrict basic rights and freedoms and waged brutal counterinsurgency operations against ethnic minorities. The democratic movement inside the country remained suppressed, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political activists continued to be detained or imprisoned. International efforts to foster change in Burma were thwarted by the SPDC and sympathetic neighboring governments..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


    Title: BURMA: The Human Rights Situation in 2006
    Date of publication: 21 December 2006
    Description/subject: "The myth of state stability & a system of injustice During 2006 Burma continued to be characterised by wanton criminality of state officers at all levels, and the absence of the rule of law and rational government. Throughout the year, the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) documented violent crimes caused by state officers, and the concomitant lack of any means for victims to complain and have action taken against accused perpetrators..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission
    Format/size: pdf (447K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 February 2007


    Title: Toungoo District: The civilian response to human rights violations
    Date of publication: 15 August 2006
    Description/subject: "Attacks on villages in Toungoo and other northern Karen districts by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) since late 2005 have led to extensive displacement and some international attention, but little of this has focused on the continuing lives of the villagers involved. In this report KHRG's Karen researchers in the field describe how these attacks have been affecting local people, and how these people have responded. The SPDC's forced relocation, village destruction, shoot-on-sight orders and blockades on the movement of food and medicines have killed many and created pervasive suffering, but the villagers' continued refusal to submit to SPDC authority has caused the military to fail in its objective of bringing the entire civilian population under direct control. This is a struggle which SPDC forces cannot win, but they may never stop trying..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F8)
    Format/size: pdf (588 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f8.html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


    Title: KHRG's 300th Report: Cause for Celebration?
    Date of publication: 01 August 2006
    Description/subject: "On July 29th the Karen Human Rights Group released our 300th report. Though this is a milestone for the organisation, we see this as cause for reflection rather than celebration, on how the situation and our work have evolved in the 14 years since our formation in 1992..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Commentaries (KHRG #2006-C3)
    Format/size: pdf (40 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06c3.html
    Date of entry/update: 16 November 2009


    Title: Pa'an District: Land confiscation, forced labour and extortion undermining villagers' livelihoods
    Date of publication: 11 February 2006
    Description/subject: "Villagers in northern Pa'an District of central Karen State say their livelihoods are under serious threat due to exploitation by SPDC military authorities and by their Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) allies who rule as an SPDC proxy army in much of the region. Villages in the vicinity of the DKBA headquarters are forced to give much of their time and resources to support the headquarters complex, while villages directly under SPDC control face rape, arbitrary detention and threats to keep them compliant with SPDC demands. The SPDC plans to expand Dta Greh (a.k.a. Pain Kyone) village into a town in order to strengthen its administrative control over the area, and is confiscating about half of the village's productive land without compensation to build infrastructure which includes offices, army camps and a hydroelectric power dam - destroying the livelihoods of close to 100 farming families. Local villagers, who are already struggling to survive under the weight of existing demands, fear further forced labour and extortion as the project continues..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F1)
    Format/size: pfd (739 KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f1.html
    Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - Events of 2005: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: Events of 2005..."Despite promises of political reform and national reconciliation, Burma’s authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to operate a strict police state and drastically restricts basic rights and freedoms. It has suppressed the democratic movement represented by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, under detention since May 30, 2003, and has used internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority groups. Hundreds of thousands of people, most of them from ethnic minority groups, continue to live precariously as internally displaced people. More than two million have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances as asylum seekers or illegal immigrants. The removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt in October 2004 has reinforced hard-line elements within the SPDC and resulted in increasing hostility directed at democracy movements, ethnic minority groups, and international agencies..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


    Title: The Misery Goes On - An Interview with Brad Adams
    Date of publication: September 2005
    Description/subject: A senior human rights official outlines Burmese ethnic minority communities’ ongoing horrors... In June, New York-based Human Rights Watch issued a damning and all too resonant report on the plight of an estimated 650,000 internally displaced persons in eastern Burma, most from the large Karen minority. The Karen are part of a very grim overall picture. “The human rights situation in Burma is horrible,” says Brad Adams, HRW’s director for Asia. “Gross violations of international humanitarian law are regularly committed by government forces, including the continued recruitment and use of child soldiers, extrajudicial executions, rape of women and girls, torture, and forced relocation.” Adams was recently interviewed by Dominic Faulder for The Irrawaddy.
    Author/creator: Dominic Faulder/Brad Adams
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 9
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2006


    Title: Amnesty International Report 2005 (events of 2004) - Section on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 May 2005
    Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2004... "In October the Prime Minister was placed under house arrest and replaced by another army general. Despite the announcement of the release of large numbers of prisoners in November, more than 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison, and arrests and imprisonment for peaceful political opposition activities continued. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency operations in the Mon, Shan and Kayin States, and in Tanintharyi Division. Restrictions on freedom of movement in states with predominantly ethnic minority populations continued to impede farming, trade and employment. This particularly impacted on the Rohingyas in Rakhine State. Ethnic minority civilians living in all these areas continued to be subjected to forced labour by the military..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma
    Date of publication: April 2005
    Description/subject: AN INVESTIGATION AND LEGAL ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS INFLICTED IN BURMA, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED, EASTERN PEOPLES..."For over a decade, the United Nations and Human Rights organisations have documented systematic and widespread human rights violations inflicted on the people of Burma generally, and on the ethnic people in particular. Most reports, however, with the exception of some references to Article Three of The Geneva Conventions, have refrained from conceptualizing the violations in terms of International Humanitarian Law. This report addresses that gap and, in the aftermath of the State organised ambush of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi's convoy on May 30, 2003; the ongoing, widespread, systematic destruction of substantial parts of the eastern ethnic peoples; and the failure to end impunity, recommends a period of consultation, education and consensus building to explore the practicality, political appropriateness, and morality of applying and enforcing relevant International Humanitarian Law. This report analyses the human rights violations, identified by, amongst others, UN Special Rapporteurs for human rights and Amnesty International, and expressed in UN General Assembly Resolutions, that have been inflicted on the people of Burma for decades..." NOTE ON FORMAT: There is a glitch in the CD the online version is based on, with lines from the next page creeping onto the current page. This will be fixed eventually. There is also a plan to break the text up into managable chunks.
    Author/creator: Guy Horton
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Guy Horton, Images Asia
    Format/size: pdf (4.7MB)
    Date of entry/update: 03 May 2006


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2005 - Events of 2004: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2005
    Description/subject: Events of 2004..."Burma remains one of the most repressive countries in Asia, despite promises for political reform and national reconciliation by its authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The SPDC restricts the basic rights and freedoms of all Burmese. It continues to attack and harass democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, still under house arrest at this writing, and the political movement she represents. It also continues to use internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority rebel groups. Burma has more child soldiers than any other country in the world, and its forces have used extrajudicial execution, rape, torture, forced relocation of villages, and forced labor in campaigns against rebel groups. Ethnic minority forces have also committed abuses, though not on the scale committed by government forces. The abrupt removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt, viewed as a relative moderate, on October 19, 2004, has reinforced hardline elements of the SPDC. Khin Nyunt’s removal damaged immediate prospects for a ceasefire in the decades-old struggle with the Karen ethnic minority and has been followed by increasingly hostile rhetoric from SPDC leaders directed at Suu Kyi and democracy activists. Thousands of Burmese citizens, most of them from the embattled ethnic minorities, have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances, or live precariously as internally displaced people..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: www.hrw.org/wr2k5/wr2005.pdf
    http://books.google.co.th/books?id=dYXStZToKggC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Human+Rights+Watch+World+Report+2005+-+Events+of+2004:+Burma&source=bl&ots=A9xtmHnfym&sig=W1C8lLRGKhGswUtLWFgsPXhsmhg&hl=en&ei=HxbmTIufAYKkvgP0usjCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Christian Solidarity Worldwide Visit to the Chin and Kachin Refugees in India March 2nd-9th, 2004
    Date of publication: 19 March 2004
    Description/subject: Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Itinerary; 3. Personnel; 4. Aid; 5. Religious Persecution; 6. Cultural Genocide; 7. Forced Labour; 8. Economic oppression; 9. Political oppression and torture of political detainees; 10. Health Care; 11. The Kachin; 12. Refugees in India; 13. The Chin Diaspora; 14. Conclusions and Recommendations; 15. Bibliography... APPENDIX: Testimony of a Defector.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://dynamic.csw.org.uk/article.asp?t=report&id=45
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: CHR 2004 (60th Session): Briefing Paper on the Human Rights Situation in Burma, Year 2003-2004
    Date of publication: March 2004
    Description/subject: For the 60th Session of the UN Commission Human Rights resolution on ‘The human rights situation in Myanmar’...- 1 - Contents: Recommendations; Summary; The Judicial System: Unjust Laws and Orders; The Depayin Massacre; Political Prisoners; MPs, NLD members arrested for organizing trip of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi; Extension of Prison Terms Under Section 10 (A); Hunger Strikes in Prison; The Aging Political Prisoners; Members of Parliament in Prison and in Exile; Women, Children, Racial, Ethnic & Religious Minorities in Burma:- Women: Rape as a Systematic Tool; The License to Rape Report; Military's Response to the Report; Responses to the Report; Recommendations to the United Nations; Other Tragedies Suffered by Women... Children: Burmese Children in Armed Conflict; Health and Education of Children... Racial, Ethnic and Religious Minorities: Restrictions on Religious Practices and Freedom... Forced Labor, Forced Displacement, Land Mines and Refugees and IDPs:- Forced Labor: The ILO and the Regime; Forced Displacement; Landmines; Refugees and IDPs: Bangladest Border; Indian Border; Thai Border... Land Confiscation and Forced Relocation... Economic Situation... Appendix I: Members of Parliament in Prison; Appendix II: Over 65 years Old Political Prisoners... Appendix III: Update Tables on Political Prisoners... Summary:- "The human rights situation in Burma has worsened again this year. While the military junta claims that it is working to bring "disciplined democracy" to the country through a "seven-point roadmap", political arrests continue unabated and leaders of the election-winning party, the National League for Democracy, remain under detention. High-ranking officials of the military junta try to paint a rosy picture of the political future of the country while they refuse to cooperate with the United Nations' call for an independent investigation into the use of rape as a weapon against Shan women by the military or to permit an inquiry into the massacre of National League for Democracy members who came under the "premeditated attack" of the military and its affiliated thugs near Tabayin [Depayin] during the tour of the region by Aung San Suu Kyi and her party members. The junta also continues to ignore the resolutions of the past years passed by the General Assembly and relevant bodies and blatantly ignores the efforts of the United Nations' Secretary General and his envoy to facilitate a national reconciliation process in Burma. Violations of human rights, including arbitrary killings, rape, looting, force relocation, and destruction of villages continue particularly in the border areas where large-scale military offensives are launched against ethnic nationalities. The Burmese people continue to be held hostage under the military's corrupt, brutal, inhumane, and undemocratic policies. This briefing paper, along with many other reports compiled by prominent human rights and intergovernmental organizations, should serve as a testimony to the fact that human rights violations in Burma are continuous, as they have tragically been for many years; that the regime has no regard for the protection and promotion of its people’s human rights and only cares about instilling fear in the minds of the people through the use of brute force so as to preserve military rule. * This paper has been prepared by the Burma UN Service Office of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma UN Service Office of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)
    Format/size: pdf (286K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 March 2004


    Title: Unspeakable Crimes
    Date of publication: September 2003
    Description/subject: "Burma’s rulers need to be brought to account before they commit more political crimes and human rights abuses..." Two months after the May 30 ambush on political activists and leaders of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), the human rights group Amnesty International called on Burma’s military regime to bring the culprits to justice and permit an independent and impartial investigation. Amnesty said, "The events of 30 May show all too clearly the need for accountability and an end to impunity in Myanmar [Burma]." Other human rights organizations and several foreign governments also called Burma to answer. Burma’s military regime, however, remains mute, ignoring pressure from abroad while claiming they arrested pro-democracy supporters, including NLD leader Aung San Suu Kyi and Vice Chairman Tin Oo, for the sake of stability in the country..."
    Author/creator: Thar Nyunt Oo
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 11, No. 7
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 06 November 2003


    Title: SPDC & DKBA ORDERS TO VILLAGES: SET 2003-A
    Date of publication: 22 August 2003
    Description/subject: "This report presents the direct translations of 783 order documents and letters, selected from a total of 1,007 such documents. The orders dictate demands for forced labour, money, food and materials, place restrictions on movements and activities of villagers, and make threats to arrest village elders or destroy villages of those who fail to obey. Over 650 of those selected were sent by military units and local authorities of Burma’s ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) junta to village elders in Toungoo, Papun, Nyaunglebin, Thaton, Pa’an and Dooplaya Districts, which together cover most of Karen State and part of eastern Pegu Division and Mon State (see Map 1 showing Burma or Map 2 showing Karen State). The remainder were sent by the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) or the Karen Peace Army (KPA), groups allied with the SPDC. All but a few of the orders were issued between January 2002 and February 2003..." Papun, Pa’an, Thaton, Nyaunglebin, Toungoo, & Dooplaya Districts General Forced Labour (Orders #1-150); Forced Labour Supplying Materials (#150-191); Set to a Village I: Village A, Papun District (#192-200); Set to a Village II: Village B, Papun District (#201-226); Set to a Village III: Village C, Thaton District (#227-241); Set to a Village IV: Village D, Dooplaya District (#242-251); Extortion of Money, Food, and Materials (#252-335); Crop Quotas (#336-346); Restrictions on Movement and Activity (#347-354); Demands for Intelligence (#355-426); Education, Health (#427-442); Education (#427-439); Health (#440-442); Summons to ‘Meetings’ (#443-652); DKBA & KPA Letters (#653-783); DKBA Recruitment (#653); DKBA General Forced Labour (#654-685); DKBA Demands for Materials and Money (#686-719); DKBA Restrictions (#720-727); DKBA Meetings (#728-771); KPA Letters (#772-783); Appendix A: The Village Act and the Towns Act; Appendix B: SPDC Orders ‘Banning’ Forced Labour.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group ( KHRG #2003-01)
    Format/size: html, pdf (5.4MB) 405 pages
    Date of entry/update: 17 November 2003


    Title: Uncounted: political prisoners in burma's ethnic areas
    Date of publication: August 2003
    Description/subject: Contents: 1. Executive Summary; 2. Introduction; 2a. Scope of report; 3. Background; 4. Definitions and Regulations; 4a. What is a political prisoner?; 4b. International and domestic regulations governing treatment; 4c. Conflict zones; 4d. Cease-fire and "Pacified Areas"; 4e. Support and perceived support for armed groups; 5. Politically Motivated Detentions in the Conflict Zones; 5a. Accusations; 5b. Places of detention; 5c. Were charges laid?; 6. Treatment of Detainees and Outcomes of Detention; 6a. Arbitrary detention; 6b. Torture; 6c. Extrajudicial killings; 6d. Disappearances; 7. Political Motivations Behind Detentions; 7a. Weakening/destruction of the People's Movement; 7b. Power and absolute control; 7c. Eradication of armed forces; 7d. Other motivations; 7e. Secondary Effects; 8. Inclusion in Existing Reporting; 9. The Bigger Picture; 10. Conclusion; 11. Recommendations... 12. Appendixes: a. Summary of cases; b. Ethnic Armed and political groups; c. Relevant international laws and regulations; 13. Glossary; Map of Burma; Map of Locations of Detention... Executive Summary: In Mr Paulo Sergio Pinheiro's report to the 59th Commission on Human Rights he stated, "Political arrests since July 2002 have followed the pattern of un-rule of law, including arbitrary arrest, prolonged incommunicado detention and interrogation by military intelligence personnel, extraction of confessions of guilt or of information, very often under duress or torture, followed by summary trials, sentencing and imprisonment." This report presents a sample of 46 cases that comply with the description in Pinheiro's statement but remain unrecognised as political arrests. They are people mostly in Burma's ethnic areas detained on accusations of supporting non-Burman ethnic nationality opposition groups. The accusations range from offering support through food and accommodation, to knowledge of opposition group movements, to actually being a member of a non-Burman ethnic nationality opposition group..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Issues", Altsean-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (796K) 82 pages
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmaissues.org/En/reports/uncounted.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 21 September 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2003 (events of 2002) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 28 May 2003
    Description/subject: Events of 2002 "...Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was released from de facto house arrest in May. There was no reported progress in confidential talks about the future of the country, begun in October 2000, between the ruling military government – the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) – and Aung San Suu Kyi. However, over 300 political prisoners were released during the year, bringing the total of those released since January 2001 to over 500. Some 1,300 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison and some 50 people were arrested for political reasons, despite the SPDC's stated commitment to release political prisoners as part of their undertaking to work with the NLD. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in most of the seven ethnic minority states, particularly the Shan and Kayin states. Civilians continued to be the victims of human rights violations in the context of the SPDC's counter-insurgency tactics in parts of the Shan and Kayin states..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2002)
    Date of publication: 31 March 2003
    Description/subject: Events of 2002. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962 General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority ethnic group. In 1988 the armed forces brutally suppressed prodemocracy demonstrations, and a junta composed of military officers, called the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, took control. Since then the SPDC has ruled by decree. The judiciary was not independent, and there was no effective rule of law. The regime reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI). Control was implemented through surveillance of government employees and private citizens, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The SPDC justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Amnesty International welcomes first visit, calls for further improvements
    Date of publication: 10 February 2003
    Description/subject: Press statement at end of AI's first visit to Burma. "After its first ever visit to Myanmar, Amnesty International called upon the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, Myanmar's military government), to release immediately and unconditionally all prisoners of conscience still held throughout the country. "The continued imprisonment of between 1200 - 1300 political prisoners, many of whom we believe are prisoners of conscience, held solely for their peaceful political activities, was one of the key issues discussed with the local authorities," Amnesty International said during a press conference held today in Bangkok, Thailand. The organization, which had been requesting access to Myanmar since 1988, welcomed the efforts made by the government officials in Myanmar to accommodate the delegation's requests and the frank discussions it held with Ministers, police and prison officials...."
    Author/creator: Publisher and translator of Japanese version: Burma Coordination Team of Amnesty International - Japan
    Language: English, Français
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/007/2003)
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/fr/library/asset/ASA16/007/2003/fr/0eed2dbd-d746-11dd-b024-21932cd2170d/asa160072003fr.html (Français)
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2003/en
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2003 - Events of 2002: Burma section
    Date of publication: 15 January 2003
    Description/subject: With the release of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in May after nineteen months of de facto house arrest, hope arose that the military junta might take steps to improve its human rights record. However, by late 2002, talks between Suu Kyi and the government had ground to a halt and systemic restrictions on basic civil and political liberties continued unabated. Ethnic minority regions continued to report particularly grave abuses, including forced labor and the rape of Shan minority women by military forces. Government military forces continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers.....Human Rights Developments...Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html (89K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/EBO2003-HRW.htm
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


    Title: Myanmar: Lack of Security in Counter-Insurgency Areas
    Date of publication: 17 July 2002
    Description/subject: "...In February and March 2002 Amnesty International interviewed some 100 migrants from Myanmar at seven different locations in Thailand. They were from a variety of ethnic groups, including the Shan; Lahu; Palaung; Akha; Mon; Po and Sgaw Karen; Rakhine; and Tavoyan ethnic minorities, and the majority Bamar (Burman) group. They originally came from the Mon, Kayin, Shan, and Rakhine States, and Bago, Yangon and Tanintharyi Divisions.(1) What follows below is a summary of human rights violations in some parts of eastern Myanmar during the last 18 months which migrants reported to Amnesty International. One section of the report also examines several cases of abuses of civilians by armed opposition groups fighting against the Myanmar military. Finally, this document describes various aspects of a Burmese migrant worker's life in Thailand..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced labour, refugees, land confiscation, forced relocation, forced removal, forced resettlement, forced displacement, internal displacement, IDP, extortion, torture, extrajudicial killings, forced conscription, child soldiers, porters, forced portering, house destruction, eviction, Shan State, Wa, USWA, Wa resettlement, Tenasserim, abuses by armed opposition groups.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: PDF version (126K) 48pg
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/007/2002/en
    http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/007/2002/en/7471b112-d81a-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/asa160072002fr.pdf (French)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Jahresbericht 2002
    Date of publication: 28 May 2002
    Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2001
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
    Format/size: html (28K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2002 (events of 2001) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "Events of 2001" ...... In January the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Myanmar announced that a confidential dialogue had been taking place since October 2000 between the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD). The dialogue was believed to have continued for most of 2001. However, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under de facto house arrest, although international delegations were permitted to visit her. Some 1,600 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison. Almost 220 people were released. Three people were sentenced to death for drug trafficking. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in the ethnic minority states, particularly Shan and Kayin states.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: US State Dept.: Burma - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2001)
    Date of publication: 04 March 2002
    Description/subject: Events of 2001. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. Repressive military governments dominated by members of the majority Burman ethnic group have ruled the ethnically Burman central regions and some ethnic-minority areas continuously since 1962, when a coup led by General Ne Win overthrew an elected civilian government. Since September 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), a junta composed of senior military officers, has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The Government is headed by armed forces commander Senior General Than Shwe, although Ne Win, who retired from public office during the 1988 prodemocracy demonstrations, continued to wield informal influence..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 2002: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 January 2002
    Description/subject: This report is based on the Special Rapporteur's October 2001 fact-finding mission to Burma/Myanmar and information received by him up to December 2001, and should be read in conjunction with his report to the General Assembly (A/56/312)of 21 August 2001. CONTENTS: I. ACTIVITIES OF THE SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR: A. Fact-finding mission; B. Other activities. II. HUMAN RIGHTS-RELATED DEVELOPMENTS: A. Activities of the governmental Committee on Human Rights; B. Civil and political; rights: 1. Freedom of political association; Freedom of expression and information; 3. Political prisoners; 4. Conditions in prisons; 5. Freedom of religion; 6. Forced labour. C. Economic, social, and cultural rights: 1. Tertiary education; 2. HIV/AIDS. III. OTHER ISSUES: A. Ceasefires; B. Refugees and internally displaced persons; C. Child soldiers; d. Violence against women; E. Humanitarian aid. IV. CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. Annexes: I. Program for the fact-finding mission of the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar of the UN Commission on Human Rights. II. List of humanitarian cases. III. List of persons who reportedly received prison terms for communicating, trying or intending to communicate, or being suspected of communicating human rights information to the United Nations. IV. List of persons interviewed by the Special Rapporteur during his visits to Lashio and Mandalay.
    Author/creator: Sr. Paulo Sergio Pinheiro
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2002/45)
    Format/size: Word (for download) and pdf (187K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/e6876ab7119ec9dfc1256b8f0058e50a/$FILE/G0210065.doc
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2002 - Events of 2001: Burma section
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: There were signs of a political thaw early in the year and, for the first time in years, hopes that the government might lift some of its stifling controls on civil and political rights. By November, however, the only progress had been limited political prisoner releases and easing of pressures on some opposition politicians in Rangoon. There was no sign of fundamental changes in law or policy, and grave human rights violations remained unaddressed.....Human Rights Developments... Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Looted Land, Proud People: The Case for Canadian Action in Burma
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: A useful and balanced overview. FACTS ABOUT BURMA... BURMA: A CHRONOLOGY... CHAPTER 1: BACKGROUND TO 1988: Rise of Nationalism; Ne Win and Isolationism; Growth of Heroin Industry... CHAPTER 2: THE MEN BEHIND THE MASSACRES: The Ordeal of Aung San Suu Kyi... CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN COSTS OF MILITARY RULE: Refugees; Political Prisoners; Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and Forced Relocation; Forced Labour; Students and Education; Political Prisoners; Freedom of the Press; The Militarization of Society; Women Living under a Military Dictatorship; Political Prisoners... CHAPTER 4: THE CRIMINAL ECOMONY: Sectors Complicit with Forced Labour; Opium, Heroin and a Drug Economy... CHAPTER 5: FORCED LABOUR AND THE ILO: ILO Commission of Inquiry, 1998 Report; Follow-up to the 1998 Report; CHAPTER 6: GEOPOLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL INFLUENCES: Neighbouring Countries; Malaysia,Singapore and ASEA; Canada and Other International Influences; The United Nations; Other National Governments; How Does Canada Measure Up?; Civil Society... CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS: Canada’s Role; Development Assistance; Trade and Investment... FURTHER READING... WEB CONNECTIONS.
    Author/creator: Clyde Sanger
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Canadian Friends of Burma
    Format/size: pdf (1.35MB) 52 pages
    Date of entry/update: 09 July 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: Separate clickable chapters on: Forced Labor; Extra-judicial, Summery, or Arbitrary Executions; Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; Torture and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading treatment or punishment; Deprivation of Livelihood; Rights of the Child; Rights of Women; Rights of Ethnic Minorities; Rights to Education and Health; Freedom of Religious Belief and Practice; Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Freedom of Assembly and Association; Freedom of Movement; Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; The Situation of Refugees; The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; Special Report #1 Landmines in Burma; Special Report #2 Tourism and Human Rights Violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project; List of Resources and Contributors.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) Human Rights Documentation Unit
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Rights of Ethnic Minorities
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "...Burma is a country rich in ethnic diversity. Yet although the SPDC attempts to promote this diversity, and the existence of its 135 "national races" (SPDC term for the countrys ethnic minority groups), the rights of ethnic minority people remain in violation...n areas where cease-fire agreements have been reached, human rights abuses continue to take place. In fact, in these "national reconciliation" areas human rights abuses have increased rather than abated. There has been no move on the part of the SPDC to engage in political discussions with opposition groups to reinforce the military cease-fire agreements. Under the terms of the cease-fire, some ethnic groups have been allowed to keep their arms and soldiers, however, SPDC had vastly increased the number of its soldiers in those areas... The continuing armed conflicts in the Karen, Karenni, Shan and Chin States have been accompanied by massive human rights violations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Main page of Yearbook: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 2001 (56th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 20 August 2001
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session. Summary: "The present report is the first report of the present Special Rapporteur, appointed to this mandate on 28 December 2000. The report refers to his activities and developments relating to the situation of human rights in Myanmar between 1 January and 14 August 2001. In view of the brevity and exploratory nature of the Special Rapporteur’s initial visit to Myanmar in April and pending a proper fact-finding mission to take place at the end of September 2001, this report addresses only a limited number of areas. In the Special Rapporteur’s assessment as presented in this report, political transition in Myanmar is a work in progress and, as in many countries, to move ahead incrementally will be a complex process. In the human rights context, against the background of ongoing talks between the Government and the opposition, there have been some positive signals indicative of the Government’s endeavour to make progress. Those include the dissemination of human rights standards for public officials, work of the governmental Committee on Human Rights, releases of political detainees, reopening of branches of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, the continued international monitoring of prison conditions, and cooperation with the Commission on Human Rights, inter alia, through the mandate of this Special Rapporteur and with the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Myanmar and the International Labour Organization. Among the areas in most need of significant improvement is the situation of vulnerable groups, inter alia, children, women and ethnic minorities and, in particular, those among them who have become internally displaced in zones of military operations. Overall, there exists a complex humanitarian situation in Myanmar, which may decline unless it is properly addressed by all concerned."
    Author/creator: Mr. Paolo Sergio Pinheiro
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/56/312)
    Format/size: PDF (195K) and Word
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/53F25867FD928877C1256AD9004B8E15/$File/N0151752.doc?OpenElement
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2001 (events of 2000) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 June 2001
    Description/subject: Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2001: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 30 May 2001
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
    Format/size: html (28K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 2001 (57th session): Resolution on the situation of human rights in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 18 April 2001
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/RES/2001/15)
    Format/size: Adopted by consensus
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts: Internally displaced villagers cornered by 40 SPDC Battalions; Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.
    Date of publication: 09 April 2001
    Description/subject: Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.Based on new interviews and reports from KHRG field researchers, this update summarises the increasingly desperate situation for villagers in these two districts. In the hills, the people of several hundred villages are still in hiding, their villages destroyed by SPDC troops. Their survival situation is now desperate as 40 SPDC Battalions continue to systematically destroy their rice supplies and crops and landmine their fields, and shoot them on sight. In the villages under SPDC control, people suffer under an impossible burden of many kinds of forced labour and extortion.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (Information Update #2001-U3)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Thaton District: SPDC using violence against villagers to consolidate control
    Date of publication: 20 March 2001
    Description/subject: Information from KHRG researchers in Thaton District, which spans the border of northern Mon State and Karen State. SPDC troops already have a relatively strong hold on the area, but they have been intimidating and torturing villagers in an effort to wipe out any remaining support for the Karen resistance, and forcing villagers to join militia-like SPDC paramilitary groups.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #2001-U2)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Northeastern Pa'an District: Villagers Fleeing Forced Labour Establishing SPDC Army Camps, Building Access Roads and Clearing Landmines
    Date of publication: 20 February 2001
    Description/subject: Information on a new flow of refugees from northeastern Pa'an District into Thailand. The villagers say that they fled their village in mid-January 2001 because SPDC troops are using them as porters, forced labour on an access road, and Army camp labour in order to strengthen the regime's control over this contested area. Worst of all, the villagers say they are being ordered to clear landmines in front of the SPDC Army's road-building bulldozer, and to make way for new Army camps.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update #2001-U1)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 2001: The situation in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 13 February 2001
    Description/subject: Written statement submitted by the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development. "1. In the year 2000, as in the past 12 years, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), Burma's ruling military junta, continues to be among the worst human rights violators of our times. Reported human rights violations included: extra-judicial, summary and arbitrary executions, enforced disappearances, rape, torture, inhuman treatment, mass arrests, forced labour, forced relocation, and denial of freedom of assembly, association, expression and movement..." ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Author/creator: Rights & Democracy (ICHRDD)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations ((E/CN.4/2001/NGO/124)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept.- Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices (2000)
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: Events of 2000
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2001 - Events of 2000: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2001
    Description/subject: Events November 1999-October 2000..."The Burmese government took no steps to improve its dire human rights record. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to pursue a strategy of marginalizing the democratic opposition through detention, intimidation, and restrictions on basic civil liberties. Despite international condemnation, the system of forced labor remained intact. In the war-affected areas of eastern Burma, gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law continued. There, the Shan State Army-South (SSA-S), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Karen National Union (KNU), as well as some other smaller groups, continued their refusal to agree to a cease-fire with the government, as other insurgent forces had done, but they were no longer able to hold significant territory. Tens of thousands of villagers in the contested zones remained in forced relocation sites or internally displaced within the region. Human Rights Developments The SPDC continued to deny its citizens freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement. It intimidated members of the democratic opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) into resigning from the party and encouraged crowds to denounce NLD members elected to parliament in the May 1990 election but not permitted to take their seats. The SPDC rhetoric against the NLD and its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, became increasingly extreme. On March 27, Senior Gen. Than Shwe, in his Armed Forces Day address, called for forces undermining stability to be eliminated. It was a thinly veiled threat against the NLD. On May 2, a commentary in the state-run Kyemon (Mirror) newspaper claimed there was evidence of contact between the NLD and dissident and insurgent groups, an offense punishable by death or life imprisonment. In a May 18 press conference, several Burmese officials pointed to what they said were linkages between the NLD and insurgents based along the Thai-Burma border, and on September 4 the official Myanmar Information Committee repeated this charge in a press release after Burmese security forces raided the NLD headquarters in Rangoon..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International: Myanmar Country Report 2001
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2000 ..... Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar Country Report 2001
    Date of publication: 2001
    Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2000
    Language: Japanese
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: KHRG Commentary #2000-C2
    Date of publication: 17 October 2000
    Description/subject: The worsening situation of the internally displaced in all northern Karen districts, forced labour and convict porters, rice quotas, the desperate situation of rank-and-file SPDC soldiers, forced repatriation of refugees in Thailand, and the SPDC's persistence in denying that there is any problem whatsoever.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
    Date of publication: 15 October 2000
    Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: SPDC & DKBA Orders to Villages: Set 2000-B
    Date of publication: 12 October 2000
    Description/subject: Pa'an, Dooplaya, Toungoo, Papun, & Thaton Districts. Over 250 orders dating from mid-1999 through late September 2000, the vast majority of them from the latter half of that period. Includes restrictions on the movement of villagers, forced relocation, demands for forced labour, extortion of money, food, and materials, threats to villagers and other demands, as well as documents related to rice quotas which farmers are forced to give, education and health. Also contains one order #174 which directly shows the role of a Dutch timber importing company in causing the SPDC to threaten all non-government controlled timber traders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG #2000-04)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 2000 (55th Session) Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 22 August 2000
    Description/subject: The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 2000/23 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/255.
    Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/55/359)
    Format/size: PDF (98K) and Word
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/6f93e36e7c6843ccc1256983002e3c40/$FILE/0063504e.doc
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1999
    Date of publication: 25 February 2000
    Description/subject: Events of 1999
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 2000: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 24 January 2000
    Description/subject: Good section on economic, social and cultural rights.
    Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2000/38)
    Format/size: PDF (58K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/ce1abcf0fa86d72f802568a20060e3ae/$FILE/G0010351.doc
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2000: Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 2000
    Description/subject: "Events of 1999" .... Scores of people were arrested for political reasons and 200 people, some of them prisoners of conscience, were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced in May that it had begun to visit prisons and other places of detention. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities not taking an active part in hostilities, during counter-insurgency operations, particularly in the Kayin State. Forcible relocation continued to be reported in the Kayin State, and the effects of massive forcible relocation programs in previous years in the Kayah and Shan States continued to be felt as civilians were still deprived of their land and livelihood and subjected to forced labour and detention by the military.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/myanmar_burma/document.do?id=7276C685032E6793802568E400729F20
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2000 - Events of 1999: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2000
    Description/subject: Events of November 1998-October 1999)..."The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) offered no signs during the year that fundamental change was on the horizon. The SPDC's standoff with the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued. No progress was made on ending forced labor. Counterinsurgency operations by the Burmese military in several ethnic minority areas, accompanied by extrajudicial executions, forced relocation, and other abuses, led to the displacement of thousands inside Burma and the flight of yet more refugees across the border into Thailand. In one of the few positive developments during the year, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reopened its office in Rangoon in May and was able to visit Burmese prisons on a regular basis. Bilateral and multilateral policies towards Burma remained largely unchanged during the year, with sanctions in place from much of the industrialized world. Various governments tried combinations of diplomatic carrots and economic sticks to improve human rights and encourage negotiations between the SPDC and the opposition, but none had succeeded by late October. Arrests and intimidation of supporters of the NLD continued, part of a campaign that began in August 1998 after the NLD announced its intention to convene a parliament in line with the 1990 election result. This was foiled by mass arrests, and the NLD subsequently established a ten-member Committee Representing People's Parliament (CRPP), a kind of parallel parliamentary authority whose creation was seen as a direct challenge to the government. Some sixty parliamentarians remained under detention while thousands of NLD registered voters were forced to resign their party membership..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 1999 (54th Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 04 October 1999
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-fourth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission resolution 1999/17 of 23 April 1999 and Economic and Social Council decision 1999/231 of 27 July 1999.
    Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/54/440)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: I have to work harder
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: "...The human rights violations still continue in every area of Burma especially in the ethnic areas of Burma. Burmans are not being treated like ethnic people, but because of the civil war and the four cuts system in the ethnic areas the ethnic people suffer a lot. More than the Burman people. But Burmese people also suffer other kinds of human rights violations. In the ethnic areas there is forced portering and forced relocation on a massive scale, but at the same time inside Burma there is political detention and arrest of political activist still going on. We can not compare what is worse and which one is the better one, but the human rights situation is as bad as before like ten years ago. I would say that in some areas its getting worse and in some areas its getting better. Even after we get democracy or even after the SPDC is overthrown so people with the kind of basic knowledge can be helpful for the foundation of civil society for the future of Burma...I decided to do some kind of training to give the knowledge about human rights and give a chance for people to think about their basic rights. This is good for the future of Burma so that people know about their rights, so they know how to prevent abuses. If they know how to advocate then they can protect their human rights. Even after we get democracy or even after the SPDC is overthrown so people with the kind of basic knowledge can be helpful for the foundation of civil society for the future of Burma..."
    Author/creator: Aung Myo Min
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998
    Date of publication: 26 February 1999
    Description/subject: Events of 1998
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Dept. of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1999: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 22 January 1999
    Description/subject: Long section on IDPs; also on prison conditions and the suppression of the NLD.
    Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1999/35)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1999: Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 1999
    Description/subject: This report covers the period January to December 1998. ..... More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons. Political prisoners were tortured and ill-treated, and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions, torture, ill-treatment during forced portering, and other forms of forced labour and forcible relocations. Six political prisoners were sentenced to death. No executions were known to have taken place.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1999 - Events of 1997-98: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1999
    Description/subject: Events December 1997-early November 1998..."Ten years after the 1988 pro-democracy uprising was crushed by the army, Burma continued to be one of the world’s pariah states. A standoff between the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), and other expressions of nonviolent dissent resulted in more than 1,000 detentions during the year. Many were relatively brief, others led eventually to prison sentences. Human rights abuses, including extrajudicial executions, rape, forced labor, and forced relocations, sent thousands of Burmese refugees, many of them from ethnic minority groups, into Thailand and Bangladesh. The change in November 1997 from the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to the gentler-sounding State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) had little impact on human rights practices and policies; the SPDC’s euphemism for continued authoritarian control—”disciplined democracy”— indicated no change. In addition to pervasive human rights violations, an economy in free fall made life even more difficult for the beleaguered population..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karen Human Rights Group Commentary #98-C2
    Date of publication: 24 November 1998
    Description/subject: "..."Things are getting more difficult every day. Even the Burmese leaders capture each other and put each other in jail. If they can capture and imprison even the people who have authority, then how are the villagers supposed to tolerate them? That’s why the villagers are fleeing from Burma." - Dta La Ku elder (M, 44) from Dooplaya district (Report #98-09) There is no doubt that life is currently becoming worse for the vast majority of people in Burma, in both urban and rural areas. In urban areas, people are plagued by high inflation, rapidly increasing prices for basic commodities such as rice and basic foodstuffs, the tumbling value of the Kyat, wages which are not enough to feed oneself, corruption by all arms of the military and civil service, and the ever-present fear of arbitrary arrest for the slightest act or statement that betrays opposition to the State Peace & Development Council (SPDC) junta..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group (KHRG #98-C2)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


    Title: GA 1998 (53rd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 10 September 1998
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-third session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by , Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Economic and Social Council decision 1998/261 of 30 July 1998.
    Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/53/364)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997
    Date of publication: 30 January 1998
    Description/subject: Events of 1997
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1998: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 15 January 1998
    Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1998/70)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1998: Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 1998
    Description/subject: (This report covers the period January-December 1997) ..... More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons; although most were released, 31 – five of them prisoners of conscience – were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Two people were sentenced to death.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1998 - Events of 1996-1997: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1998
    Description/subject: Events December 1996-November 1997..." Respect for human rights in Burma continued to deteriorate relentlessly in 1997. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued to be a target of government repression. NLD leaders were prevented from making any public speeches during the year, and over 300 members were detained in May when they attempted to hold a party congress. There were no meetings during the year of the government's constitutional forum, the National Convention, which last met in March 1996; the convention was one of the only fora where Rangoon-based politicians and members of Burma's various ethnic movements could meet. The government tightened restrictions on freedom of expression, refusing visas to foreign journalists, deporting others and handing down long prison terms to anyone who attempted to collect information or contact groups abroad. Persecution of Muslims increased. Armed conflict continued between government troops and ethnic opposition forces in a number of areas, accompanied by human rights abuses such as forced portering, summary executions, rape, and torture. The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) continued to deny access to U.N. Special Representative to Burma Rajsoomer Lallah. Despite its human rights practices, however, Burma was admitted as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in July..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 1997 (52nd Session): Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 16 October 1997
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-second session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 51/117 of 12 December 1996 and Economic and Social Council decision 1997/272 of 22 July 1997. Good section on citizenship and citizenship legislation (paras 119-142), mainly relating to the Rohingyas, a Muslim group in Rakhine (Arakan) state; statelessness and the conformity of the different forms of citizenship [in Burma] with international norms. Also, the rights pertaining to democratic governance, the right to form and join trade unions, forced labour, violations against ethnic minorities, including violations of civil rights.
    Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/52/484)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1997: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 06 February 1997
    Author/creator: Mr Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1997/64)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996
    Date of publication: 30 January 1997
    Description/subject: Events of 1996
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html (84K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/USDOS-CR1996.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1997: Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: "Events of 1996" ..... More than 1,000 people involved in opposition political activities, including 68 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Almost 2,000 people were arrested for political reasons, including at least 23 prisoners of conscience. Although most were released, 45 were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials and 175 were still detained without charge or trial at the end of the year. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Seven people were sentenced to death.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1997 - Events of 1996: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: Any hope that the July 1995 release of opposition leader and Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi might be a sign of human rights reforms by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) government were destroyed during 1996 as political arrests and repression dramatically increased and forced labor, forced relocations, and arbitrary arrests continued to be the daily reality for millions of ordinary Burmese. The turn for the worse received little censure from Burma's neighbors, who instead took the first step towards granting the country full membership in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and welcomed SLORC as a member of the Asian Regional Forum, a security body.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: GA 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 08 October 1996
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fifty-first session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, prepared by Judge Rajsoomer Lallah, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, in accordance with Commission resolution 1996/80 of 23 April 1996.
    Author/creator: Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/51/466)
    Format/size: pdf (94K), html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Dacoits Inc.
    Date of publication: June 1996
    Description/subject: "Human rights violations committed by units/personnel of Burma's SLORC armed forces 1994-1995". A 100 or so pages of summaries of incidents, classified by Burma army units, with date, army unit, name of commanding officer (where available), short description of incident. Important document. See also "A Swamp Full of Lilies" (1994) which covers 1992-1993.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: PDF (2939K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: New Internationalist: Burma, a Cry for Freedom
    Date of publication: June 1996
    Description/subject: Special issue of the magazine. Several articles
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: New Internationalist
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: KHRG Intervention at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    Date of publication: 14 April 1996
    Description/subject: "...Mr. Chairman, Many dictatorial regimes argue that human rights take second place to economic development, that as long as government figures claim some kind of "economic growth" the world should ignore serious and systematic human rights abuses. [In reality, economic growth is meaningless without an improvement in the lives of the people, and there can be no such improvement where systematic human rights abuses prevail.] Some regimes claiming to create peace and economic stability actually carry out abuses which destroy the economic, social and cultural fabric of the country. For several years the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs has been following the situation in Burma, where the ruling military junta, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC, is such a regime..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1995
    Date of publication: March 1996
    Description/subject: Events of 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (61K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1996: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 05 February 1996
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1996/65)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1996 - Events of 1995: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1996
    Description/subject: Events of 1995..."The most significant human rights event in Burma in 1995 was the release on July 10 of Nobel laureate and opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi after six years of house arrest. Paradoxically, the governing military State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took an increasingly hard-line stance during the year, and there was no overall improvement in the human rights situation. In some areas abuses increased, notably in the Karen, Karenni and Shan States where there was fighting, while throughout the country thousands of civilians were forced to work as unpaid laborers for the army. The SLORC continued to deny basic rights such as freedom of speech, association and religion and the right of citizens to participate in the political process..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 1995: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 16 October 1995
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Fiftieth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/72 of 8 March 1995, and Economic and Social Council decision 1995/283 of 25 July 1995.
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/50/568)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Country Report on Human Rights: Burma
    Date of publication: 01 October 1995
    Description/subject: "Burma is a country where many nationalities live together. Half of the population is Burman, who live in the central plains and valleys, and the rest are from about 15 main ethnic groups, most of whom live in more hilly regions. Historically, Burma was never a single country until the British annexed it in 1886. After independence in 1948, the Burman leaders started making policies favouring the Burmans and making everyone else into second-class citizens. So one by one the non-Burman peoples went into revolution demanding equal rights. By the 1970s, there were more than 12 ethnic groups fighting against the Burmese government. They had their own governments and controlled alot of the territory outside of central Burma..." _Report on: Civil and Political Rights, Economic, Social & Cultural Rights, Women, children and the elderly, Ethnic / Indigenous Rights, Problems of Human Rights Defence and Proposals / Recommendation.
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Current Human Rights Situation in Burma
    Date of publication: 05 September 1995
    Description/subject: The Military and Political Situation, The Human Rights Situation and Conclusions and Recommendations.
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles and Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: The Current Human Rights Situation in Burma: Executive Summary
    Date of publication: 05 September 1995
    Description/subject: "...SLORC is using the release of Aung San Suu Kyi to divert attention away from what is really happening in Burma right now: resumed and intensified offensives against ethnic peoples, further expansion of the army, intensified repression and clampdowns against people nationwide, and the further collapse of the economy. The human rights situation is rapidly worsening, with rapid increases in forced labour as military porters and servants, forced labour on development and infrastructure projects, extortion which is driving villagers further into destitution, land confiscation for military-run farms operated with forced labour, and other abuses connected with these activities such as killings, torture, rape, arbitrary detention, and abuse against children, women, and the elderly. The rural areas are being systematically targetted for further repression and extortion in order to support cosmetic and superficial "improvements" in urban areas - for example, more urban people are giving money in lieu of forced labour, causing more rural villagers to be taken for forced labour. Urban people are poorer than ever due to spiralling inflation, partly caused by foreign investment. Rural people are being hit the hardest due to spiralling demands for extortion money by military officers. Tens of millions of Kyat per month is stolen from rural villages and sent by officers to their families in the cities; their families can then set up urban businesses, and foreign visitors mistake this for economic improvement and open market reform. SLORC still rigidly controls the economy. Rural villages can no longer pay and are falling apart as people flee to avoid arrest for failure to pay money and crop quotas. Forced labour is increasing exponentially in some areas in hurried attempts to finish infrastructure in preparation for "Visit Myanmar Year 1996"..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Articles & Papers)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 November 2009


    Title: Report to the Senate Foreign Operations Subcommittee
    Date of publication: 25 July 1995
    Description/subject: Testimony of Karen Parker J.D. before the Foreign Operations Sub-Committee Senate Appropriations Committee. " The three features of the situation of human rights in Burma described in my 1993 statement are still valid today: (1) the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) regime is illegitimate yet continues in power; (2) the regime continues to be particularly brutal; and (3) armed conflict continues, primarily involving the ethnic nationalities who have been fighting against the SLORC regime and its predecessor governments. Violations of armed conflict law, as set out in the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and all customary humanitarian law, continue to be violated. Thus, the SLORC regime continues to commit grave war crimes..." Keywords: Karen, Karenni, War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity, International law, violations of human rights law, violations of humanitarian law, armed conflict, Laws of War, United States Policy.
    Author/creator: Karen Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Burma: Entrenchment or Reform? Human Rights Developments and the Need for Continued Pressure
    Date of publication: July 1995
    Description/subject: I SUMMARY � Summary of Recommendations� II THE PATTERN OF ABUSE: Political Prisoners; The Political Process; The National Convention; Forced Labor; Discrimination Against Minorities� III HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES DURING COUNTERINSURGENCY OPERATIONS: The Renewed Offensive in the Karen State; The Offensive Against Khun Sa; IV THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE: The United Nations; China; India; The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN); Japan; The United States� V RECOMMENDATIONS: To the State Law and Order Restoration Council; To the International Community; APPENDIX I � APPENDIX II.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html (463K), pdf (332K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/legacy/summaries/s.burma957.html
    Date of entry/update: 09 March 2004


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1994
    Date of publication: February 1995
    Description/subject: Events of 1994
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (123K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1995: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 12 January 1995
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1995/65)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1995 - Events of 1994: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1995
    Description/subject: Events of 1994..."The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), a military body established as a temporary government in Burma after the pro-democracy uprising in 1988, continued to be responsible for forced labor, especially on infrastructure projects; arbitrary detention; torture; and denials of freedom of association, expression, and assembly. Fighting with armed ethnic groups along the Thai and Chinese borders continued to diminish, as the SLORC reached a cease-fire agreement with the Kachin Independence Organization in February and opened talks with others. Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the democratic opposition, remained under house arrest but for the first time since her detention in July 1989 was permitted to meet with visitors outside her family. On September 21, as the U.N. General Assembly opened in New York, she was allowed out of her house for a televised meeting with the chair and secretary-1 of the SLORC, Senior General Than Shwe and Lieutenant General Khin Nyunt. A second meeting took place on October 28..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar (Addendum - Government Response)
    Date of publication: 09 November 1994
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-ninth session. 1. The Special Rapporteur submitted to the Government of Myanmar, on 5 October 1994, a summary of allegations he had received concerning human rights violations in Myanmar (for the text, see A/49/594, para. 9). In his accompanying letter, the Special Rapporteur requested the Government of Myanmar's responses to five specific questions (see A/49/594, para. 8). 2. By note verbale dated 4 November 1994, the Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the United Nations Office at Geneva transmitted the responses of the Government of Myanmar to both the Special Rapporteur's summary of allegations received and the five specific questions put in his letter of 5 October 1994. 3. The following is the full text of the Government of Myanmar's response to the summary of allegations received by the Special Rapporteur: "OBSERVATIONS AND REBUTTALS ON THE SUMMARY OF ALLEGATIONS"
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594/Add.1)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Myanmar: human rights still denied
    Date of publication: November 1994
    Description/subject: "In the sixth year of government by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), there has been no fundamental change in its attitude towards respecting the basic human rights of its citizens. Whereas the SLORC took a number of tentative steps to indicate to the international community a willingness to address the human rights situation in Myanmar, it at the same time reinforced its repressive hold within the country..." Keywords: prisoners of conscience, house/town arrest, death in custody, death penalte, minorities, politically-motivated criminal charges, ill-health, torture, ill-treatment, prison conditions, solitary confinement, long-term imprisonment, forced labour, transportation, extrajudicial execution, women, farmers, aged, lawyers, political activists, journalists, parliamentarians, writers, editors, publishers, students, dentists, scientists, military as victims, doctors, refugees, armed conflict, military, impunity, constitutional change, political background, release, photographs, UN
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/18/94)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: GA 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 28 October 1994
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Forthy-ninth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Mr. Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar in accordance with paragraph 20 of Commission on Human Rights resolution 1994/85 of 9 March 1994 and Economic and Social Council decision 1994/269 of 25 July 1994.
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/49/594)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Testimony of SLORC Army Defectors
    Date of publication: 07 August 1994
    Description/subject: "TOPIC SUMYARY:SLORC recruiting methods (p.2,5,7,8,10111), drafting old men and teenagers (p.2,6,7,8,10), abuse during military training (p.3,6,8), theft of food, medicines & salary by officers (p.3,6,9,11), censorship of letters (p.4,6-7,8), beating/torture of soldiers (p.3,6,8,9,10), officers ordering their own wounded shot (p.4,6,10), execution Karen POWs (p.4), execution, enslavement and abuse of villagers (p.4-5,7,9,10,11,), using porters in battle (p.4), situation inside Burma (p.5,7,9,10)..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Comments by SLORC Army Defectors
    Date of publication: 20 June 1994
    Description/subject: "The following comments were made recently in independent interviews with defectors from the SLORC Army in Mergui/Tavoy District, in the Tenasserim Division of southern Burma. Some of them defected earlier this year, while others defected over a year ago. However, all of their comments still apply because as the SLORC Army continues to rapidly expand, conditions continue to deteriorate for both civilians and rank-and-file soldiers. In fact, as the comments of these former soldiers make clear, it seems that only the senior officers are deriving any benefit at all from the systematic oppression of the civilian population. The monthly salary before deductions of a private soldier, 450 Kyat, is not even enough to buy milled rice for two people for a month at current prices - not to mention that people also need other food to eat with their rice. Meanwhile, inflation continues to rage throughout the country as the Kyat becomes increasingly worthless..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1994: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 16 February 1994
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1994/57)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: A Swamp Full of Lillies
    Date of publication: February 1994
    Description/subject: "Human rights violations committed by units/personnel of Burma's Army, 1992-1993". 60 pages of summaries of incidents, classified by Burma army units, with date, army unit, name of commanding officer (where available), short description of incident. Important document. See also "Dacoits Inc." (1996) which covers 1994-1995.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: PDF (2897K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept.:Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1993
    Date of publication: 31 January 1994
    Description/subject: Events of 1993
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (110K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1994 - Events of 1993: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1994
    Description/subject: Events of 1993... "The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC continued to be a human rights pariah, despite its cosmetic gestures to respond to international criticism. Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize, was permitted visits from her family but remained under house arrest for the fifth year. SLORC announced the release of nearly 2,000 political prisoners, but it was not clear that the majority had been detained on political charges, nor could most of the releases be verified. At least one hundred critics of SLORC were detained during the year, and hundreds of people tried by military tribunals between 1989 and 1992 remained in prison. Torture in Burmese prisons continued to be widespread. Foreign correspondents were able to obtain visas for Burma more easily, but access by human rights and humanitarian organizations remained tightly restricted. A constitutional convention met throughout the year, but over 80 percent of the delegates were hand-picked by SLORC..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: MYANMAR: Human rights developments July to December 1993
    Date of publication: 31 December 1993
    Description/subject: "While there are signs of relaxation of restrictions and some progress in economic, social and cultural rights, many civil and political rights are still severely restricted. Particularly, the right to life, liberty and security of person, freedoms from slavery, torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment, freedoms of thought, opinion, expression, peaceful assembly and association are widely violated and ignored especially in connection with forced labour, forced relocation, political activities including activities related to political parties and the National Convention."... "Amnesty International welcomes certain incremental improvements which the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar's military authorities, have made in regards to the human rights situation. However the organization remains concerned that a system of repression is still in place which is being used to violate the fundamental human rights of the people of Myanmar. During 1993 non-violent critics of the SLORC were arrested and sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, and ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen, were still at grave risk of repressive measures by the Myanmar security forces in the course of their counterinsurgency operations. Torture and ill-treatment of both ethnic minorities during forced portering and of political prisoners in Myanmar's jails continues to be a common occurrence. Some 70 prisoners of conscience remain in detention, most of whom have been sentenced after blatantly unfair trials. Other prisoners of conscience who have been released are routinely subjected to intimidation, which takes the form of surveillance, threats, and interrogation. Delegates to the SLORC-controlled National Convention have also been subject to similar repressive measures which have denied them the rights to freedom of expression and assembly..." Developments at the National Convention, Political Detention, Recent Arrests, Human rights violations against members of the Karen ethnic minority, Burmese Muslim refugees. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Other International Organizations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International USA
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnestyusa.org/countries/myanmar_burma/document.do?id=A059B998242172D4802569A6006044AF
    Date of entry/update: 09 March 2005


    Title: GA 1993: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 16 November 1993
    Description/subject: General Assembly, Forty-eighth session. The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim report prepared by Professor Yozo Yokota, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, in accordance with paragraph 16 of the Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/73 of 10 March 1993 and Economic and Social Council decision 1993/278 of 28 July 1993.
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (A/48/578)
    Format/size: PDF (88K) and Word
    Alternate URLs: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/0/026307f31845840dc125699000591d47/$FILE/9361495E.doc
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 1993: Report by the Special Rapporteur on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 17 February 1993
    Author/creator: Mr. Yozo Yokota
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/1993/37)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 - Events of 1992: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1993
    Description/subject: Events of 1992...Human Rights Developments Burma (Myanmar) in 1992 remained one of the human rights disasters in Asia. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi continued under house arrest, and an unknown number of political dissidents remained in prison. Reports of military abuses against members of ethnic minority groups were frequent. Certain positive measures were taken by Burma's military junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (slorc), such as the release of several hundred alleged political prisoners and slorc's accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. But the changes were largely superficial, and human rights violations persisted unchecked. ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Report to the U.S. House Subcomittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs(1993)
    Date of publication: 1993
    Description/subject: Testimony of Karen Parker J. D. before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee on Asian and Pacific Affairs. Main headings: Illegitimacy of SLORC; G ross violatoins of human rights; Armed Conflict; The NDF/DAB-SLORC War; The Karenni-SLORC War; U.S. Policy. "I am pleased to have this opportunity to provide the Sub- Committee with information regarding Burma and my views on what United States policy should be towards that country... This statement will set out the situation in Burma from the point of view of international law norms. It will also present actions taken at the United Nations and its human rights bodies, including a review of Aung San Suu Kyi's case at the Working Group. It will conclude with recommendations regarding United States policy. There are three salient features of the situation of human rights in Burma: (1) the current regime is illegitimate; (2) the regime is particularly brutal; and (3) there is wide scale armed conflict, primarily involving the ethnic nationalities who have been fighting against the SLORC regime and its predecessor governments..."
    Author/creator: Karen Parker
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Karen Parker Home Page for Humanitarian Law
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar: 'No law at all' Human rights violations under military rule
    Date of publication: 28 October 1992
    Description/subject: "I would like to explain about this martial law according to records that I have studied... martial law is neither more nor less than the will of the general who commands the army; in fact, martial law means no law at all." (Major General Khin Nyunt, Secretary-1 of the State Law and Order Restoration Council and head of military intelligence, 15 May 1991.)... "Human rights are grossly and persistently violated throughout Myanmar. The victims come from every section of society, and every ethnic and religious group. Opposition to the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) has been systematically suppressed; over 1,500 political activists have been jailed, sometimes following unfair trials and sometimes with no trial at all. Many have been tortured or have suffered other forms of ill-treatment. The military continues to detain civilians to work as porters or as labourers who are routinely ill-treated and even summarily killed when they become too exhausted to continue working. In ethnic minority areas where the military confronts armed insurgency, defenceless civilians have been arbitrarily arrested, tortured and killed. Minorities in areas where there is little or no armed opposition, like the Muslims of Rakhine (Arakan) State, have also fallen victim to gross violations of their basic rights, including arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial execution..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA16/11/92)
    Format/size: pdf (602K)
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2006


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1992 - Events of 1991: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1992
    Description/subject: Events of 1991..." Refusing to respect the results of the 1990 general elections, Burma's military leaders intensified their crackdown on political dissent throughout the country in 1991. Repression was worse than any other time in recent years, marked by a complete lack of basic freedoms and the continuing imprisonment of thousands of suspected opponents of the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). By the middle of the year, the crackdown extended beyond members of the main opposition parties to include a massive purge of those employed in the civil service, schools and universities. In late 1990 and early 1991, SLORC also heightened its offensive against ethnic minority insurgent groups, resulting in widespread civilian casualties and the displacement of tens of thousands of people along Burma's borders. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi helped to focus attention on SLORC's disastrous human rights record. The crackdown on members and supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi's party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was especially severe..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Dying for Democracy" Journal of the British Section of Amnesty International No. 48 Dec/Jun 1990/1
    Date of publication: January 1991
    Description/subject: This is an article from Journal of the British Section of Amnesty International No. 48 Dec/Jun 1990/1... Myanmar, once known as a green and gentle land of golden pagodas, is now a country of blood and terror...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The British Section of Amnesty International
    Format/size: pdf (124K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Recent developments related to human rights
    Date of publication: 01 November 1990
    Description/subject: This report describes some of the human rights violations which have taken place in Myanmar between May and September 1990, including the arrest of political activists and ill-treatment of political prisoners. It reports the continuing detention of members and leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD), namely: Aung San Suu Kyi, Tin U, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing, Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Ye Myint Aung, Sein Kla Aung, Kyi Hla, Sein Hlaing, Myo Myint Nyein, and Nyan Paw. Three leaders of the Democratic Party for a New Society have also been arrested: Kyi Win, Ye Naing, Ngwe Oo.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/28/90)
    Format/size: pdf (10K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/028/1990/en
    Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Prisoners of Conscience, Torture, Extrajudicial Executions (Amnesty International Briefing)
    Date of publication: October 1990
    Description/subject: Profile of Myanmar... The iron road... War on the borders... Silencing the democracy movement... Prisoner of conscience... Cultural activists imprisoned... Prisoner of conscience... The vocabulary of torture... 'See how we deal with insurgents'... Riding a motor-cycle... 'Nothing but an ambush'... 'Nothing but an ambush'... The soldiers gave no warning... Laws restricting basic rights... Martial law summary justice... Recommendations... Information from Amnesty International...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/09/90)
    Format/size: pdf (2.91MB)
    Date of entry/update: 04 March 2012


    Title: MYANMAR: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE AND TORTURE
    Date of publication: 02 May 1990
    Description/subject: "The 26-year rule of General Ne Win's Burma Socialist Programme Party came to an end when Armed Forces Chief of Staff General Saw Maung led a military coup on 18 September 1988. The coup followed months of pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country - and the deaths of thousands of mostly peaceful demonstrators as a result of shootings by the army. Since the coup, severe human rights violations, including mass arrests of prisoners of conscience and possible prisoners of conscience, widespread torture, summary trials, and extrajudicial executions continued to occur at a very high level. Recent testimonies obtained by Amnesty International describe these human rights abuses and indicate that real or imputed critics of Myanmar's military government run a high risk of being imprisoned, interrogated, and tortured for the peaceful expression of their political views. The new military government pledged political and economic reforms that appeared to go some way towards meeting the demands of pro-democracy protesters. The authorities announced that elections to a new parliament would take place in May 1990, following which a new constitution would be drawn up to lay the foundation for a multi-party, parliamentary democracy. For the first time since 1962 political opposition parties were permitted to organize and were recognized by the government. However, the promised transition to parliamentary democracy was marred by renewed repression even as the new military government established itself. Hundreds of people were shot in the weeks following the coup by troops who fired on demonstrators without warning. Possibly thousands had been detained by the military government by March 1990, many of them prisoners of conscience. Prisoners of conscience included the main opposition leaders, many of whom were arrested in July 1989 and officially disqualified by the SLORC from standing in the elections. Evidence based on interviews conducted in November and December 1989 by Amnesty International from recently released political prisoners and refugees who have fled the country suggests not only that torture and unlawful killings of civilians in ethnic minority areas continue to be widespread but that torture of political suspects occurs in other parts of the country (i.e. non-ethnic minority areas). Several of those interviewed had been prisoners of conscience, arrested, interrogated and tortured for the peaceful exercise of their fundamental human rights. In the light of this new information, Amnesty International is seriously concerned that any person arrested for political reasons in Myanmar must be considered to be at risk of torture by government security forces..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16-04-90)
    Format/size: pdf (68K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2005


    Title: HUMAN RIGHTS IN BURMA (MYANMAR)
    Date of publication: May 1990
    Description/subject: "Burma's people go to the polls on May 27, 1990, in the first election to be held in the country in thirty years. However, human rights violations are so widespread and restrictions on political expression so severe as to render impossible a free and fair election. An Asia Watch mission to Burma and Thailand in April 1990 confirmed that the Burmese military authorities continue to engage in a consistent pattern of gross human rights abuses both in the interior and along the border. In Rangoon and other major cities, political dissidents have been jailed or placed under house arrest, torture of political detainees is widespread, martial law remains in effect throughout most of the country, criticism of the military is banned, and hundreds of thousands have been forcibly relocated to outlying areas lacking basic amenities. In its recent offensive against ethnic minority guerrilla forces on the Thai border, the Burmese army has indiscriminately killed or wounded hundreds of civilians and looted or burned homes and private property. Thousands of civilians have been compelled to serve as porters for the army. As such, they are brutally mistreated and are forced to carry supplies or to serve as human mine-sweepers. Porters have been shot or beaten for trying to escape, and those who become exhausted or ill are routinely left to die..."
    Author/creator: James A. Goldston
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Watch (A Committee of Human Rights Watch)
    Format/size: pdf (505K)
    Date of entry/update: 02 June 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1990 - Events of 1989: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1990
    Description/subject: Events of 1989... "The military government in Burma, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, intensified political repression in the wake of the opposition's landslide victory in elections for a new National Assembly held in May 1990. Soon after taking power in September 1988, following an unprecedented nationwide uprising against the 26-year-old rule of General Ne Win and his Burma Socialist Programme Party in which security forces are believed to have killed an estimated 3,000 to 10,000 protestors, SLORC promised to deliver power to a civilian government as soon as elections could be organized..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1989 - Events of 1988: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1989
    Description/subject: Events of 1988... "The Bush administration's stance on Burma (Myanmar) was generally positive, although the U.S. embassy in Thailand has been slow to respond to requests for refugee status by Burmese students fleeing repression. The human rights situation in Burma continued to deteriorate sharply throughout 1989, following the bloody end in September 1988 of Burma's pro-democracy demonstrations, when at least 3000 students and other largely unarmed civilians on the streets of the capital and other cities were massacred. The Reagan administration was quick to suspend its small military and economic aid program, and the Bush administration continued to speak out against Burmese rights violations. As one diplomat in Rangoon told the Washington Post in March, "Since there are no U.S. bases and very little strategic interest, Burma is one place where the United States has the luxury of living up to its principles." ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: BURMA THE 18 SEPTEMBER 1988 MILITARY TAKEOVER AND ITS AFTERMATH
    Date of publication: December 1988
    Description/subject: "Widespread human rights violations have taken place throughout the country since March 1988 as security forces have moved to suppress unprecedented popular unrest that culminated in August in a huge uprising demanding an end to authoritarian military rule and the establishment of multi-party democracy. Several thousand mostly non-violent demonstrators including women and children were reportedly killed by government security forces in March, June and August in Rangoon, the capital, and in Mandalay, Moulmein, Pegu, Prome, Taunggyi, Sagaing and other towns. During the same period a thousand others, including prisoners of conscience, were arrested and held for long periods, mostly in incommunicado detention. Although many of them were reportedly released after, sometimes brutal, interrogation, hundreds, including prisoners of conscience, were reported, in early September, to be still in prison, many without charge or trial. On 18 September 1988 the army staged a coup and brutally re-imposed government control over the administration of the country which had been almost paralysed by a series of general strikes that had involved an enormous number of people throughout the country. The coup and its immediate aftermath prompted a fresh outburst of street violence that resulted in hundreds more mostly peaceful, unarmed demonstrators being killed and wounded and thousands of others being arrested. Although no official figure was available, by December 1988 hundreds of political prisoners nationwide (including possible prisoners of conscience) arrested since or before 18 September, were believed to be in detention, most of them without charge or trial..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/00/88, ASA 16/15/88)
    Format/size: pdf (83K)
    Date of entry/update: 18 August 2005


    Title: BURMA: EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION AND TORTURE OF MEMBERS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES
    Date of publication: May 1988
    Description/subject: "Thousands of ethnic minority people have fled Burma to escape the indiscriminate brutality of the army's counter-insurgency operations. Most of the refugees are from the Karen State, a mountainous area bordering on Thailand. Others come from the Mon and Kachin States and other parts of Burma. Their plight has received little attention from the international community. In this report Amnesty International publishes, for the first time, a detailed account of the widespread extrajudicial executions, and torture and harsh treatment inflicted on these people by soldiers operating in defiance of both Burmese and international law...Since 1984 the Burmese army has waged intensive counter-insurgency campaigns against various armed opposition groups, including minority movements fighting for greater autonomy in the Karen, Kachin and Mon States. The civilian population has suffered heavily in counter-insurgency drives. Most of the people living in these remote and mountainous states are illiterate villagers making a living out of rice farming or petty trading. To deny the insurgents any possible logistical or other support the army has imposed harsh restrictions on the villagers' lives, including controls on their movement, residence and wealth. Whole villages have been regrouped in "strategic hamlets" - fenced settlements - under strict curfew. These restrictions impose intolerable hardships on rice farmers, whose livelihood depends on free movement to tend their crops in often far-off fields, and on itinerant traders who ply their wares between villages. People are forced to risk their lives in order to survive. If they are found in places declared off-limits by the army, or on roads or in fields after curfew, they are suspected of links with the insurgents and may be summarily shot or taken into custody and tortured. Mutilated bodies are sometimes left by roadsides and in the fields...1. SUMMARY 2. INTRODUCTION 2.1 SOURCES AND THE SCALE OF ABUSES 2.2 BACKGROUND 2.2.1 HISTORICAL SKETCH 2.2.2 KAREN INSURGENCY 2.2.3 KACHIN AND MON INSURGENCIES 2.3 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S POSITION ON ABUSES BY ARMED OPPOSITION FORCES 12 3. EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION OF KAREN BY THE ARMY 3.1 CIRCUMSTANCES AND METHODS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION 3.2 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION FOR DISOBEYING RESTRICTIONS ON LIVELIHOOD 3.3 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION OF PORTERS AND GUIDES 3.4 EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION FOR OTHER REASONS 4. TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF KAREN BY THE ARMY 4.1 CIRCUMSTANCES AND METHODS OF TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT 4.2 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT DURING INTERROGATION 4.3 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT AS PUNISHMENT 4.4 TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF WIVES TAKEN AS HOSTAGES 5. TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF KACHIN AND MON BY THE ARMY AND POLICE 5.1 KACHIN CASES 5.2 MON CASES 6. BURMESE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW AND AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1 BURMESE LEGAL SAFEGUARDS AND REMEDIES RELATED TO HUMAN 6.1.1 PROVISIONS AGAINST TORTURE AND UNLAWFUL KILLING 6.1.2 FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST AND DETENTION 6.1.3 THE JUDICIARY 6.1.4 POLITICAL OFFENCES INVOLVING VIOLENCE 6.1.5 EMERGENCY ABRIDGEMENT OF RIGHTS 6.1.6 INSPECTION AND COMPLAINTS PROCEDURES 6.2 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 6.3 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE GOVERNMENT 6.4 GOVERNMENT REJECTION OF ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTION 6.5 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE GOVERNMENT 6.5.1 HIGH-LEVEL GOVERNMENT STATEMENTS AGAINST HUMAN RIGHTS 6.5.2 FULL GOVERNMENT INQUIRY/PROSECUTION OF RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITIES 6.5.3 LEGISLATIVE REFORM AND ENFORCEMENT 6.5.4 IMPROVED TRAINING OF SECURITY FORCES 6.5.5 COMPENSATION FOR VICTIMS AND THEIR RELATIVES 6.5.6 PROVIDING ACCESS AND INFORMATION TO INTERNATIONAL BODIES 6.5.7 RATIFICATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS 6.5.8 DIVISION OF DETENTION AND INTERROGATION RESPONSIBILITIES 6 5.9 COMPREHENSIVE PUBLIC RECORDS OF ARREST AND DETENTION..... APPENDIX 1: REPORTED VICTIMS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS; APPPENDIX 2: REPORTED VICTIMS OF TORTURE OR OTHER SEVERE ILL-TREATMENT.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16-05-88)
    Format/size: pdf (428K)
    Date of entry/update: 17 August 2005


    Title: ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND ILLTREATMENT IN THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF BURMA
    Date of publication: September 1987
    Description/subject: "Over the past two and half years, Amnesty International has been increasingly concerned about the growing number of reports it has received of serious human rights violations in the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. These violations have allegedly been committed by Burmese government armed forces and security agencies against mostly non-combattant civilians of ethnic minority origin living in regions where armed insurgent groups are active, notably in Burma's eastern Karen and Kayah States. Similar information has, however, come out of the Shan State in the east, the Rakhine (Arakan) State in the west, the Mon State in the south and, more recently, the Kachin State in the north (see Amnesty International's Reports 1985, 1986 and 1987). The alleged violations include the frequent practice of arbitrary arrest and short-term detention without charge or trial of suspected political offenders and the torture and ill-treatment of political detainees, particularly of civilian villagers taken into military custody during military operations. They also include persistent allegations that civilian villagers suspected of supporting or sympathizing with ethnic rebels, porters and traders travelling through restricted areas as well as prisoners of war captured in combat have been extrajudicially executed for political, ethnic or other reasons...".....APPENDIX: SOME ILLUSTRATIONS OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S CONCERNS IN EASTERN BURMA (1985-EARLY 1987): ALLEGATIONS OF EXTRAJUDICIAL EXECUTIONS, TORTURE AND ILL-TREATMENT OF CIVILIAN VILLAGERS IN THE KAREN STATE
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/03.87)
    Format/size: pdf (51K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 August 2005


    Title: "I am Still Alive" -- Report of a Survey of Human Rights Abuse in Frontier Areas of Burma, 1983-1986
    Date of publication: 1986
    Description/subject: Introduction, maps, methodology, interviews.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Project Maje
    Format/size: pdf (976K) 42 pages
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Amnesty International annual reports (Myanmar section) from 1994

    Individual Documents

    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2012 (events of 2011) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 24 May 2012
    Description/subject: "The government enacted limited political and economic reforms, but human rights violations and violations of international humanitarian law in ethnic minority areas increased during the year. Some of these amounted to crimes against humanity or war crimes. Forced displacement reached its highest level in a decade, and reports of forced labour their highest level in several years. Authorities maintained restrictions on freedom of religion and belief, and perpetrators of human rights violations went unpunished. Despite releasing at least 313 political prisoners during the year, authorities continued to arrest such people, further violating their rights by subjecting them to ill-treatment and poor prison conditions..."....Background....Internal armed conflict ....Forced displacement and refugees....Forced labour....Freedom of religion or belief....Impunity....International scrutiny
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2011 (events of 2010) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2011
    Description/subject: Elections-related violations ...Repression of ethnic minority activists ...Political prisoners ...Forced displacement...Development-related violations...International scrutiny.....Reports: Myanmar: End repression of ethnic minorities; Myanmar’s 2010 elections: A human rights perspective; Myanmar elections will test ASEAN’s credibility; India’s relations with Myanmar fail to address human rights concerns in run up to elections; Myanmar opposition must be free to fight elections, 10 March 2010; ASEAN leaders should act over Myanmar’s appalling rights record, 6 April 2010; Myanmar: Political prisoners must be freed, 26 September 2010; Myanmar government attacks on freedoms compromise elections, 5 November; Myanmar should free all prisoners of conscience following Aung San Suu Kyi release, 13 November 2010
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2010 (events of 2009) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 27 May 2010
    Description/subject: Background: In August, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was permitted to meet a US Senator, and in October met with her government liaison officer for the first time since January 2008. In November, she met a high-level mission from the US. In April, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, the military government) proposed that the ethnic minority armed groups that had agreed ceasefires with the government become border guard forces under SPDC command. This was in preparation for national elections in 2010 – the first since 1990 – but negotiations and fighting with such armed groups followed throughout the year. By the end of the year only nine groups agreed to the proposal, most citing a feared loss of territory or control as reasons for their refusal. Relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction in the wake of the 2008 Cyclone Nargis continued, while serious food shortages struck Chin and Rakhine States. Myanmar began building a fence on the border with Bangladesh, which increased tensions between the two countries. The international community raised concerns that the Myanmar government may be seeking nuclear capability.....Political prisoners ...Prison conditions ...Targeting ethnic minorities ...Cyclone Nargis-related arrests and imprisonment ...Armed conflict and displacement ...Development-related violations ...Child soldiers ...International scrutiny ...Death penalty ...Amnesty International reports: Open letter to the governments of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand on the plight of the Rohingyas... Myanmar: Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s new sentence “shameful”, 11 August 2009
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2009 (events of 2008) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 27 May 2009
    Description/subject: "In February, the government announced that a referendum would be held later in the year on a draft constitution, followed by elections in 2010. In May -- only a week before the scheduled day for the referendum -- Cyclone Nargis devastated parts of southern Myanmar, affecting approximately 2.4 million people. More than 84,500 people died and more than 19,000 were injured, while nearly 54,000 remained unaccounted for. In its aftermath the government delayed or placed conditions on aid delivery, and refused international donors permission to provide humanitarian assistance. Following a visit by the UN Secretary-General in late May, access improved, but the government continued to obstruct aid and forcibly evict survivors from shelters. Also in May the government extended the house arrest of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, General Secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party. By the end of the year there were more than 2,100 other political prisoners. Many were given sentences relating to the 2007 mass demonstrations after unfair trials. In eastern Myanmar, a military offensive targeting ethnic Karen civilians, amounting to crimes against humanity, continued into its fourth year. The government's development of oil, natural gas and hydropower projects in partnership with private and state-owned firms led to a range of human rights abuses..."
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2008 (events of 2007) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2008
    Description/subject: "The human rights situation in Myanmar continued to deteriorate, culminating in September when authorities staged a five-day crackdown on widespread protests that had begun six weeks earlier. The peaceful protests voiced both economic and political grievances. More than 100 people were believed to have been killed in the crackdown, and a similar number were the victims of enforced disappearance. Several thousands were detained in deplorable conditions. The government began prosecutions under anti-terrorism legislation against many protestors. International response to the crisis included a tightening of sanctions by Western countries. At least 1,150 additional political prisoners, some arrested decades ago, remained in detention. A military offensive continued in northern Kayin State, with widespread and systematic violations of international human rights and humanitarian law. In western Rakhine State, the government continued negotiations on a large-scale Shwe gas pipeline, preparations for which included forced displacement and forced labour of ethnic communities..."
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


    Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2007
    Date of publication: 25 May 2007
    Description/subject: Die Menschenrechtslage in Myanmar verschlechterte sich im Lauf des Berichtsjahrs weiter, da die Behörden ihre Maßnahmen zur Unterdrückung der bewaffneten und der gewaltfreien politischen Opposition im ganzen Land verstärkten. Der UN-Sicherheitsrat setzte die Situation in Myanmar auf seine Tagesordnung. Im Zuge militärischer Operationen im Unionsstaat Kayin und im Verwaltungsbezirk Bago kam es zu systematischen Verstößen gegen die Menschenrechte und das humanitäre Völkerrecht, die möglicherweise Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit darstellten. Während die Regierung ihre Pläne zur Erarbeitung einer neuen Verfassung weiter verfolgte, wurde auf politisch engagierte Bürger massiver Druck ausgeübt, die politischen Parteien zu verlassen. Im Verlauf des Jahres wurden Hunderte Menschen in Haft genommen, die sich an friedlichen politischen Aktivitäten beteiligt oder auf andere Weise gewaltfrei ihre Rechte auf freie Meinungsäußerung und Vereinigungsfreiheit wahrgenommen hatten. Ende des Berichtsjahrs saßen die meisten führenden Persönlichkeiten der Opposition im Gefängnis oder in Verwaltungshaft. Im ganzen Land wurden mehr als 1185 politische Gefangene unter immer schlechter werdenden Haftbedingungen festgehalten. Politische Häftlinge, Zwangsarbeit; Folter und Misshandlungen; Vereinigungs- und Versammlungsfreiheit; Poltical Prisoners, Forced labour; Torture and Maltreatment; Liberty of opinion; Karen; KNU
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: Html (29K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2007 (events of 2006) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2007
    Description/subject: "Following a steep rise in fuel prices in August which in turn affected people's access to food and basic supplies, Myanmar has seen an escalation in mass peaceful protests nationwide since 21 September 2007. Led by Buddhist monks, clergy and ordinary people have taken to the street, protesting against the government, calling for a reduction in commodity prices, release of political prisoners and national reconciliation. Beginning 21 September 2007, the numbers of demonstrators increased considerably, with estimated numbers ranging from 10,000 to 100,000. Demonstrations on this scale have not been seen since the nationwide protests in 1988, which were violently suppressed by the authorities with the killing of approximately 3,000 peaceful demonstrators. In the evening of 25 September 2007, the authorities began a crackdown on the protesters, introducing a 60-day 9pm-5am curfew and issuing public warnings of legal action against protesters. Arrests of reportedly at least 700 people have followed in the former capital Yangon, the second-biggest city, Mandalay, and elsewhere. Among those arrested in Yangon were monks, members of parliament from the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), other NLD members and other public figures. Amnesty International believes these and other detainees are at grave risk of torture or other ill-treatment. The full extent of the violent crackdown is not yet known. State television reported the killing of at least nine people, eight protesters and a Japanese journalist, amidst the clampdown. This number was widely believed to be an under-estimate. There were reportedly hundreds of injuries. Websites and internets blogs carrying information and photographs of the demonstrations were blocked; internet lines were cut. Telephone lines and mobile phone signals to prominent activists and dissidents were reportedly also cut. The crisis was discussed at the United National Security Council on 26 September 2007 and a day later the Myanmar authorities agreed to a mission to the country by the UN Secretary-General's Special Representative Ibrahim Gambari..."
    Language: English (also available in Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish)
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


    Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2006
    Date of publication: 24 May 2006
    Description/subject: Mehr als 1100 politische Gefangene kamen in Haft oder verbüßten weiterhin ihre Freiheitsstrafen, darunter Hunderte gewaltlose politische Gefangene, die die Behörden wegen ihrer friedlichen oppositionellen Aktivitäten festgenommen hatten. Mindestens 250 politische Gefangene wurden auf freien Fuß gesetzt. Die Streitkräfte begingen erneut schwere Menschenrechtsverletzungen, indem sie unter anderem Zivilisten ethnischer Minderheiten im Zuge der Aufstandsbekämpfung zu Zwangsarbeit heranzogen. Die Internationale Arbeitsorganisation (International Labour Organization – ILO) und andere UN-Organe ebenso wie internationale Hilfsorganisationen sahen sich mit zunehmenden Beschränkungen ihrer Hilfsprogramme für gefährdete Bevölkerungsgruppen konfrontiert. Zwangsarbeit; Ethnische Minderheiten; Politische Gefangene; Folter und Misshandlungen Amnesty International Report on Myanmar 2006; Forced Labor; Ethnic Minorities; Political prisoners; Torture and Maltreatment
    Language: German, Deutsch
    Format/size: Html (29K)
    Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2006 (events of 2005) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2006
    Description/subject: "Over 1,100 political prisoners were arrested or remained imprisoned. They included hundreds of prisoners of conscience, held for peaceful political opposition activities. At least 250 political prisoners were released. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations, including forced labour, against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency activities. The International Labour Organization (ILO), other UN agencies and international aid organizations faced increasing restrictions on their ability to assist vulnerable populations..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Report 2005 (events of 2004) - Section on Myanmar
    Date of publication: 25 May 2005
    Description/subject: Covering events from January - December 2004... "In October the Prime Minister was placed under house arrest and replaced by another army general. Despite the announcement of the release of large numbers of prisoners in November, more than 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison, and arrests and imprisonment for peaceful political opposition activities continued. The army continued to commit serious human rights violations against ethnic minority civilians during counter-insurgency operations in the Mon, Shan and Kayin States, and in Tanintharyi Division. Restrictions on freedom of movement in states with predominantly ethnic minority populations continued to impede farming, trade and employment. This particularly impacted on the Rohingyas in Rakhine State. Ethnic minority civilians living in all these areas continued to be subjected to forced labour by the military..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2004 (events of 2003) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 26 May 2004
    Description/subject: On 30 May, while travelling in Upper Myanmar, leaders and supporters of the National League for Democracy (NLD), the main opposition party, including General Secretary Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, were attacked by pro-government supporters. At least four people were killed and scores of government critics were arrested. Many of those arrested after 30 May were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. Discussions between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), the military government, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi did not progress during the year. Ethnic minority civilians continued to suffer extensive human rights violations, including forced labour, in SPDC counterinsurgency operations in parts of the Shan, Kayin, Kayah, and Mon States.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International: Jahresbericht 2004
    Date of publication: May 2004
    Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2003
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
    Format/size: html (27K)
    Date of entry/update: 04 June 2004


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2003 (events of 2002) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 28 May 2003
    Description/subject: Events of 2002 "...Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the main opposition party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was released from de facto house arrest in May. There was no reported progress in confidential talks about the future of the country, begun in October 2000, between the ruling military government – the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) – and Aung San Suu Kyi. However, over 300 political prisoners were released during the year, bringing the total of those released since January 2001 to over 500. Some 1,300 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison and some 50 people were arrested for political reasons, despite the SPDC's stated commitment to release political prisoners as part of their undertaking to work with the NLD. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in most of the seven ethnic minority states, particularly the Shan and Kayin states. Civilians continued to be the victims of human rights violations in the context of the SPDC's counter-insurgency tactics in parts of the Shan and Kayin states..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2003: Myanmar
    Date of publication: January 2003
    Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2002
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
    Format/size: html (29K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland: Jahresbericht 2002
    Date of publication: 28 May 2002
    Description/subject: Berichtszeitraum 1. Januar bis 31. Dezember 2001
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: ai Deutschland
    Format/size: html (28K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: Myanmar: Hausarrest von Daw Aung San Suu Kyi aufgehoben
    Date of publication: 07 May 2002
    Description/subject: amnesty international begrüßt den Schritt. Hintergrundinformation über die Menschenrechtslage im Land Im Folgenden dokumentieren wir eine Presseerklärung von amnesty international anlässlich der Aufhebung des Hausarrests für die Oppositionspolitikerin Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar vom 7. Mai 2002 sowie einen Auszug aus dem Länderbericht Myanmar aus dem ai Jahresbericht 2002, der Ende Mai veröffentlicht wurde.
    Author/creator: Pressemitteilung ai
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: AG Friedensforschung an der Uni Kassel
    Format/size: html (18,9k)
    Date of entry/update: 01 March 2005


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2002 (events of 2001) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: May 2002
    Description/subject: "Events of 2001" ...... In January the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General for Myanmar announced that a confidential dialogue had been taking place since October 2000 between the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD). The dialogue was believed to have continued for most of 2001. However, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under de facto house arrest, although international delegations were permitted to visit her. Some 1,600 political prisoners arrested in previous years remained in prison. Almost 220 people were released. Three people were sentenced to death for drug trafficking. Extrajudicial executions and forced labour continued to be reported in the ethnic minority states, particularly Shan and Kayin states.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 21 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2001 (events of 2000) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 June 2001
    Description/subject: Hundreds of people, including more than 200 members of political parties and young activists, were arrested for political reasons. Ten others were known to have been sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. At least 1,500 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including more than 100 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) were placed under de facto house arrest after being prevented by the military from travelling outside Yangon to visit other NLD members. Prison conditions constituted cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and torture of political prisoners was reported. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities during counter-insurgency operations in the Shan, Kayah, and Kayin states. Five people were sentenced to death in 2000 for drug trafficking.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 November 2010


    Title: Amnesty International Deutschland, Jahresbericht 2001: Myanmar
    Date of publication: 30 May 2001
    Language: Deutsch, German
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International Deutschland
    Format/size: html (28K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 2000 (events of 1999) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 June 2000
    Description/subject: "Scores of people were arrested for political reasons and 200 people, some of them prisoners of conscience, were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment. More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced in May that it had begun to visit prisons and other places of detention. The military continued to seize ethnic minority civilians for forced labour duties and to kill members of ethnic minorities not taking an active part in hostilities, during counter-insurgency operations, particularly in the Kayin State. Forcible relocation continued to be reported in the Kayin State, and the effects of massive forcible relocation programs in previous years in the Kayah and Shan States continued to be felt as civilians were still deprived of their land and livelihood and subjected to forced labour and detention by the military..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1999 (events of 1998) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1999
    Description/subject: "More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons. Political prisoners were tortured and ill-treated, and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions, torture, ill-treatment during forced portering, and other forms of forced labour and forcible relocations. Six political prisoners were sentenced to death. No executions were known to have taken place..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1998 (events of 1997) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1998
    Description/subject: "More than 1,200 political prisoners arrested in previous years, including 89 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Hundreds of people were arrested for political reasons; although most were released, 31 _ five of them prisoners of conscience _ were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Two people were sentenced to death..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Archive.org
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1997 (events of 1996) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1997
    Description/subject: "More than 1,000 people involved in opposition political activities, including 68 prisoners of conscience and hundreds of possible prisoners of conscience, remained in prison throughout the year. Almost 2,000 people were arrested for political reasons, including at least 23 prisoners of conscience. Although most were released, 45 were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment after unfair trials and 175 were still detained without charge or trial at the end of the year. Political prisoners were ill-treated and held in conditions that amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to suffer human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions and ill-treatment during forced labour and portering, and forcible relocations. Seven people were sentenced to death..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1996 (events of 1995) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1996
    Description/subject: "At least 1,000 people involved in opposition political parties remained imprisoned, including hundreds of prisoners of conscience and possible prisoners of conscience. At least 32 people were arrested for political reasons; 17 were still detained at the end of the year. At least 163 political prisoners, including six prisoners of conscience, were released. Prisoners were tortured and held in conditions which amounted to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Members of ethnic minorities continued to be subjected to human rights violations which included torture and ill-treatment and possible extrajudicial executions. Thousands of ethnic Burmans, in particular those convicted of criminal offences, were also forced to act as porters and labourers. One person was sentenced to death. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar’s military government chaired by General Than Shwe, continued to rule by decree in the absence of a constitution. Martial law decrees severely restricting the rights to freedom of expression and assembly remained in force throughout the year..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld ((UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1995 (events of 1994) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1995
    Description/subject: "Hundreds of government opponents remained imprisoned, including dozens of prisoners of conscience. Some were detained without trial, but most had been sentenced after unfair trials. At least 17 people were arrested for political reasons, including five prisoners of conscience. Prisoners of conscience and other political prisoners were held in conditions amounting to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Persistent human rights violations continued to be reported from many parts of the country, with members of ethnic minorities particularly targeted. The violations included: arbitrary seizure of civilians to serve as military porters and labourers; demolition of homes; ill-treatment; and possible extrajudicial executions. Five people were sentenced to death..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld (UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


    Title: Amnesty International Annual Report 1994 (events of 1993) - Myanmar section
    Date of publication: 01 January 1994
    Description/subject: "Hundreds of government opponents remained imprisoned, including dozens of prisoners of conscience, despite the release of some 2,000 others in the last 20 months, and at least 40 new political arrests were made. Some of those held were detained without trial, but most had been sentenced after unfair trials. Persistent human rights violations continued to be reported from many parts of the country, with members of ethnic minorities particularly targeted. The violations included arbitrary seizure of civilians to serve as military porters or labourers, ill-treatment and extrajudicial executions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International via Refworld (UNHCR)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 March 2012


  • Amnesty International reports on Burma/Myanmar
    These reports include older reports not on the Amnesty site...For recent reports, go to www.amnesty.org then to Library, then to the Advanced Search...Search for Myanmar

    Individual Documents

    Title: MYANMAR: CONDITIONS IN PRISONS AND LABOUR CAMPS
    Date of publication: September 1995
    Description/subject: "Amnesty International has recently received new information about appalling conditions in labour camps and prisons in Myanmar. Unofficial sources have provided details about the treatment of prisoners, including torture, prolonged shackling, lack of proper medical care, and insufficient food. Torture techniques include beatings, sometimes to the point of unconsciousness; being forced to crawl over sharp stones; and being held in the hot sun for prolonged periods. Such practices are used by Myanmar's security forces to punish and intimidate prisoners. Conditions in labour camps are so harsh that hundreds of prisoners have died as a result. Many prisoners who have been forced to work as porters for the army have also died as a result of ill-treatment. In the material which follows, Amnesty International has omitted details which could identify imprisoned individuals, for fear of placing them at even greater risk of torture and illtreatment. Most of the information below concerns Insein Prison, Myanmar's largest detention facility, where at least 800 political prisoners are held along with thousands of people imprisoned under criminal charges. Insein Prison is located in the outskirts of Yangon (Rangoon, the capital). Thousands of other political prisoners are held in prisons throughout the country; however it is much more difficult to obtain information about conditions in these facilities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/22/95)
    Format/size: pdf (23.9K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


    Title: Myanmar: FURTHER INFORMATION ON IMPRISONED DOCTOR- Dr Ma Thida
    Date of publication: 15 August 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/20/95)
    Format/size: pdf (13.42KB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


    Title: Myanmar: The climate of fear continues, members of ethnic minorities and political prisoners still targeted
    Date of publication: August 1993
    Description/subject: "The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Myanmar's military rulers, continues to commit grave human rights violations against the Burmese people with impunity. Members of political opposition parties and ethnic minorities alike live in an atmosphere of fear which pervades all areas of the country. Some improvements have been made in the human rights situation, but the SLORC has not instituted more fundamental changes which would provide the population of Myanmar with protection from ongoing and systematic violations of human rights. Amnesty International welcomes these limited improvements, but it believes that the degree and scope of human rights violations in Myanmar continue to warrant serious international concern. In the material which follows, Amnesty International's concerns in the period from September 1992 until July 1993 are described in detail. Although over 1700 political prisoners have been released since April 1992, hundreds of others are believed to remain imprisoned after unfair trials or are detained without charge or trial. The rights to freedom of expression and assembly are still denied, although the tactics the SLORC uses to restrict them have changed. Because most perceived critics of the military have been silenced and remain behind bars, the SLORC now uses the Military Intelligence Services (MIS) to intimidate and harrass any real or impugned government critics who have been released or who remain at liberty. However, people who openly criticize the SLORC are still being arrested and sentenced to terms of imprisonment after unfair trials, and conditions of detention remain very poor, particularly for students and young people. Gross human rights violations against ethnic minority groups systematically committed by the Myanmar armed forces constitute a pattern of repression and state-sanctioned violence which has been ongoing since at least 1984. The army, known as the tatmadaw, continues to torture, ill-treat, and extrajudicially execute members of ethnic minorities, including the Karen, Mon, Shan, and Kayah groups. Whole villages are subject to being arbitrarily seized as porters or unpaid labourers where they are routinely severely mistreated or even killed by the tatmadaw. Ethnic minorities are also accused of supporting insurgent groups and have been ill-treated and extrajudicially killed on the spot in their villages or fields. For the past two years women and children have been subject to a wide range of human rights violations, including rape and murder, as they have been left behind in their villages after men have fled in the face of tatmadaw abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnsty International USA (ASA 16/06/93)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 09 March 2005


    Title: 1993_Women's_Action [AUNG SAN SUU KYI MYANMAR (BURMA)]
    Date of publication: 1993
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International
    Format/size: pdf (95.89KB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


    Title: MYANMAR: THOUSAND OF PEOPLE VICTIMS OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS
    Date of publication: 28 October 1992
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/12/92)
    Format/size: pdf (5K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: RE: MYANMAR REFUGEES IN BANGLADESH, URGENT NEWS RELEASE
    Date of publication: 19 March 1992
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/92)
    Format/size: pdf (5K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar: A long-term human rights crisis
    Date of publication: January 1992
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/03/92)
    Format/size: pdf (22K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: BANGLADESH: Threat of forcible return of refugees to Myanmar (Burma)
    Date of publication: 12 December 1991
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 13/11/91)
    Format/size: pdf (40.41KB)
    Date of entry/update: 08 March 2012


    Title: Myanmar: AUNG SAN SUU KYI PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE, NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER
    Date of publication: 10 December 1991
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/12/91)
    Format/size: pdf (5K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: MYANMAR: HUNDREDS MORE ARRESTED IN CAMPAIGN TO "DESTROY" OPPOSITION
    Date of publication: 10 December 1991
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/11/91)
    Format/size: pdf (5K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: UNION OF MYANMAR (BURMA): Arrests and trials of political prisoners January-July 1991
    Date of publication: December 1991
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/10/91)
    Format/size: pdf (136K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: MYANMAR (BURMA): Continuing killings and ill-treatment of minority peoples
    Date of publication: August 1991
    Description/subject: "According to evidence gathered by Amnesty International in June and July 1991, the Myanmar (Burma)1 armed forces, officially known by their Burmese name tatmadaw, continue to seize arbitrarily, ill-treat and extrajudicially execute members of ethnic and religious minorities in rural areas of the country. The victims include people who were detained or targeted for shooting because soldiers suspect they may sympathize with or support ethnic minority guerrilla groups that have been fighting the tatmadaw for many years. They also include people seized by the tatmadaw and compelled to perform porterage - carrying food, ammunition and other supplies - or mine-clearing work. Among those who allegedly have been killed or ill-treated are members of the Karen, Mon and "Indian"2 ethnic minorities, which groups include people belonging to the Christian, animist3 and Muslim religious minorities..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/91)
    Format/size: pdf (113K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/005/1991/en
    Date of entry/update: 06 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Update on human rights violations
    Date of publication: 01 December 1990
    Description/subject: This document reports the repression of peaceful opponents of Myanmar's Military Government (SLORC), including political party activists and buddhist monks. Unofficial reports suggest that some 90 National League for Democracy (NLD) members were arrested in late October, along with the entire leadership of the Democratic Party for a new Society. Amongst those imprisoned for political activities are Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing and Nita Yin Yin May. Among the buddhist monks and lay religious supporters arrested for involvement in a boycott of the military are: U Laba, alias U Layama, Ma Khin Mar Swe, Daw Nan, Maung Aye alias Khin Maung Aye and U Soe Myint. Ill-treatment of hunger-strikers is also reported, including the death of Maung Ko.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/39/90)
    Format/size: pdf (16K), html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/039/1990/en
    Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar: "In the national interest": Prisoners of conscience, torture, summary trials under martial law.
    Date of publication: 07 November 1990
    Description/subject: This report provides compelling evidence that real or imputed critics of Myanmar's military government continue to be imprisoned for the peaceful expression of their views. It contains graphic accounts of widespread torture, both of those detained for participation in the pro-democracy movement and of people held in connection with the activities of armed opposition groups representing Myanmar's ethnic minorities. AI's concerns about arrest, detention and judicial procedures under martial law are also described. Profiles of the following prisoners are given: Nay Min, Nan Zing La, Ba Thaw, Ma Theingi, Dr Tin Myo Win, U Aung Khin, Tin Nain Tun, and U Than Nyunt. Testimonies from former and current prisoners, relatives, friends or associates are also included.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/10/90)
    Format/size: pdf (1.05MB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/010/1990/en
    Date of entry/update: 10 May 2012


    Title: Myanmar: Recent developments related to human rights
    Date of publication: 01 November 1990
    Description/subject: This report describes some of the human rights violations which have taken place in Myanmar between May and September 1990, including the arrest of political activists and ill-treatment of political prisoners. It reports the continuing detention of members and leaders of the National League for Democracy (NLD), namely: Aung San Suu Kyi, Tin U, Kyi Maung, Chit Kaing, Ohn Kyaing, Thein Dan, Ye Myint Aung, Sein Kla Aung, Kyi Hla, Sein Hlaing, Myo Myint Nyein, and Nyan Paw. Three leaders of the Democratic Party for a New Society have also been arrested: Kyi Win, Ye Naing, Ngwe Oo.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/28/90)
    Format/size: pdf (10K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/028/1990/en
    Date of entry/update: 08 May 2012


    Title: EVIDENCE OF UNLAWFUL KILLING AND TORTURE OF ETHNIC MINORITIES IN BURMA SAYS AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
    Date of publication: 11 May 1988
    Description/subject: Amnesty International said today (Wednesday, 11 May 1988) it has evidence of serious human rights violations in Burma by army units engaged in counter-insurgency operations. The victims are mainly members of Burma's ethnic minorities, civilian villagers living in remote and mountainous states where the Burmese army has been fighting various armed opposition groups. In a new report Amnesty International includes testimonies describing nearly 200 cases of apparent unlawful killing, torture and ill-treatment by government forces. The evidence comes from some of the thousands of Karen, Mon, and Kachin ethnic minority people who have fled across Burma's borders in search of safety.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/06/88)
    Format/size: pdf (323K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


    Title: SIX DEATH SENTENCES IN BURMA
    Date of publication: November 1985
    Description/subject: On 10 September 1985, six people were sentenced to death under the 1974 Narcotic Drugs Law by the Mandalay South-West Township Court No. 1. The six, named as Tun Nyan, Maung Lay (alias Tin Oo), Ma Shan Sein, Li Kya-Shin (alias Aung Pe), Ma Saw Yin and William (alias Ai Lin), were accused of trafficking in heroin. According to Amnesty International's information, these are the first persons known to have been sentenced to death in Burma for drug offences. In view of its unconditional opposition to the imposition and implementation of the death penalty, Amnesty International is appealing for the commutation of these death sentences
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/02/85)
    Format/size: pdf (31K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


    Title: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE IN BURMA
    Date of publication: December 1965
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/000/65)
    Format/size: pdf (125K)
    Date of entry/update: 19 July 2012


  • Asian Human Rights Commission and Asian Legal Resources Centre

    Individual Documents

    Title: BURMA: Court issues landmark ruling on death in police custody
    Date of publication: 05 December 2012
    Description/subject: "In a landmark ruling, a court in Burma has rejected the police version of events that led to the death of a man in their custody, and has opened the door to a charge of murder to be brought against the officers involved. In its findings of 9 November 2012, a copy of which the Asian Human Rights Commission has obtained, the Mayangone Township Court ruled in the case of the deceased Myo Myint Swe that the death was unlikely to have been natural. Despite attempts by the police of the Bayinnaung Police Station to cover up the torture and murder of Myo Myint Swe, whom they had arrested over the death of a young woman, Judge Daw Aye Mya Theingi found that even though the investigating doctor had been equivocal about whether or not extensive external injuries caused by torture had resulted in the death, on the basis of the testimonies, written records and photographs submitted to the court, it was "difficult to conclude that the death was natural"..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 December 2012


  • Human Rights Watch Reports on Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Human Rights Watch Burma page
    Description/subject: Full text online reports from 1989 (events of 1988), though 1991 seems to be missing and 2004 has no section on Burma.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Reports Archive
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 May 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: World Report 2013: Burma (events of 2012)
    Date of publication: 01 February 2013
    Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained poor in 2012 despite noteworthy actions by the government toward political reform. In April, opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy party won 43 of 44 seats it contested in a parliamentary by-election; the parliament consists of 224 seats in the upper house and 440 in the lower house, the majority of which remain under the control of military representatives or former military officers. President Thein Sein welcomed back exiles during the year, and released nearly 400 political prisoners in five general prisoner amnesties, although several hundred are believed to remain in prison. Freed political prisoners face persecution, including restrictions on travel and education, and lack adequate psychosocial support. Activists who peacefully demonstrated in Rangoon in September have been charged with offenses. In August 2012, the government abolished pre-publication censorship of media and relaxed other media restrictions, but restrictive guidelines for journalists and many other laws historically used to imprison dissidents and repress rights such as freedom of expression remain in place. Armed conflict between the Burmese government and the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) continued in Kachin State in the north, where tens of thousands of civilians remain displaced. The government has effectively denied humanitarian aid to the displaced Kachin civilians in KIA territory. In conflict areas in Kachin and Shan States, the Burmese military carried out extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, torture, forced labor, and deliberate attacks on civilian areas, all which continue with impunity. Ceasefire agreements in ethnic conflict areas of eastern Burma remain tenuous. Deadly sectarian violence erupted in Arakan State in June 2012 between ethnic Arakanese Buddhists and ethnic Rohingya Muslims, a long-persecuted stateless minority of approximately one million people. State security forces failed to protect either community, resulting in some 100,000 displaced, and then increasingly targeted Rohingya in killings, beatings, and mass arrests while obstructing humanitarian access to Rohingya areas and to camps of displaced Rohingya around the Arakan State capital, Sittwe. Sectarian violence broke out again in 9 of the state’s 17 townships in October, including in several townships that did not experience violence in June, resulting in an unknown number of deaths and injuries, the razing of entire Muslim villages, and the displacement of an additional 35,000 persons. Many of the displaced fled to areas surrounding Sittwe, where they also experienced abuses, such as beatings by state security forces. Despite serious ongoing abuses, foreign governments—including the United States and the United Kingdom—expressed unprecedented optimism about political reforms and rapidly eased or lifted sanctions against Burma, while still condemning the abuses and violence..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmapartnership.org/2013/02/world-report-2013-burma/
    Date of entry/update: 05 February 2013


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2012 - Events of 2011: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2012
    Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained dire in 2011 despite some significant moves by the government which formed in late March following November 2010 elections. Freedoms of expression, association, and assembly remain severely curtailed. Although some media restrictions were relaxed, including increased access to the internet and broader scope for journalists to cover formerly prohibited subjects, official censorship constrains reporting on many important national issues. In May and October the government released an estimated 316 political prisoners in amnesties, though many more remain behind bars. Ethnic conflict escalated in 2011 as longstanding ceasefires with ethnic armed groups broke down in northern Burma. The Burmese military continues to be responsible for abuses against civilians in conflict areas, including forced labor, extrajudicial killings, sexual violence, the use of “human shields,” and indiscriminate attacks on civilians. Despite support from 16 countries for a proposed United Nations commission of inquiry into serious violations of international humanitarian law by all parties to Burma’s internal armed conflicts, no country took leadership at the UN to make it a reality. Foreign government officials expressed their optimism about government reforms despite abundant evidence of continuing systematic repression..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: html, pdf (64K-Burma section; 4.22MB - full report)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/wr2012.pdf (full report)
    http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2012/world-report-2012-burma
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: Burma’s Continuing Human Rights Challenges
    Date of publication: 07 November 2011
    Description/subject: "One year ago Burma conducted tightly controlled elections that transferred power from a ruling military council to a nominally civilian government in which the president and senior government officials are all former generals. In 2011 the new government has taken a number of positive actions, enacted new laws that purport to protect basic rights, and promised important policy changes. The real test, however, will be in the implementation of new laws and policies and how the government reacts when Burmese citizens try to avail themselves of their rights. Meanwhile, the main elements of Burma’s repressive security apparatus, and the laws underpinning it, remain in place. In ethnic areas, the human rights situation remains dire. While there are grounds for hope that fundamental change will come to Burma, it is too early to conclude that it has in fact begun..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: pdf (105K)
    Date of entry/update: 08 November 2011


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2011 - Events of 2010: Burma section (English and Burmese)
    Date of publication: January 2011
    Description/subject: "Burma’s human rights situation remained dire in 2010, even after the country’s first multiparty elections in 20 years. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to systematically deny all basic freedoms to citizens and sharply constrained political participation. The rights of freedom of expression, association, assembly, and media remained severely curtailed. The government took no significant steps during the year to release more than 2,100 political prisoners being held, except for the November 13 release of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi. Calls mounted for an international commission of inquiry into serious violations of international law perpetrated by all parties to Burma’s ongoing civil conflict. The Burmese military was responsible for ongoing abuses against civilians in conflict areas, including widespread forced labor, extrajudicial killings, and forced expulsion of the population. Nonstate armed ethnic groups have also been implicated in serious abuses such as recruitment of child soldiers, execution of Burmese prisoners of war, and indiscriminate use of antipersonnel landmines around civilian areas..."
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: pdf (43K - English; 58K - Burmese)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/HRW-WR2011-Burma(bu).pdf
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2010 - Events of 2009: Burma section
    Date of publication: 20 January 2010
    Description/subject: "Burma's human rights record continued to deteriorate in 2009 ahead of announced elections in 2010. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) systematically denies citizens basic freedoms including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. More than 2,100 political prisoners remain behind bars. This, and the politically-motivated arrest and trial of Aung San Suu Kyi only to send her back to house arrest for another 18 months, confirmed that Burma's military rulers are unwilling to allow genuine political participation in the electoral process. The Burmese military continues to perpetrate violations against civilians in ethnic conflict areas, including extrajudicial killings, forced labor, and sexual violence..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 January 2010


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2009 - Events of 2008: Burma section
    Date of publication: 14 January 2009
    Description/subject: Burma’s already dismal human rights record worsened following the devastation of cyclone Nargis in early May 2008. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) blocked international assistance while pushing through a constitutional referendum in which basic freedoms were denied. The ruling junta systematically denies citizens basic freedoms, including freedom of expression, association, and assembly. It regularly imprisons political activists and human rights defenders; in 2008 the number of political prisoners nearly doubled to more than 2,150. The Burmese military continues to violate the rights of civilians in ethnic conflict areas and extrajudicial killings, forced labor, land confiscation without due process and other violations continued in 2008....Cyclone Nargis...Constitutional Referendum...Human Rights Defenders...Child Soldiers...Continuing Violence against Ethnic Groups...Refugees and Migrant Workers...Key International Actors
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2008 - Events of 2007: Burma section
    Date of publication: 31 January 2008
    Description/subject: Burma’s deplorable human rights record received widespread international attention in 2007 as anti-government protests in August and September were met with a brutal crackdown by security forces of the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Denial of basic freedoms in Burma continues, and restrictions on the internet, telecommunications, and freedom of expression and assembly sharply increased in 2007. Abuses against civilians in ethnic areas are widespread, involving forced labor, summary executions, sexual violence, and expropriation of land and property......Violent Crackdown on Protests...Lack of Progress on Democracy...Human Rights Defenders...Continued Violence against Ethnic Groups...Child Soldiers...Humanitarian Concerns, Internal Displacement, and Refugees...Key International Actors.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2007 - Events of 2006: Burma section
    Date of publication: 11 January 2007
    Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Burma’s international isolation deepened during 2006 as the authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continued to restrict basic rights and freedoms and waged brutal counterinsurgency operations against ethnic minorities. The democratic movement inside the country remained suppressed, and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other political activists continued to be detained or imprisoned. International efforts to foster change in Burma were thwarted by the SPDC and sympathetic neighboring governments..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2006 - Events of 2005: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2006
    Description/subject: Events of 2005..."Despite promises of political reform and national reconciliation, Burma’s authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), continues to operate a strict police state and drastically restricts basic rights and freedoms. It has suppressed the democratic movement represented by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, under detention since May 30, 2003, and has used internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority groups. Hundreds of thousands of people, most of them from ethnic minority groups, continue to live precariously as internally displaced people. More than two million have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances as asylum seekers or illegal immigrants. The removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt in October 2004 has reinforced hard-line elements within the SPDC and resulted in increasing hostility directed at democracy movements, ethnic minority groups, and international agencies..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2005 - Events of 2004: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2005
    Description/subject: Events of 2004..."Burma remains one of the most repressive countries in Asia, despite promises for political reform and national reconciliation by its authoritarian military government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The SPDC restricts the basic rights and freedoms of all Burmese. It continues to attack and harass democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, still under house arrest at this writing, and the political movement she represents. It also continues to use internationally outlawed tactics in ongoing conflicts with ethnic minority rebel groups. Burma has more child soldiers than any other country in the world, and its forces have used extrajudicial execution, rape, torture, forced relocation of villages, and forced labor in campaigns against rebel groups. Ethnic minority forces have also committed abuses, though not on the scale committed by government forces. The abrupt removal of Prime Minister General Khin Nyunt, viewed as a relative moderate, on October 19, 2004, has reinforced hardline elements of the SPDC. Khin Nyunt’s removal damaged immediate prospects for a ceasefire in the decades-old struggle with the Karen ethnic minority and has been followed by increasingly hostile rhetoric from SPDC leaders directed at Suu Kyi and democracy activists. Thousands of Burmese citizens, most of them from the embattled ethnic minorities, have fled to neighboring countries, in particular Thailand, where they face difficult circumstances, or live precariously as internally displaced people..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: www.hrw.org/wr2k5/wr2005.pdf
    http://books.google.co.th/books?id=dYXStZToKggC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Human+Rights+Watch+World+Report+2005+-+Events+of+2004:+Burma&source=bl&ots=A9xtmHnfym&sig=W1C8lLRGKhGswUtLWFgsPXhsmhg&hl=en&ei=HxbmTIufAYKkvgP0usjCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q&f=false
    Date of entry/update: 19 November 2010


    Title: World Report 2004 - Human Rights and Armed Conflict
    Date of publication: January 2004
    Description/subject: This report, covering human rights and armed conflict, has no specific Burma section, but there are a number of references to the country, which can be found with the pdf search.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch (HRW)
    Format/size: pdf (1.62MB)
    Date of entry/update: 23 January 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2003 - Events of 2002: Burma section
    Date of publication: 15 January 2003
    Description/subject: With the release of opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi in May after nineteen months of de facto house arrest, hope arose that the military junta might take steps to improve its human rights record. However, by late 2002, talks between Suu Kyi and the government had ground to a halt and systemic restrictions on basic civil and political liberties continued unabated. Ethnic minority regions continued to report particularly grave abuses, including forced labor and the rape of Shan minority women by military forces. Government military forces continued to forcibly recruit and use child soldiers.....Human Rights Developments...Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html (89K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/EBO2003-HRW.htm
    Date of entry/update: 04 August 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2002 - Events of 2001: Burma section
    Date of publication: 2002
    Description/subject: There were signs of a political thaw early in the year and, for the first time in years, hopes that the government might lift some of its stifling controls on civil and political rights. By November, however, the only progress had been limited political prisoner releases and easing of pressures on some opposition politicians in Rangoon. There was no sign of fundamental changes in law or policy, and grave human rights violations remained unaddressed.....Human Rights Developments... Defending Human Rights... The Role of the International Community
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2001 - Events of 2000: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2001
    Description/subject: Events November 1999-October 2000..."The Burmese government took no steps to improve its dire human rights record. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continued to pursue a strategy of marginalizing the democratic opposition through detention, intimidation, and restrictions on basic civil liberties. Despite international condemnation, the system of forced labor remained intact. In the war-affected areas of eastern Burma, gross violations of international human rights and humanitarian law continued. There, the Shan State Army-South (SSA-S), Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and Karen National Union (KNU), as well as some other smaller groups, continued their refusal to agree to a cease-fire with the government, as other insurgent forces had done, but they were no longer able to hold significant territory. Tens of thousands of villagers in the contested zones remained in forced relocation sites or internally displaced within the region. Human Rights Developments The SPDC continued to deny its citizens freedom of expression, association, assembly, and movement. It intimidated members of the democratic opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) into resigning from the party and encouraged crowds to denounce NLD members elected to parliament in the May 1990 election but not permitted to take their seats. The SPDC rhetoric against the NLD and its leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, became increasingly extreme. On March 27, Senior Gen. Than Shwe, in his Armed Forces Day address, called for forces undermining stability to be eliminated. It was a thinly veiled threat against the NLD. On May 2, a commentary in the state-run Kyemon (Mirror) newspaper claimed there was evidence of contact between the NLD and dissident and insurgent groups, an offense punishable by death or life imprisonment. In a May 18 press conference, several Burmese officials pointed to what they said were linkages between the NLD and insurgents based along the Thai-Burma border, and on September 4 the official Myanmar Information Committee repeated this charge in a press release after Burmese security forces raided the NLD headquarters in Rangoon..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 2000 - Events of 1999: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 2000
    Description/subject: Events of November 1998-October 1999)..."The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) offered no signs during the year that fundamental change was on the horizon. The SPDC's standoff with the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued. No progress was made on ending forced labor. Counterinsurgency operations by the Burmese military in several ethnic minority areas, accompanied by extrajudicial executions, forced relocation, and other abuses, led to the displacement of thousands inside Burma and the flight of yet more refugees across the border into Thailand. In one of the few positive developments during the year, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) reopened its office in Rangoon in May and was able to visit Burmese prisons on a regular basis. Bilateral and multilateral policies towards Burma remained largely unchanged during the year, with sanctions in place from much of the industrialized world. Various governments tried combinations of diplomatic carrots and economic sticks to improve human rights and encourage negotiations between the SPDC and the opposition, but none had succeeded by late October. Arrests and intimidation of supporters of the NLD continued, part of a campaign that began in August 1998 after the NLD announced its intention to convene a parliament in line with the 1990 election result. This was foiled by mass arrests, and the NLD subsequently established a ten-member Committee Representing People's Parliament (CRPP), a kind of parallel parliamentary authority whose creation was seen as a direct challenge to the government. Some sixty parliamentarians remained under detention while thousands of NLD registered voters were forced to resign their party membership..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1999 - Events of 1997-98: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1999
    Description/subject: Events December 1997-early November 1998..."Ten years after the 1988 pro-democracy uprising was crushed by the army, Burma continued to be one of the world’s pariah states. A standoff between the government and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), and other expressions of nonviolent dissent resulted in more than 1,000 detentions during the year. Many were relatively brief, others led eventually to prison sentences. Human rights abuses, including extrajudicial executions, rape, forced labor, and forced relocations, sent thousands of Burmese refugees, many of them from ethnic minority groups, into Thailand and Bangladesh. The change in November 1997 from the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to the gentler-sounding State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) had little impact on human rights practices and policies; the SPDC’s euphemism for continued authoritarian control—”disciplined democracy”— indicated no change. In addition to pervasive human rights violations, an economy in free fall made life even more difficult for the beleaguered population..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1998 - Events of 1996-1997: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1998
    Description/subject: Events December 1996-November 1997..." Respect for human rights in Burma continued to deteriorate relentlessly in 1997. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) continued to be a target of government repression. NLD leaders were prevented from making any public speeches during the year, and over 300 members were detained in May when they attempted to hold a party congress. There were no meetings during the year of the government's constitutional forum, the National Convention, which last met in March 1996; the convention was one of the only fora where Rangoon-based politicians and members of Burma's various ethnic movements could meet. The government tightened restrictions on freedom of expression, refusing visas to foreign journalists, deporting others and handing down long prison terms to anyone who attempted to collect information or contact groups abroad. Persecution of Muslims increased. Armed conflict continued between government troops and ethnic opposition forces in a number of areas, accompanied by human rights abuses such as forced portering, summary executions, rape, and torture. The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) continued to deny access to U.N. Special Representative to Burma Rajsoomer Lallah. Despite its human rights practices, however, Burma was admitted as a full member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in July..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1997 - Events of 1996: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: Any hope that the July 1995 release of opposition leader and Nobel laureate Daw Aung San Suu Kyi might be a sign of human rights reforms by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) government were destroyed during 1996 as political arrests and repression dramatically increased and forced labor, forced relocations, and arbitrary arrests continued to be the daily reality for millions of ordinary Burmese. The turn for the worse received little censure from Burma's neighbors, who instead took the first step towards granting the country full membership in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and welcomed SLORC as a member of the Asian Regional Forum, a security body.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 January 2009


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1996 - Events of 1995: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1996
    Description/subject: Events of 1995..."The most significant human rights event in Burma in 1995 was the release on July 10 of Nobel laureate and opposition leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi after six years of house arrest. Paradoxically, the governing military State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took an increasingly hard-line stance during the year, and there was no overall improvement in the human rights situation. In some areas abuses increased, notably in the Karen, Karenni and Shan States where there was fighting, while throughout the country thousands of civilians were forced to work as unpaid laborers for the army. The SLORC continued to deny basic rights such as freedom of speech, association and religion and the right of citizens to participate in the political process..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1995 - Events of 1994: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1995
    Description/subject: Events of 1994..."The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), a military body established as a temporary government in Burma after the pro-democracy uprising in 1988, continued to be responsible for forced labor, especially on infrastructure projects; arbitrary detention; torture; and denials of freedom of association, expression, and assembly. Fighting with armed ethnic groups along the Thai and Chinese borders continued to diminish, as the SLORC reached a cease-fire agreement with the Kachin Independence Organization in February and opened talks with others. Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, leader of the democratic opposition, remained under house arrest but for the first time since her detention in July 1989 was permitted to meet with visitors outside her family. On September 21, as the U.N. General Assembly opened in New York, she was allowed out of her house for a televised meeting with the chair and secretary-1 of the SLORC, Senior General Than Shwe and Lieutenant General Khin Nyunt. A second meeting took place on October 28..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1994 - Events of 1993: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1994
    Description/subject: Events of 1993... "The ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council or SLORC continued to be a human rights pariah, despite its cosmetic gestures to respond to international criticism. Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize, was permitted visits from her family but remained under house arrest for the fifth year. SLORC announced the release of nearly 2,000 political prisoners, but it was not clear that the majority had been detained on political charges, nor could most of the releases be verified. At least one hundred critics of SLORC were detained during the year, and hundreds of people tried by military tribunals between 1989 and 1992 remained in prison. Torture in Burmese prisons continued to be widespread. Foreign correspondents were able to obtain visas for Burma more easily, but access by human rights and humanitarian organizations remained tightly restricted. A constitutional convention met throughout the year, but over 80 percent of the delegates were hand-picked by SLORC..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1993 - Events of 1992: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1993
    Description/subject: Events of 1992...Human Rights Developments Burma (Myanmar) in 1992 remained one of the human rights disasters in Asia. Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi continued under house arrest, and an unknown number of political dissidents remained in prison. Reports of military abuses against members of ethnic minority groups were frequent. Certain positive measures were taken by Burma's military junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (slorc), such as the release of several hundred alleged political prisoners and slorc's accession to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. But the changes were largely superficial, and human rights violations persisted unchecked. ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "CHANGES IN BURMA?"
    Date of publication: 06 September 1992
    Description/subject: CHANGES IN BURMA?... I. INTRODUCTION... II. CHANGES AT THE TOP... III. RELEASE OF POLITICAL PRISONERS... IV. FAMILY VISITS ALLOWED FOR AUNG SAN SUU KYI... V. PLANNING MEETINGS FOR CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION... The Meetings... VI. SITUATION ON THE BURMA-BANGLADESH BORDER... The Repatriation Agreement... The Aftermath... Effect on Refugees... Deteriorating Conditions and Ongoing Abuses... Ongoing Negotiations... VII. SLORC'S SUSPENDED FIGHTING WITH THE KAREN... VIII. ACADEMIC FREEDOM... X. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE... United States... Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)... Japan... Australia/Canada... Poland... United Nations... XL CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS... United Nations... The United States, On ASEAN:, On Investment:, On Trade:, On China:... Japan... APPENDIX A: Members of Parliament recently released from prison:... APPENDIX A: Members of Parliament (MPs) still known to be in prison:... APPENDIX C: Disqualified MPs by the General Election Commission of SLORC:... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
    Format/size: pdf (205K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1992 - Events of 1991: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1992
    Description/subject: Events of 1991..." Refusing to respect the results of the 1990 general elections, Burma's military leaders intensified their crackdown on political dissent throughout the country in 1991. Repression was worse than any other time in recent years, marked by a complete lack of basic freedoms and the continuing imprisonment of thousands of suspected opponents of the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). By the middle of the year, the crackdown extended beyond members of the main opposition parties to include a massive purge of those employed in the civil service, schools and universities. In late 1990 and early 1991, SLORC also heightened its offensive against ethnic minority insurgent groups, resulting in widespread civilian casualties and the displacement of tens of thousands of people along Burma's borders. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi helped to focus attention on SLORC's disastrous human rights record. The crackdown on members and supporters of Aung San Suu Kyi's party, the National League for Democracy (NLD), was especially severe..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "BURMA: TIME FOR SANCTIONS"
    Date of publication: 15 February 1991
    Description/subject: BURMA: TIME FOR SANCTIONS... Introduction... Recommendations... APPENDIX I... Arrest and Torture of NLD officials and other dissidents... Arrest of Diplomatic Staff... List of other NLD National Assembly representatives arrested... APPENDIX II... Continuing Detention of Opposition Leaders... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
    Format/size: pdf (270K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: "BURMA: POST-ELECTION ABUSES"
    Date of publication: 14 August 1990
    Description/subject: BURMA: POST-ELECTION ABUSES... Background... Recent Demonstrations... Arrest and Torture of Political Prisoners Since the Elections... Execution of Political Prisoners... Continued Detention of Political Prisoners... Abuses of Civil Liberties... Abuses Against Refugees Returning from Thailand... Recommendations...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Human Right Watch/ Asia"
    Format/size: pdf (67K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: "BURMA (MYANMAR): WORSENING REPRESSION"
    Date of publication: 11 March 1990
    Description/subject: Arrests of Opposition Party Leaders and Candidates... The Ruling Against Aung San Suu Kyi... Restrictions on Freedom of Speech and Assembly... Forced Relocations of Civilians... Restrictions on Freedom of the Press... The Border Conflict... Forced Porterage... Student Refugees in Thailand... U.S. Policy... RECENT PUBLICATIONS FROM ASIA WATCH
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
    Format/size: pdf (89K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1990 - Events of 1989: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1990
    Description/subject: Events of 1989... "The military government in Burma, known as the State Law and Order Restoration Council, or SLORC, intensified political repression in the wake of the opposition's landslide victory in elections for a new National Assembly held in May 1990. Soon after taking power in September 1988, following an unprecedented nationwide uprising against the 26-year-old rule of General Ne Win and his Burma Socialist Programme Party in which security forces are believed to have killed an estimated 3,000 to 10,000 protestors, SLORC promised to deliver power to a civilian government as soon as elections could be organized..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: "Testimony of Holly Burkhalter, Asia Watch"
    Date of publication: 13 September 1989
    Description/subject: Testimony of Holly Burkhalter, Asia Watch... before the Asia and Pacific Affairs and Human Rights and International Organizations Subcommittees...
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Right Watch/ Asia
    Format/size: pdf (411K)
    Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


    Title: Human Rights Watch World Report 1989 - Events of 1988: Burma section
    Date of publication: January 1989
    Description/subject: Events of 1988... "The Bush administration's stance on Burma (Myanmar) was generally positive, although the U.S. embassy in Thailand has been slow to respond to requests for refugee status by Burmese students fleeing repression. The human rights situation in Burma continued to deteriorate sharply throughout 1989, following the bloody end in September 1988 of Burma's pro-democracy demonstrations, when at least 3000 students and other largely unarmed civilians on the streets of the capital and other cities were massacred. The Reagan administration was quick to suspend its small military and economic aid program, and the Bush administration continued to speak out against Burmese rights violations. As one diplomat in Rangoon told the Washington Post in March, "Since there are no U.S. bases and very little strategic interest, Burma is one place where the United States has the luxury of living up to its principles." ..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Watch
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • US State Dept. - reports on human rights in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: US State Dept, human rights page
    Description/subject: Links to the annual country reports on human rights
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


    Title: US State Dept. Information on Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1077.html
    Date of entry/update: 18 November 2010


    Title: US State Dept: Semi-Annual Reports to Congress on Conditions in Burma and US Policy Towards Burma
    Description/subject: Reports from 1997-2000
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs U.S. Department of State
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2013
    Date of publication: 27 February 2014
    Description/subject: "...During the year the government’s human rights record continued to improve, although authorities had not fully or consistently implemented legal and policy revisions at all levels, particularly in ethnic-minority areas. Observers reported marked decreases in systemic human rights abuses committed by the government, such as torture, disappearances, and the forced use of civilians to carry military supplies in some ethnic border areas. On February 6, President Thein Sein announced the formation of a committee to identify and release political prisoners. By December 31, the committee had identified and released an estimated 330 political prisoners, bringing the total number of political prisoners released since reforms began to more than 1,100. In addition, in January the government allowed the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) access to all of the country’s prisons and labor camps. The government also took significant steps to combat corruption, including the passage of anticorruption legislation, firing of six high-ranking government officials for mismanagement or corruption, and taking administrative action against corrupt civil servants. The continuing humanitarian and human rights crisis in Rakhine State was the most troubling exception – and threat – to the country’s progress during the year. Although the government provided some short-term humanitarian support to affected populations, it did little to address the root causes of the violence or to fulfill its 2012 pledge to take steps to provide a path for citizenship for the Rohingya population. Authorities in Rakhine State made no meaningful efforts to help Rohingya and other Muslim minority people displaced by violence to return to their homes and continued to enforce disproportionate restrictions on their movement. As a result, tens of thousands of internally displaced persons (IDPs) remained confined in camps and commonly were prevented by security forces from exiting in order to gain access to livelihoods, markets, food, places of worship, and other services. This policy further entrenched the increasingly permanent segregation of the Rohingya and Rakhine communities. There were credible reports of extrajudicial killings, rape and sexual violence, arbitrary detentions and torture and mistreatment in detention, deaths in custody, and systematic denial of due process and fair trial rights, overwhelmingly perpetrated against the Rohingya. There were reports of local and state government and security officials, acting in conjunction with Rakhine and Rohingya criminal elements, smuggling and trafficking thousands of Rohingya out of the country, often for profit. In July the government disbanded the NaSaKa – the notorious security force responsible for gross human rights violations – in an effort to begin addressing the situation; however, no security or government officials were investigated or held to account. At year’s end an estimated 140,000 persons remained displaced in Rakhine State. Meanwhile, attacks on Muslim minorities spread to other parts of the country at various points throughout the year..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
    Format/size: pdf (249K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220182
    - See more at: http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2014


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2012
    Date of publication: 19 April 2013
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Burma’s parliamentary government is headed by President Thein Sein. On April 1, the country held largely transparent and inclusive by-elections in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) party, chaired by Aung San Suu Kyi, won 43 of 45 contested seats out of a total 664 seats in the legislature. The by-elections contrasted sharply with the 2010 general elections, which were neither free nor fair. The ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) continued to hold an overwhelming majority of the seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies, and active-duty military officers continued to wield authority at each level of government. Military security forces reported to military channels, and civilian security forces, such as the police, reported to a nominally civilian ministry headed by an active-duty military general. In 2012 the government’s continued reform efforts resulted in significant human rights improvements, although legal and policy revisions had yet to be implemented fully or consistently at the local level, particularly in ethnic nationality areas. On January 13, President Thein Sein released an estimated 300 political prisoners, including top figures of the prodemocracy movement and all imprisoned journalists, and amnestied an estimated 140 political prisoners in subsequent releases, though none of the 2012 releases were unconditional. The government eased longstanding restrictions imposed on its citizens, including by relaxing censorship laws governing the media, expanding labor rights and criminalizing forced labor, and returning professional licenses to practice law for the majority of lawyers who had been disbarred for political activities or for their representation of political activists. The government also eased restrictions on dissidents both from within and outside the country, including removal of more than 2,000 names from a government blacklist of persons barred from entering or leaving the country based on their suspected political activity. An outbreak of communal violence in June between predominantly Buddhist Rakhine and predominantly Muslim Rohingya in Rakhine State claimed the lives of an estimated 100 civilians and displaced tens of thousands before the central government reestablished calm. Violence broke out again in October and resulted in deaths estimated to exceed 100 and the burning of more than 3,000 houses in predominantly Rohingya villages. The central government took positive steps by deploying security forces to suppress violence, granting the international community access to the conflict areas, forming an investigative commission into the causes of the violence, and engaging international experts on reconciliation. Intercommunal tensions remained high. At the end of the year, there were more than 100,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) resulting from the violence in Rakhine State. The Burma Army escalated the use of force against the Kachin Independence Army (KIA) in December, including through the use of air power. In July the government stopped issuing travel permission for UN humanitarian aid convoys to travel to Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)-controlled areas, effectively cutting off an estimated 40,000 IDPs from access to international humanitarian assistance. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were generally able to access these populations during this period. KIA forces allegedly destroyed civilian infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and trains, and targeted attacks on police officials in Kachin State. Significant human rights problems in the country persisted, including conflict-related abuses in ethnic minority border states; abuse of prisoners, continued detention of more than 200 political prisoners and restrictions on released political prisoners; and a general lack of rule of law resulting in corruption and the deprivation of land and livelihoods. Government security forces were allegedly responsible for cases of extrajudicial killings, rape, and torture. The government abused some prisoners and detainees, held some persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, and failed to protect civilians in conflict zones. The government undertook some legal reforms during the year, and in practice restrictions on the exercise of a variety of human rights lessened markedly, if unevenly and unreliably, compared to past years. Nevertheless, a number of laws restricting freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement remained. The government allowed for greater expression by civil society, and NGOs were able to operate more openly than in previous years; however, the mandatory registration process for NGOs remained cumbersome and nontransparent. The government signed an action plan with the UN to end illegal child soldiers. Though there were several well publicized demobilizations of child soldiers during the year, recruitment of child soldiers continued. Discrimination against ethnic minorities and stateless persons continued, as did trafficking in persons--particularly of women and girls--although the government took actions to combat this problem. Forced labor, including that of children, persisted. The government generally did not take action to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses, with a few isolated exceptions. Abuses continued with impunity. Ethnic armed groups also committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers, and failed to protect civilians in conflict zones"
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
    Format/size: pdf (207K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/USDOS-Country-rep2012-Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 02 May 2013


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2011
    Date of publication: 25 May 2012
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Burma’s government is headed by President Thein Sein; the military-run State Peace and Development Council was officially dissolved in 2011, although former and active military officers continued to wield authority at each level of government. In November 2010 the then-military regime held the country’s first parliamentary elections since 1990, which were neither free nor fair. The government’s main party, the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), claimed an overwhelming majority of seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies. Military security forces report to military channels, and civilian security forces, such as the police, report to a nominally civilian ministry headed by an active-duty military general. Significant developments during the year included the emergence of a legislature that allowed opposition parties to contribute substantively to debates; democratic reforms such as the amendment of laws allowing opposition parties to register and Aung San Suu Kyi to announce her bid for Parliament; the release of hundreds of political prisoners; the relaxation of a number of censorship controls, the opening of some space in society for the expression of dissent; and an easing of restrictions on some internal and foreign travel for citizens. Significant human rights problems in the country persisted, including military attacks against ethnic minorities in border states, which resulted in civilian deaths, forced relocations, sexual violence, and other serious abuses. The government also continued to detain hundreds of political prisoners. Abuses of prisoners continued, including the alleged transfer of civilian prisoners to military units. These units reportedly were often engaged in armed conflict in the border areas where they were forced to carry supplies, clear mines, and serve as human shields. Government security forces were responsible for extrajudicial killings, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. The government abused some prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The government infringed on citizens’ privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government impeded the work of many domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). International NGOs continued to encounter a difficult--although somewhat improved--environment. Recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons--particularly of women and girls--continued. Forced labor, including that of children, persisted. The government generally did not take action to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses, with a few isolated exceptions. Abuses continued with impunity. Rampant corruption and the absence of due process undermined the rule of law. Ethnic armed groups also committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Department of State (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor)
    Format/size: pdf (193K-OBLversion; 166K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/186475.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 25 May 2012


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2010
    Date of publication: 08 April 2011
    Description/subject: "Burma, with an estimated population of 56 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. In 2008 the regime held a referendum on its draft constitution and declared the constitution had been approved by 92.48 percent of voters, a figure no independent observers believed was valid. The government held parliamentary elections on November 7, the first elections since 1990. The government-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) claimed an overwhelming majority of seats in the national parliament and state/regional assemblies. Democracy activists and the international community widely criticized both the constitutional referendum and the elections process as seriously flawed. Parliament was scheduled to convene on January 31, 2011, with a special joint session of the upper and lower houses to follow within 15 days. The constitution was to go into effect when that joint session was convened. The constitution specifies that the SPDC will continue to rule until a new government is formed. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces were responsible for extrajudicial killings, custodial deaths, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment and abuse of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers, resulting in deaths, forced relocation, and other serious abuses. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups and some cease-fire groups (armed ethnic guerillas) allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor and recruitment of child soldiers. The government released Aung San Suu Kyi--general secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD)--from house arrest on November 13, the date her sentence (for allegedly having violated the terms of her confinement) expired..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: pdf (229K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs11/USDOS-Country-rep2010-Burma.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 28 April 2011


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2009
    Date of publication: 11 March 2010
    Description/subject: "Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. In May 2008 the regime held a referendum on its draft constitution and declared the constitution had been approved by 92.48 percent of voters, a figure no independent observers believed was valid. The constitution specifies that the SPDC will continue to rule until a new parliament is convened, scheduled to take place following national elections in 2010. The military government controlled the security forces without civilian oversight. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces allowed custodial deaths to occur and committed extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers. The government sentenced Aung San Suu Kyi--general secretary of the country's independence movement, the National League for Democracy (NLD)--to 18 additional months of house arrest for violating the terms of her confinement. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2008
    Date of publication: 25 February 2009
    Description/subject: Events of 2008..."Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government controlled the security forces without civilian oversight. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government and committed other severe human rights abuses. Government security forces allowed custodial deaths to occur and committed other extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government detained civic activists indefinitely and without charges. In addition regime-sponsored mass-member organizations engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life-threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers. Aung San Suu Kyi, general secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and NLD Vice-Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor. Some cease-fire groups reportedly committed abuses. Armed insurgent groups and cease-fire groups also recruited child soldiers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2009


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2007
    Date of publication: 11 March 2008
    Description/subject: "Since 1962 Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority ethnic Burman group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government totally controlled the country's security forces without civilian oversight. The government's human rights record worsened during the year. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government. Government security forces killed at least 30 demonstrators during their suppression of prodemocracy protests in September, and they continued to allow custodial deaths to occur and commited other extrajudicial killings, disappearances, rape, and torture. In addition, regime‑sponsored, mass-member organizations such as the Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA) and regime-backed "private" militias increasingly engaged in harassment, abuse, and detention of human rights and prodemocracy activists. The government continued to detain civic activists indefinitely and without charges, including more than 3,000 persons suspected of taking part in prodemocracy demonstrations in September and October, at least 300 members of the National League for Democracy (NLD), and at least 15 members of the 88 Generation Students prodemocracy activists. The government continued to prohibit the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from working unhindered in conflict areas and visiting prisoners privately. The army continued its attacks on ethnic minority villagers in Bago Division and Karen and Shan states to drive them from their traditional land. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life‑threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. NLD General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. The government routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a difficult environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers' rights remained restricted. Forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. The government took no significant actions to prosecute or punish those responsible for human rights abuses. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor, although to a much lesser extent than the government. Some cease‑fire groups also reportedly committed abuses, including forced relocation of villagers in their home regions. Armed insurgent groups and cease‑fire groups also recruited child soldiers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 15 March 2008


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2006
    Date of publication: 06 March 2007
    Description/subject: Events of 2006..."Since 1962 Burma, with an estimated population of 54 million, has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, was the country's de facto government, with subordinate peace and development councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. Military officers wielded the ultimate authority at each level of government. In 1990 prodemocracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats in a general parliamentary election, but the regime continued to ignore the results. The military government totally controlled the country's armed forces, excluding a few active insurgent groups. The government's human rights record worsened during the year. The regime continued to abridge the right of citizens to change their government. The government detained five leaders of the 88 Generation Students prodemocracy activists. The government refused to allow the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to visit prisoners privately. The army increased attacks on ethnic minority villagers in Bago Division and Karen State designed to drive them from their traditional land. In addition, the government continued to commit other serious abuses, including extrajudicial killings, custodial deaths, disappearances, rape, and torture. The government abused prisoners and detainees, held persons in harsh and life threatening conditions, routinely used incommunicado detention, and imprisoned citizens arbitrarily for political motives. National League for Democracy (NLD) General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice Chairman Tin Oo remained under house arrest. Governmental authorities routinely infringed on citizens' privacy and resorted more frequently to forced relocations. The government restricted freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, religion, and movement. The government did not allow domestic human rights nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to function independently, and international NGOs encountered a hostile environment. Violence and societal discrimination against women continued, as did forced recruitment of child soldiers, discrimination against ethnic minorities, and trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls. Workers rights remained restricted, and forced labor, including that of children, also persisted. Ethnic armed groups allegedly committed human rights abuses, including forced labor, although reportedly to a much lesser extent than the government. Some cease fire groups also reportedly committed abuses, including forced relocation of villagers in their home regions. Armed insurgent groups and cease fire groups also practiced forced conscription of child soldiers..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 07 March 2007


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2005
    Date of publication: 08 March 2006
    Description/subject: "...The government's human rights record worsened during the year, and the government continued to commit numerous serious abuses. The following human rights abuses were reported: * abridgement of the right to change the government * extrajudicial killings, including custodial deaths * disappearances * rape, torture, and beatings of prisoners and detainees * arbitrary arrest without appeal * politically motivated arrests and detentions * incommunicado detention * continued house arrest of National League for Democracy (NLD) General Secretary Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD Vice * Chairman U Tin Oo, and the continued closure of all NLD offices, except the Rangoon headquarters * imprisonment of members of the United Nationalities Alliance, including Hkun Htun Oo and Sai Nyunt Lwin, both leaders of the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy * infringement on citizens' right to privacy * forcible relocation and confiscation of land and property * restriction of freedom of speech, press, assembly, association and movement * restriction of freedom of religion * discrimination and harassment against Muslims * restrictions on domestic human rights organizations and a failure to cooperate with international human rights organizations * violence and societal discrimination against women * forced recruitment of child soldiers * discrimination against religious and ethnic minorities * trafficking in persons, particularly of women and girls for the purpose of prostitution and as involuntary wives restrictions on worker rights * forced labor (including against children), chiefly in support of military garrisons and operations in ethnic minority regions..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 March 2006


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices - 2004
    Date of publication: 28 February 2005
    Description/subject: "Since 1962, Burma has been ruled by a succession of highly authoritarian military regimes dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. In 1990, pro-democracy parties won more than 80 percent of the seats during generally free and fair parliamentary elections, but the junta refused to recognize the results. The current controlling military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), is the country's de facto government, with subordinate Peace and Development Councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. On October 19, hardliners further consolidated their power by ousting former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt and appointing Soe Win. From May through July, the SPDC reconvened a National Convention (NC) as part of its purported "Road Map to Democracy." The NC excluded the largest opposition party and did not allow free debate. The judiciary was not independent and was subject to military control. The Government reinforced its rule with a pervasive security apparatus. Until its dismantling in October, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI) exercised control through surveillance, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. After October, the Government's new Military Affairs Security (MAS) assumed a similar role, though apparently with less sweeping powers. The Government justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous serious human rights abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US State Dept., Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 28 February 2005


    Title: International Religious Freedom Report 2004: Burma
    Date of publication: 15 September 2004
    Description/subject: "The country has been ruled since 1962 by highly repressive, authoritarian military regimes. Since 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, a junta composed of senior military officers has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. Although there is currently no constitution in place, the principles laid out by the Government for its reconvened constitutional convention allow for "freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess and practice religion subject to public order, morality, or healthE" Most adherents of religions that are registered with the authorities generally are allowed to worship as they choose; however, the Government imposes restrictions on certain religious activities and frequently abuses the right to freedom of religion. There was no change in the limited respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report. Through its pervasive internal security apparatus, the Government generally infiltrated or monitored the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations. It systematically restricted efforts by Buddhist clergy to promote human rights and political freedom, discouraged or prohibited minority religions from constructing new places of worship, and in some ethnic minority areas coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, particularly among members of the minority ethnic groups. Under the principles that are to guide the drafting of the constitution, "the State recognizes the special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the State." Christian groups continued to experience difficulties in obtaining permission to repair existing churches or build new ones in most regions, while Muslims reported that they essentially are banned from constructing any new mosques or expanding existing ones anywhere in the country. Anti-Muslim violence continued to occur during the period covered by this report, as did monitoring of Muslims' activities and restrictions on Muslim travel and worship countrywide. There were flare-ups of Muslim-Buddhist violence during the period covered by this report. Persistent social tensions remained between the Buddhist majority and the Christian and Muslim minorities, largely due to old British colonial and contemporary government preferences. There is widespread prejudice against Burmese of South Asian origin, most of whom are Muslims. The U.S. Government promoted religious freedom with all facets of society, including government officials, religious leaders, private citizens, scholars, diplomats of other governments, and international business and media representatives. Embassy staff offered support to local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and religious leaders and acted as a conduit for information exchange with otherwise isolated human rights NGOs and religious leaders. Since 1999, the U.S. Secretary of State has designated Burma as a "Country of Particular Concern" under the International Religious Freedom Act for particularly severe violations of religious freedom. ..."
    Language: English, Japanese
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
    Format/size: HTML (English: 65KB, Japanese: 50KB) , PDF (Japanese: 316KB)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmainfo.org/usa/usds_irfr2004-burma_jp.html (Japanese, HTML)
    http://www.burmainfo.org/usa/usds_irfr2004-burma_jp.pdf (Japanese, PDF)
    Date of entry/update: 21 October 2004


    Title: Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy Toward Burma for the the Period September 28, 2003 – March 27, 2004
    Date of publication: 13 April 2004
    Description/subject: Introduction and Summary: "The overall situation in Burma has changed little over the past six months. The Burmese government released most persons arrested during the government’s May 2003 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy. However, many pro-democracy supporters rounded up in the aftermath of the attack remain in detention; National League for Democracy (NLD) offices remain closed; senior opposition party leaders, including Aung San Suu Kyi and U Tin Oo, remain largely incommunicado under house arrest; and the government refuses to investigate the May attack. The Government of Burma (GOB) also has arrested more people for their peaceful political activities over the past six months, while over a thousand persons remain jailed for their political beliefs. The ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) has focused efforts on promoting its own seven-step “road map” to a "genuine and disciplined democratic system." Although the SPDC unveiled the plan in August 2003 following the announcement of new U.S. sanctions, the junta has yet to set a timetable for the transition or give assurances that all political parties and ethnic groups will be included in a transparent and democratic process. In recent months, the SPDC and the Karen National Union (KNU) entered into serious cease-fire negotiations, which could bring an end to decades of conflict. The U.S. consults with the European Union and others to maintain pressure on the Burmese junta to make progress toward a political transition. Following the events of May 30, the EU expanded the scope of its asset freeze and visa restrictions; Canada imposed visa restrictions; and Japan froze new development assistance to the junta. The UK has frozen over 3500 pounds of assets while other countries have blocked only minimal amounts; Japan is now providing assistance to some projects. No other country has adopted the economic sanctions imposed by the U.S. The SPDC’s dismal economic policies have led to widespread poverty and the flight of most foreign investors. New U.S. economic sanctions have also had an impact on at least one sector of the economy; dozens of garment factories that had relied on exports to the United States have now closed. In addition, sanctions have caused the Burmese to rely more on euros than on dollars for trade. We have no statistics on the impact of sanctions on tourism. The Burmese government abruptly reversed its ten-month old rice liberalization policy in January 2004, banning all exports of rice and other staple commodities. The 31-country member Financial Action Task Force (FATF), recommended countermeasures on the GOB, since the GOB had not implemented money-laundering legislation. Most countries imposed additional reporting requirements, and the U.S. banned correspondent relations with Burmese financial institutions. The SPDC continued to abuse severely the human rights of its citizens. Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and association remain greatly restricted. Burmese citizens are not free to criticize their government. Egregious abuses of ethnic minority civilians by the Burmese military including rape, torture, execution and forced dislocation continue. Forced labor, trafficking in persons, and religious discrimination remain serious problems. Immediate U.S. policy objectives in Burma are the release of Aung San Suu Kyi, other NLD officials, and all political prisoners, as well as the start of genuine dialogue on democracy and political reform, including the re-opening of NLD party headquarters and all NLD regional offices. Overall U.S. policy goals include establishment of constitutional democracy, respect for human rights, cooperation in fighting terrorism, regional stability, a full accounting of missing U.S. servicemen from World War II, combating HIV/AIDS, combating trafficking in persons and increased cooperation in eradicating the production and trafficking of illicit narcotics. The U.S. will continue to urge other nations to use sanctions and diplomacy to press the junta to release Aung San Suu Kyi and all political prisoners and to allow all political parties to operate. The U.S. also encourages all countries with a major interest in Burma, particularly Burma’s immediate neighbors, ASEAN, and Japan, to use their influence to convince the government to undertake immediate steps on political reform and human rights. We will continue to urge the international community to support the UN Secretary General in his efforts to start genuine talks on a political transition in Burma..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 April 2004


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2003
    Date of publication: 25 February 2004
    Description/subject: Events of 2003. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962, General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority Burman ethnic group. In 1988, the armed forces brutally suppressed pro-democracy demonstrations, and a group composed of 19 military officers, called the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) took control, abrogated the 1974 Constitution, and has ruled by decree since then. In 1990, pro-democracy parties won over 80 percent of the seats during generally free and fair parliamentary elections, but the Government refused to recognize the results. In 1992, then-General Than Shwe took over the SLORC and in 1997 changed its name to the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). The 13-member SPDC is the country's de facto government, with subordinate Peace and Development Councils ruling by decree at the division, state, city, township, ward, and village levels. Several long-running internal ethnic conflicts continued to smolder. The judiciary was not independent and was subject to military control. The Government reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus. The Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI) exercised control through surveillance of the military, government employees, and private citizens, and through harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The Government justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses. Though resource-rich, the country is extremely poor; the estimated annual per capita income was approximately $300. Most of the population of more than 50 million was located in rural areas and lived at subsistence levels. Four decades of military rule, economic mismanagement, and endemic corruption have resulted in widespread poverty, poor health care, declining education levels, poor infrastructure, and continuously deteriorating economic conditions. During the year, the collapse of the private banking sector and the economic consequences of additional international sanctions further weakened the economy. The Government's extremely poor human rights record worsened, and it continued to commit numerous serious abuses. Citizens still did not have the right to change their government. Security forces continued to commit extrajudicial killings and rape, forcibly relocate persons, use forced labor, conscript child soldiers, and reestablished forced conscription of the civilian population into militia units. During the year, government-affiliated agents killed as many as 70 pro-democracy activists. Disappearances continued, and members of the security forces tortured, beat, and otherwise abused prisoners and detainees. Citizens were subjected to arbitrary arrest without appeal. Arrests and detention for expression of dissenting political views occurred on numerous occasions. During the year, the Government arrested over 270 democracy supporters, primarily members of the country's largest pro-democracy party, the National League for Democracy (NLD). The Government detained many of them in secret locations without notifying their family or providing access to due legal process or counsel. During the year, the Government stated it released approximately 120 political prisoners, but the majority of them had already finished their sentences, and many were common criminals and not political prisoners. By year's end, an estimated 1,300 political prisoners remained in prison. Prison conditions remained harsh and life threatening, although in some prisons conditions improved after the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was allowed access. The Government did not take steps to prosecute or punish human rights abusers. On May 30, government-affiliated forces attacked an NLD convoy led by party leader Aung San Suu Kyi, leaving several hundred NLD members and pro-democracy supporters missing, under arrest, wounded, raped, or dead. Following the attack, Government authorities detained Aung San Suu Kyi, other NLD party officials, and eyewitnesses to the attack. As of year's end, the Government has not investigated or admitted any role in the attack. The Government subsequently banned all NLD political activities, closed down approximately 100 recently reopened NLD offices, detained the entire 9-member NLD Central Executive Committee, and closely monitored the activities of other political parties throughout the country. The Government continued to restrict severely freedom of speech, press, assembly, association, and movement. During the year, persons suspected of or charged with pro-democratic political activity were killed or subjected to severe harassment, physical attack, arbitrary arrest, detention without trial, incommunicado detention, house arrest, and the closing of political and economic offices. The Government restricted freedom of religion, coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, and imposed restrictions on religious minorities. The Government's control over the country's Muslim minority continued, and acts of discrimination and harassment against Muslims continued. The Government regularly infringed on citizens' privacy; security forces continued to monitor systematically citizens' movements and communications, search homes without warrants, and relocate persons forcibly without just compensation or legal recourse. The SPDC also continued to forcibly relocate large ethnic minority civilian populations in order to deprive armed ethnic groups of civilian bases of support. The Government continued to restrict freedom of movement and, in particular, foreign travel by female citizens under 25 years of age. The Government did not permit domestic human rights organizations to function independently and remained hostile to outside scrutiny of its human rights record. However, it allowed the U.N. Special Rapporteur on Human Rights (UNSRHR) in Burma to conduct two limited missions to the country, but the Government did not allow the UNSRHR to visit all sites requested or stay for as long as he requested. It also allowed the International Labor Organization (ILO) to operate a liaison office in Rangoon; however, after the May 30 attack on Aung San Suu Kyi the ILO deferred finalizing a draft agreement with the Government on forced labor. Violence and societal discrimination against women remained problems, as did discrimination against religious and ethnic minorities. The Government continued to restrict worker rights, ban unions, and use forced labor for public works and for the support of military garrisons. Forced child labor remained a serious problem, despite recent ordinances outlawing the practice. The forced use of citizens as porters by SPDC troops--with the attendant mistreatment, illness, and sometimes death--remained a common practice, as did Government forced recruitment of child soldiers. Trafficking in persons, particularly in women and girls primarily for the purposes of prostitution, remained widespread, despite some efforts to address the problem. Ethnic armed groups including the Karen National Union (KNU), the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), and the Shan State Army-South (SSA-South) also may have committed human rights abuses, including killings, rapes, forced labor, and conscription of child soldiers, although on a lesser scale than the Government..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2004


    Title: International Religious Freedom Report 2003: Burma
    Date of publication: 18 December 2003
    Description/subject: "Burma has been ruled since 1962 by highly repressive, authoritarian military regimes. Since 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive pro-democracy demonstrations, a junta composed of senior military officers has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The most recent constitution, promulgated in 1974, permits both legislative and administrative restrictions on religious freedom: "the national races shall enjoy the freedom to profess their religion, provided that the enjoyment of any such freedom does not offend the laws or the public interest." Most adherents of religions that are registered with the authorities generally are allowed to worship as they choose; however, the Government has imposed restrictions on certain religious activities and frequently abused the right to freedom of religion. There was no change in the limited respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report. Through its pervasive internal security apparatus, the Government generally infiltrated or monitored the meetings and activities of virtually all organizations, including religious organizations. It systematically restricted efforts by Buddhist clergy to promote human rights and political freedom, discouraged or prohibited minority religions from constructing new places of worship, and, in some ethnic minority areas, coercively promoted Buddhism over other religions, particularly among members of the minority ethnic groups. Christian groups continued to experience increasing difficulties in obtaining permission to build new churches in most regions, while Muslims reported that they essentially are banned from constructing any new mosques, or expanding existing ones anywhere in the country. Anti-Muslim violence continued to occur. Restrictions on Muslim travel as well as monitoring of Muslims' activities and worship countrywide have increased in recent years. There are social tensions between the Buddhist majority and the Christian and Muslim minorities, largely due to colonial and contemporary government preferences. There is widespread prejudice against Muslims. Since 1988, a primary objective of U.S. Government policy toward the country has been to promote increased respect for human rights, including the right to freedom of religion. In March, the Secretary of State designated Burma a "country of particular concern" (CPC) under the International Religious Freedom Act for particularly severe violations of religious freedom. The Secretary of State also designated Burma a CPC in 1999, 2000, and 2001. During the period covered by this report, the U.S. Embassy promoted religious freedom during contacts with all facets of Burmese society, including officials, private citizens, scholars, representatives of other governments, international media representatives, and international business representatives, as well as leaders of Buddhist, Christian, and Islamic religious groups..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor
    Format/size: html (65KB)
    Date of entry/update: 18 December 2003


    Title: Report on Activities to Support Democracy Activists in Burma as Required by the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003
    Date of publication: 30 October 2003
    Description/subject: "The restoration of democracy in Burma is a priority U.S. policy objective in Southeast Asia. To achieve this objective, the United States has consistently supported democracy activists and their efforts both inside and outside Burma. However, programming aimed at organizing the democratic opposition in Burma has been difficult in the face of the military junta's tactics of terror, torture, intimidation, and censorship. As conditions have deteriorated inside Burma, especially since the events of May 30, 2003, it has become increasingly difficult to meet growing needs; many opposition leaders are detained and isolated. Addressing these needs requires flexibility and creativity. Despite the challenges that have arisen, United States Embassies Rangoon and Bangkok as well as Consulate General Chiang Mai are fully engaged in pro-democracy efforts. The United States also supports organizations, such as the National Endowment for Democracy, the Open Society Institute, and Internews, working inside and outside the region on a broad range of democracy promotion activities. U.S.-based broadcasters supply news and information to the Burmese people, who lack a free press. U.S. programs also fund scholarships for Burmese who represent the future of Burma. The United States is committed to working for a democratic Burma and will continue to employ a variety of tools to assist democracy activists..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    Title: Conditions in Burma and U.S. Policy Toward Burma for the Period March 28, 2003 - September 27, 2003
    Date of publication: 27 October 2003
    Description/subject: "Efforts to foster peaceful democratic change in Burma, already encumbered by an increasingly confrontational military regime, were dealt a severe blow on May 30 when government-affiliated thugs carried out a premeditated ambush on democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy of National League for Democracy (NLD) party members and supporters. Since the May 30 attack, Burma’s military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has held Aung San Suu Kyi and all members of the NLD’s Central Executive Committee in indefinite "protective custody," arrested dozens of NLD members, and shuttered the party’s headquarters and all of its regional offices. The violent attack and its aftermath dominate the political scene in Burma. Despite significant pressure from the United States, the European Union, Japan, and, to a lesser degree, ASEAN, the Burmese junta has not taken any constructive steps to resolve the crisis or to begin a real dialogue with the NLD and other political parties, including ethnic minority groups, on substantive political issues. In July, President Bush signed the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003 and the U.S. imposed significant additional economic sanctions on Burma. These new measures, which complement a ban on new investment in Burma and other existing sanctions, prohibit the import of any Burmese product into the United States, ban the provision of financial services to Burma, and freeze the assets of designated Burmese institutions, including the State Peace and Development Council. In addition, in June, the Department of State expanded the scope of an existing visa ban that targets Burmese officials and others who inhibit a transition to democracy to include all officials of the government-affiliated Union Solidarity and Development Association and the managers of state-owned enterprises and their immediate family members. On September 9, President Bush imposed further trafficking in persons-related sanctions on Burma, barring U.S. funding for Burmese government officials or employees in educational and cultural exchange programs. Absent significant progress toward a political transition, the U.S. will coordinate with the European Union and others to maintain pressure on the Burmese junta to make such progress. The European Union has expanded the scope of its asset freeze and visa restrictions; Canada has also imposed visa restrictions. Japan has frozen new development assistance to the junta. Should the SPDC fail to release a significant number of political prisoners or improve its human rights record, and should it continue to inhibit a meaningful political dialogue with the democratic opposition, the U.S. will consider additional measures in conjunction with the international community..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Dept. of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 27 October 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2002)
    Date of publication: 31 March 2003
    Description/subject: Events of 2002. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. In 1962 General Ne Win overthrew the elected civilian government and replaced it with a repressive military government dominated by the majority ethnic group. In 1988 the armed forces brutally suppressed prodemocracy demonstrations, and a junta composed of military officers, called the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), led by Senior General Than Shwe, took control. Since then the SPDC has ruled by decree. The judiciary was not independent, and there was no effective rule of law. The regime reinforced its firm military rule with a pervasive security apparatus, the Office of Chief Military Intelligence (OCMI). Control was implemented through surveillance of government employees and private citizens, harassment of political activists, intimidation, arrest, detention, physical abuse, and restrictions on citizens' contacts with foreigners. The SPDC justified its security measures as necessary to maintain order and national unity. Members of the security forces committed numerous, serious human rights abuses..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept.: Burma - Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2001)
    Date of publication: 04 March 2002
    Description/subject: Events of 2001. "Burma is ruled by a highly authoritarian military regime. Repressive military governments dominated by members of the majority Burman ethnic group have ruled the ethnically Burman central regions and some ethnic-minority areas continuously since 1962, when a coup led by General Ne Win overthrew an elected civilian government. Since September 1988, when the armed forces brutally suppressed massive prodemocracy demonstrations, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), a junta composed of senior military officers, has ruled by decree, without a constitution or legislature. The Government is headed by armed forces commander Senior General Than Shwe, although Ne Win, who retired from public office during the 1988 prodemocracy demonstrations, continued to wield informal influence..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights,and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept.- Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices (2000)
    Date of publication: February 2001
    Description/subject: Events of 2000
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1999
    Date of publication: 25 February 2000
    Description/subject: Events of 1999
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998
    Date of publication: 26 February 1999
    Description/subject: Events of 1998
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Dept. of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997
    Date of publication: 30 January 1998
    Description/subject: Events of 1997
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1996
    Date of publication: 30 January 1997
    Description/subject: Events of 1996
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State
    Format/size: html (84K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/USDOS-CR1996.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1995
    Date of publication: March 1996
    Description/subject: Events of 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (61K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept. - Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1994
    Date of publication: February 1995
    Description/subject: Events of 1994
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (123K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US State Dept.:Burma: Human Rights Practices, 1993
    Date of publication: 31 January 1994
    Description/subject: Events of 1993
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: U.S. Department of State
    Format/size: html (110K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Burma Human Rights Yearbooks (1994-2008)
    These compilations of reports of human rights violations in Burma were published annually from 1994 to 2008 by the Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) of the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB).

    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2008
      Date of publication: 23 November 2009
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances...2. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment...3. Extra-judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions...4. Landmines and Other Explosive Devices...5. Production and Trade of Illicit Drugs...6. Trafficking and Smuggling...7. Forced Labour and Forced Conscription...8. Deprivation of Livelihood...9. Environmental Degradation...10. Cyclone Nargis – From natural disaster to human catastrophe...11. Right to Health...12. Freedom of Belief and Religion...13. Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press...14. Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement...15. Right to Education...16. Rights of the Child...17. The Rights of Women...18. Ethnic Minority Rights...19. Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation...20. The Situation of Refugees...21.The Situation of Migrant Workers...EACH OF THESE CHAPTERS CAN HE INDEPENDENTLY READ AND DOWNLOADED
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Docmentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html (21K - hyperlinked index ); pdf (13MB) 1092 pages - full pdf text
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs08/HRYB2008.pdf (full pdf text - 13MB)
      Date of entry/update: 05 December 2009


    • Archive 1994-2007 of the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Archive 1994-2007 of the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks
      Description/subject: This is a collection of all the Burma Human Rights Yearbooks from 1994-2007 (the date refers to events of that year, though the Yearbook is published a year or so later). This collection complements the individual Yearbooks included in this section of OBL. It contains better layout and graphics than the earlier versions, and provides a choice between html and pdf. However, apart from the 2007 Yearbook, the individual chapters are not hyperlinked, and thus have no separate URLs. For this feature, which users may need to extract or link to particular chapters, use the individual Yearbooks.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 26 November 2008


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2007
      Date of publication: September 2008
      Description/subject: Use the main link to access a version containing hyperlinks to individual chapters.... PREFACE: "The year 2007 represented a turbulent year in the history of Burma. It was a year in which we witnessed people from all walks of life coming together in the largest public display of dissatisfaction with the military regime in almost 20 years. Regrettably, it was also a year in which we witnessed the brutal and bloody crackdown on those peaceful protests, including the unforgivable and unforgettable attacks on and killings of Buddhist monks. In reference to the colour of the robes worn by the monks, the international media named this peaceful mass movement the “Saffron Revolution”. These protests represented the biggest demonstrations conducted in Burma since the popular democratic uprising of 8.8.88.... Responding to the brutality visited upon the protestors and dedicated to the memory of the monks and laypersons who lost their lives during the Saffron Revolution, late in the year, the Human Rights Documentation Unit (HRDU) commenced work on a report documenting the events leading up to, during, and following the September protests. This comprehensive report, entitled: Bullets in the Alms Bowl: An Analysis of the Brutal SPDC Suppression of the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, was based on over 50 eyewitness testimonies to the protests who had fled the country following the crackdowns as well as information gathered by a team of researchers working clandestinely within Burma. The situation of human rights in Burma largely disappeared from the international limelight for about a year during the transition from UN Human Rights Commission into UN Human Rights Council in 2006. Meanwhile, human rights violations in Burma continued unabated without the notice of the new UN Human Rights Council. It was not until images of the brutality visited upon the participants of the Saffron Revolution were broadcast worldwide by local and international media that the Council was compelled to act and convened a Special Session on 2 October 2007, thus bringing the human rights situation in Burma back onto agenda again.... The year 2007 also witnessed the first time in almost four years in which the regime had permitted the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Situation on Human Rights in Burma, Professor Paulo Sergio Pinheiro, to return to the country. However, by his own admission, little was accomplished in what was to become his final visit to the country in his role in the mandate. Professor Pinheiro resigned as the Special Rapporteur on Burma in early 2008. Perhaps reflecting some of the frustration associated with the mandate, in his final report to the UN Human Rights Council, Pinheiro stated that the systematic and widespread human rights violations that have continued to be committed in Burma “are not simply isolated acts of individual misconduct by middle- or low-ranking officers, but rather the result of a system under which individuals and groups have been allowed to breach the law and violate human rights without being called to account”.... The consistent non-compliance of the Burmese military regime to the 30 consecutive resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly and UN Human Rights Council (previously Commission) undermines the credibility of the UN system and the prevalence of international law. However, since the international community bore witness to the ruthless crackdown on the September 2007 Saffron Revolution, we have heard the voices of increasingly more of the world’s respectable citizens and leading human rights advocates advocating for international intervention from the perspective of the Responsibility to Protect principle.... The systematic and widespread perpetration of rape and sexual violence against women, enslavement (forced labour), religious persecution and torture in combination of the litany of other human rights abuses being committed in Burma with near complete impunity constitute crimes against humanity according to Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court....The Burmese Generals should no longer be permitted to hide behind the wall of national sovereignty as they have done so for years. It is time for the United Nations and the international community to draw the legal conclusion that the human rights violations being committed in Burma are tantamount to crimes against humanity and that the SPDC’s leaders must be held to account for these crimes...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: pdf (8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU2007.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 09 September 2008


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: html and pdf version
      This is the main link to the 2006 Yearbook, with html, pdf and photo files.

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: html and pdf version
      Date of publication: June 2007
      Description/subject: This is the main link to the 2006 Yearbook, with integrated html, pdf and photo files..."The Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 is available in two formats: HTML for online viewing; and PDF format for download. Use the following Table of Contents to navigate each chapter of the Yearbook sequentially. Each chapter may also be downloaded individually by using the links in the table below. Alternatively, the whole Yearbook may be downloaded in its entirety as a single file..."...N.B. the full pdf version is 7.16MB rather than the 716MB given in the TOC.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html, pdf, jpg (58MB total)
      Date of entry/update: 10 September 2007


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 -- pdf versions of individual chapters

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006 - Chapter 6: Rights of the Child
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Children in Armed Conflict: Violence against Children; Abduction of Children... Child Soldiers: Child Soldiers in Armed Ethnic Groups; Conscription of Child Soldiers... Sexual Assault against Children... Right to Education: Education in Ethnic Minority and Conflict Areas; Gender Equality... Right to Health: Children and HIV/AIDS... Arrest and Detention of Children: Children in Prison with Their Mothers... Child Labour: Children and Forced Labour... Child Trafficking.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (465K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 00. Full text
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: 1. Forced Labour and Forced Conscription; 2. Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. The Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; 12. Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association; 13. Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma; Appendices: Acronyms; Glossary of Terms and Units of Measurement; Abbreviations; Spelling Conventions; Karen State Disputed Areas of Demarcation; Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; Resources and Contributors...Rather a difficult document to download and navigate. Use the Adobe thumbnail bookmarks.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: pdf (7.2MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ncgub.net
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 01. Front cover
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: pdf (180K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 02. Preface, Table of Contents and map
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (730K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 03. Historical and Political Background
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (59K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 05. Chapter 2: Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Extra-Judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Execution - Partial List of Incidents for 2006.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (164K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 06. Chapter 3: Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Recent History: 2006; Arbitrary and Politically-Motivated Arrests, Detention and Disappearances in 2006: Arrest and Pre-Trial Interrogation and Detention; Denial of Fair and Public Trials and Appeals; Sentences... Arbitrary or Politically-Motivated Arrests of Ethnic Minorities; Arbitrary or Politically-Motivated Arrests of Civilians; Foreigners Arrested and Detained in 2006; Prolonged Detention... Conditions of Detention: Living Conditions; Medical Concerns;Torture; Deteriorating Conditions: Cessation of the International Committee of the Red Cross visits; Women in Prison; Monks in Prison... Political Prisoners in Poor Health; Deaths of Political Prisoners in 2006; Release of Political Prisoners: List of Releases in 2006... List of MP-Elects who remain Imprisoned in 2006.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (365K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 07. Chapter 4: Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background; Torture during Detention; Torture of Villagers in Ethnic Minority Areas; Torture during Forced Portering and Forced Labour... Methods of Torture: Physical Torture; Psychological Torture; Sexual Torture... Prison Conditions; Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment – Partial List of Incidents for 2006.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (365K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 08. Chapter 5: Deprivation of Livelihood
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Inflation; Economic Sanctions; Additional Factors Affecting the Cost of Living... Situation Facing Farmers in Burma: Right to Own Land; Forced Sale of Crops... Dry Season Paddy Crops; Physic Nut Agricultural Development Project; Situation of Labour in Burma... Other Factors Contributing to the Deprivation of Livelihood: Forced Labour; Fees, Taxes and Extortion; Looting and Expropriation of Food and Possessions; Land Confiscation; Destruction of Property; Restrictions on Trade, Travel and Cultivation.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (1MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 10. Chapter 7: Rights of Women
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Women in Politics; Health of Women from Burma: HIV/AIDS... Women and Forced Labour; Trafficking and Prostitution; Violence against Women; Forced Marriage; Detention in Lieu of Men.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (359K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 11. Chapter 8: Rights of Ethnic Minorities
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background; Ethnic Politics, Armed Resistance, and Ceasefire Agreements: Arakan State; Chin State; Kachin State; Karen State; Karenni State; Mon State; Shan State; Multilateral Resistance Organizations... SPDC Campaign of Abuses Against Ethnic Minority Villagers; Abuse of Ethnic Minorities by Ceasefire Groups; Official List of Ethnic Minority Groups in Burma; Ceasefire Status of Ethnic Groups.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (427K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 12. Chapter 9: Rights to Education and Health
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background... Situation of Education; Corruption and Extortion in the Education System; Primary Education; Secondary Education; Tertiary Education; Disparity between Civilian and Military Education; Educational Opportunities for Ethnic Minorities... Situation of Health: Access to Healthcare; HIV/AIDS; Avian Influenza; Malaria; Dengue Fever; Tuberculosis; Diarrhoea; Cholera; Typhoid; Lymphatic filariasis; Polio; Measles; Foot and Mouth Disease; Support for People with Disabilities; International Humanitarian Aid.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (368K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 13. Chapter 10: The Freedom of Belief and Religion
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Religious Discrimination against Christians; Religious Discrimination against Muslims; SPDC Promotion of and Control over Buddhism.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (222K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 14. Chapter 11: Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background; SPDC Laws Restricting Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; The National Convention: Increased Control over Expression; State of Freedom of the Press in 2006; The State of Publications in 2006 569 Continuing Detention of Journalists; Academic Freedom; Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Expression... Freedom of Expression in the Arts: Censorship of Film and Television; Censorship of Music; Censorship of Visual and Performance Arts. Control of Computer Technology and Communications.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (451K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 15: Chapter 12: Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Restrictions on Villagers in Border Conflict Areas; Restriction on the Movement of the Rohingya; Restrictions on International Travel and Migration; Restrictions on the Movement of Women; Restrictions on Foreigners in Burma: Humanitarian and Aid Agencies... Restrictions on the Freedoms of Assembly; Restrictions on Freedom of Association; Restrictions on Political Parties; Restrictions on and Harassment of the NLD; Prohibition of Free and Independent Trade Unions; Other Social Organisations in Burma... The Union Solidarity and Development Association (USDA): Recruitment; USDA as an Approximation and Manipulation of Civil Society; USDA as a Security Apparatus; USDA as a Political Party.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (536K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 16. Chapter 13: Internal Displacement and Forced Relocation
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background; Causes of Displacement in Burma: Conflict-Induced Displacement; Landmines; Development-Induced Displacement; Human Rights-Induced Displacement... Destinations of the Displaced and Forcibly Relocated: Relocation Sites; IDP Hiding Sites; Ceasefire Areas... Humanitarian Assistance; Situation in Arakan State; Situation in Chin State; Situation in Kachin State; Situation in Karen State; Situation in Karenni State; Situation in Mon State; Situation in Shan State; Situation in Tenasserim Division; Statistics of IDPs in Eastern Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 17. Chapter 14: The Situation of Refugees
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background: Burmese Refugees in Thailand: 2006 Demographics of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Thailand ; Thai Government Policy towards Refugees and Asylum Seekers; Change of the Thai Government; Policy for Refugees in the Camps; Detained, Arrested and Deported Refugees; The UNHCR and the Refugee Status Determination Process; Situation of Women in Refugee Camps; Situation of Children in Refugee Camps; Situation of Specific Ethnic Groups of the Refugee Population; Timeline of Major Refugee-Related Events on the Thai-Burma Border in 2006... Burmese Refugees in Bangladesh: Rohingya Refugees in Nayapara and Kutupalong Refugee Camps; UNHCR Disengagement and Forced Repatriation; Unofficial Rohingya Refugees; Arakanese Refugees in Bangladesh; Burmese Refugees in Bangladeshi Prisons... Burmese Refugees in India: Refugees and Asylum Seekers in New Delhi; Chin Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Northeastern India; Crackdown on Chin Opposition Groups... Burmese Refugees in Malaysia... Burmese Refugees in Other Locations: Australia; Canada; Finland; Indonesia: Japan; South Korea; United States.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (443K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 18. Chapter 15: The Situation of Migrant Workers
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Background... Situation of Burmese Migrants in Thailand: Patterns of Migration and Trafficking; Thai Migration Policy and Legal Registration of Migrant Workers; Working Conditions and Labour Law; Migrant Health; Situation for Migrant Children; Deportation of Migrants; The Tsunami; Timeline of Events Relating to Migrant Workers in Thailand... The Rohingya Boat People; Situation of Burmese Migrants in Malaysia; Situation of Burmese Migrants in India; Situation of Burmese Migrants in Other Places.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (457K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 19. Chapter 16: Landmines in Burma
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Introduction; Landmine Devices; De-mining; Human Minesweepers; Mine Risk Education; Situation in the Ethnic Minority Territories; Thai-Burma Border; Bangladesh-Burma Border; India-Burma Border.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (419K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: 20. Appendices
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: Acronyms; Glossary of Terms and Units of Measurement; Abbreviations; Spelling Conventions; Karen State Disputed Areas of Demarcation; Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; Resources and Contributors.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB (HRDU)
      Format/size: pdf (225K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2006: Forced Labour and Forced Conscription
      Date of publication: 25 June 2007
      Description/subject: 1.1 Introduction: Forced Portering; Forced Labour; Forced Convict Labour; Forced Military Conscription...1.2 ILO Activities in Burma: Construction of the New Capital [box]... 1.3 Forced Labour Resulting from International Joint Ventures: The Settlement of the Total Lawsuit; Potential Use of Forced Labour on Internationally Sponsored Projects; Salween Dams; Shwe Gas Development; Road and Rail Projects...1.4 Forced Portering – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Buthidaung Township; Chin State - Matupi Township; Karen State - Dooplaya District, Mergui/Tavoy District, Nyaunglebin District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Mon State - Ye Township; Shan State - Kae-See Township, Murng Kerng Township, Murng-Nai Township, Namkhan Township, Nam-Zarng Township...1.5 Forced Labour – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Buthidaung Township, Kyaukpru Township, Maungdaw Township, Palawa Township, Ponna Kyunt Township, Rathidaung Township; Chin State - Falam Township, Hakha Township, Matupi Township, Paletwa Township, Tedim Township, Thantlang Township; Kachin State - Hopin Township, Sinbo Township; Karen State - Dooplaya District, Nyaunglebin District, Pa’an District, Papun District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Karenni State; Mon State - Khaw Zar Sub-Township, Mudon Township, Thanbyuzayat Township, Ye Township; Pegu Division; Sagaing Division; Shan State - Kae-See Township, Kun Hing Township, Lai-Kha Township, Lashio Township, Muse Town, Murng-Ton Township, Tachilek Township; Tenasserim Division…1.6 Forced Prison Labour – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State; Chin State; Karen State - Papun District, Thaton District, Toungoo District; Mandalay Division…1.7 Forced Conscription and Forced Military Training – Partial List of Incidents for 2006: Arakan State - Manaung Township, Maungdaw Township, Ponna Kyunt Township, Yathetaung Township; Chin State - Paletwa Township, Matupi Township; Kachin State; Karen State - Nyaunglebin District, Pa’an District; Mon State; Tenasserim Division…1.8 Interviews and Personal Accounts [20 interviews].
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: pdf (626K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs4/HRDU2006-CD/
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2007


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2005 (Hyperlinked Table of Contents)
      Date of publication: July 2006
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations... Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2005: 1. Forced Labor, Portering, and Military Conscription; 2. Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; 12. Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; 13. Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs6/Yearbook2005/Burma%20Human%20Righ/
      http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/HRDU-archive/Burma%20Human%20Righ/former/YB2005.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 12 December 2006


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2004
      Date of publication: 01 October 2005
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Preface; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2004; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8). Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9). Rights to Education and Health; (10). Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers; (16). Landmines in Burma; List of Resources and Contributors; All Photos.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 02 October 2005


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2003-2004

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook, 2003-2004
      Date of publication: December 2004
      Description/subject: TABLE OF CONTENTS: Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures; Map of Burma; Historical Background; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2003; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8). Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9). Rights of Education and Health; (10). Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). Freedom of Assembly, Association and Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; (16). Landmines in Burma; (17). List of Resources and Contributors.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2004


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03
      Date of publication: November 2003
      Description/subject: 1. Forced Labor; 2. Extra-judicial Killing, Summary or Arbitrary Execution; 3. Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; 4. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment; 5. Deprivation of Livelihood; 6. Rights of the Child; 7. Rights of Women; 8. Rights of Ethnic Minorities; 9. Rights to Education and Health; 10. The Freedom of Belief and Religion; 11. Freedom of Opinion, Expression, and the Press; 12. The Freedom of Movement, Assembly and Association; 13. Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; 14. The Situation of Refugees; 15. The Situation of Migrant Workers; 16. Landmines in Burma.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002
      Date of publication: September 2002
      Description/subject: Clickable access to the following sections: Preface; Acknowledgments ; Co-Ordinator's Commentary ; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Burma at a Glance: Facts & Figures:- Map of Burma; Historical Background; Facts on Human Rights Violations in Burma 2000; (1). Forced Labor; (2). Extra-judicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions; (3). Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (4). Torture; (5). Deprivation of Livelihood; (6). Rights of the Child; (7). Rights of Women; (8) Rights of Ethnic Minorities; (9) Rights of Education and Health; (10). The Freedom of Belief and Religion; (11). Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; (12). The Freedom of Movement; (13). Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; (14). The Situation of Refugees; (15). The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; (16). Landmines in Burma; (17). List of Resources and Contributors.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000
      Date of publication: October 2001
      Description/subject: Separate clickable chapters on: Forced Labor; Extra-judicial, Summery, or Arbitrary Executions; Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; Torture and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading treatment or punishment; Deprivation of Livelihood; Rights of the Child; Rights of Women; Rights of Ethnic Minorities; Rights to Education and Health; Freedom of Religious Belief and Practice; Freedom of Opinion, Expression and the Press; Freedom of Assembly and Association; Freedom of Movement; Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation; The Situation of Refugees; The Situation of Migrant Workers from Burma; Special Report #1 Landmines in Burma; Special Report #2 Tourism and Human Rights Violations - The Than Daung Gyi Project; List of Resources and Contributors.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) Human Rights Documentation Unit
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1995

      Individual Documents

      Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1995
      Date of publication: May 1996
      Description/subject: * Preface; * Acknowledgements; * Acronyms and Abbreviations, Terms and Measurements; * Burma at a Glance: Facts and Figures; * Ethnic Peoples of Burma; * Headlines in Review: Events of 1995; * The State of the Burmese Econonomy under Military Mangement; * Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Burma; Facts on Human Right Violations in Burma 1995; (I) Extra-judicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions; (II) Arbitrary Detention and Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances; (III) Rights of the Child; (IV) Forced Labour and Slavery; (V) Forced Relocation and Internally Displaced Persons; (VI) Deprivation of Livelihood; (VII) Minority Protection; (VIII) Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, Degrading Treatment or Punishment; (IX) Freedom of Belief: Discrimination Against the Right to Practice Religion and Intolerance; (X) Freedom of Opinion and Expression; (XI) Freedom of Assembly and Association; (XII) Freedom of Movement; (XIII) Abuse of Women; (XIV) The Refugees Situation and Forced Repatriation; * Personal Accounts; * Selected SLORC Orders; * Selected Bibliography; * List of Resources and Contributors.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 28 July 2004