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Home > Main Library > Climate Change > Climate Change policy - Asia-Pacific region > Adaptation > Policies

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Policies

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Title: The impact of swidden decline on livelihoods and ecosystem services in Southeast Asia: A review of the evidence from 1990 to 2015
Date of publication: 01 October 2016
Description/subject: Abstract: "Global economic change and policy interventions are driving transitions from long-fallow swidden (LFS) systems to alternative land uses in Southeast Asia’s uplands. This study presents a systematic review of how these transitions impact upon livelihoods and ecosystem services in the region. Over 17 000 studies published between 1950 and 2015 were narrowed, based on relevance and quality, to 93 studies for further analysis. Our analysis of land-use transitions from swidden to intensified cropping systems showed several outcomes: more households had increased overall income, but these benefits came at significant cost such as reductions of customary practice, socio-economic wellbeing, livelihood options, and staple yields. Examining the effects of transitions on soil properties revealed negative impacts on soil organic carbon, cation-exchange capacity, and aboveground carbon. Taken together, the proximate and underlying drivers of the transitions from LFS to alternative land uses, especially intensified perennial and annual cash cropping, led to significant declines in pre-existing livelihood security and the ecosystem services supporting this security. Our results suggest that policies imposing landuse transitions on upland farmers so as to improve livelihoods and environments have been misguided; in the context of varied land uses, swidden agriculture can support livelihoods and ecosystem services that will help buffer the impacts of climate change in Southeast Asia." Keywords: *Alternative land uses *Ecosystem services * Livelihood security *Shifting cultivation *Southeast Asia
Author/creator: Wolfram H. Dressler, David Wilson, Jessica Clendenning, Rob Cramb, Rodney Keenan, Sango Mahanty, Thilde Bech Bruun, Ole Mertz
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Royal Swedish Acadamy of Sciences, Crossmark
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/2016-Dressler_et_al-swidden_review.pdf
Date of entry/update: 20 November 2016


Title: Climate Change and Rural Communities in the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Options
Date of publication: May 2014
Description/subject: Description: This report presents the methodology and lessons learned from a climate change adaptation study conducted under the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Core Environment Program. The study yielded a framework and methodology for assessing climate vulnerability and adaptation options for rural communities in the GMS. It was conducted in biodiversity conservation corridors in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam during 2011–2012. The report introduces the framework, describes how it was applied, presents major results, and makes recommendations for future improvement... Recommendations: This study contributes to building understanding of the risks that Greater Mekong Subregion rural communities face with changing climatic conditions and of appropriate adaptation options. Lessons from this study can inform future research. The following eight recommendations suggest ways in which the study approach and methodology can be improved and scaled up. * Strengthen socioeconomic analyses * Apply multiple climate scenarios * Integrate community-based adaptation and ecosystem-based adaptation approaches * Improve participatory approaches * Integrate site specific crop model simulations where possible * Integrate an economic analysis * Analyze the broader policy and planning environment * Upscale to regional studies... Contents: Executive Summary; Introduction; Agriculture, Rural Communities, and Climate Change in the GMS Study Sites; Framework for Assessing Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in Rural Communities; Synthesis of Study Results; Recommendations; Next Steps; Appendixes.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Format/size: pdf (2.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2014/climate-change-rural-communities-gms.pdf
http://www.adb.org/publications/climate-change-rural-communities-gms-framework-assessing-vulnerabil...
Date of entry/update: 16 June 2014


Title: Towards Developing the Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape
Date of publication: 23 December 2011
Description/subject: Report on the Experts Regional Consultation for Transboundary Biodiversity Management and Climate Change Adaptation.....Foreword: "The Brahmaputra-Salween Landscape (BSL) is a biodiversity-rich transboundary landscape that stretches across China, India, and Myanmar in the eastern Himalayas. Located at the confluence of Indo-Malayan, Palaeoarctic, and Sino-Japanese realms, this landscape harbours a rich mixture of floral and faunal elements from the three bio- geographic regions and thus has a high degree of endemism. The landscape hosts several well-known protected areas such as Namdapha National Park and Tiger Reserve (Arunachal Pradesh, India), Hkakabo Razi National Park (Kachin State, Myanmar), and Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve (Yunnan Province, China) that share the contiguous habitat of several plant and animal species of global conservation significance. Besides harbouring an extremely rich biodiversity, this landscape is home to diverse ethnic communities with unique socio-cultural traditions. However, there are numerous environmental and socioeconomic discrepancies impacting the existence of both the region’s biodiversity and its people. Striking a balance between traditional resource use patterns, globalization, sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation in the region is the challenge at hand. While there are global policy instruments such as the CBD to guide national biodiversity strategies and action plans, it is imperative for the countries in the region to join hands and combine individual efforts, resources, expertise, and knowledge to produce a regional outcome for the shared landscape. Landscape complexes, like the BSL and several others across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, should be viewed as platforms to instigate cumulative regional action towards the long-term sustainability of entire landscapes and the environmental and socioeconomic elements within them. In addition, the BSL even creates an opportunity to establish strategic landscape connectivity between the HKH and the Greater Mekong region further east. The regional Experience-Sharing Consultation on the Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Conservation and Management in the Eastern Himalayas, held in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, in 2009, laid the groundwork for a dialogue on a regional conservation initiative for the BSL. The second consultation on the BSL organized in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar, 21-23 December 2011 again brought together ICIMOD and partner institutions from the three member countries to reflect on the outcomes of the consultation in Tengchong and to work out a framework for future programmatic action. The consultation was successful in producing a draft framework to define the long-term vision, goals, objectives, and a strategic action plan to facilitate both national and regional biodiversity management in the BSL. The strategic framework is intended to build the capacity of national institutions and individuals for research and knowledge development and for knowledge sharing as well as for designing management interventions on the ground to help communities enhance their socioeconomic resilience to climate change and other drivers of change."
Language: English
Source/publisher: ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development)
Format/size: pdf (858K)
Date of entry/update: 12 June 2014