Policies and projects
|Title:|| ||Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs:Risk and Opportunity Multiplier
|Date of publication:|| ||06 November 2017|
|Description/subject:|| ||Executive summary:
"• Failure to move away from fossil fuels, especially coal, may damage the international reputation of the ASEAN countries. Counter to the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) which the ASEAN countries themselves have formulated under the Paris Agreement, the region’s coal-based electricity generation capacity has been expanding rapidly. This may also lead to a large number of stranded coal assets in the future.
• All the ASEAN member states have ratified the Kyoto Protocol and signed the Paris Agreement, and nine out of ten have also ratified the Paris Agreement. At least half of the ASEAN member states reacted publicly to President Donald Trump’s announcement that the United States would withdraw from the Paris Agreement, criticizing it and/or reiterating their own country’s commitment to climate action. ASEAN has identified climate change as a priority issue since the 2007 ASEAN Summit in Singapore. This declared commitment of ASEAN and its member states to international climate policy can provide a good foundation for joint regional climate policy formulation and action.
• However, despite their positive stances on climate change, most ASEAN countries have not taken on prominent roles in international climate policy. As a result, they remain takers rather than makers in international climate politics. ASEAN as an organization stands to gain or lose status by following up or not following up its member states on climate issues, and by member states succeeding or failing to meet their NDCs. The ASEAN Secretariat can fulfill an important function by promoting a team spirit around this status drive.
• ASEAN could formulate a regionally determined contribution (RDC) for ASEAN by adding up the nationally determined contributions of the ASEAN member states. This could help create a team spirit related to the NDCs, as well as possible peer review/pressure.
• ASEAN could implement several other concrete measures to energize its work on climate change: maintain a focus on the NDCs of its member states under the Paris Agreement; ensure that current and future initiatives under the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation (APAEC) are ambitious and detailed as to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; highlight the vulnerability of Southeast Asia to climate change by publishing and sharing relevant analysis; advocate improved disclosure and reporting of the financial risks of climate change to governments and investors; put climate change high on the agenda of every ASEAN summit; involve and connect relevant civil society and academic organizations across Southeast Asia; facilitate regional electricity trade through the expansion of the ASEAN Power Grid for better handling of the intermittency of renewable energy; promote the accelerated phase- out of fossil-fuel subsidies—which is also a prerequisite for developing trans-border electricity trade in Southeast Asia.
• To be successful, climate-related initiatives will need to consider the ASEAN way of conducting business, with its emphasis on national sovereignty, non-interference and consensus in decision-making. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has set an example of common but differentiated capabilities and responsibilities, further developed with the Paris Agreement’s concept of nationally determined contributions, which are precisely that—nationally determined. This approach is highly compatible with the traditional ASEAN approach to interstate cooperation.
• ASEAN may be experiencing a problem of collective action on international climate policy: the member states are looking to ASEAN to adopt a stronger role, whereas the ASEAN Secretariat looks to the member states to take the lead and give clear signals. A first step towards solving this conundrum could be for the ASEAN Secretariat to further expand and strengthen its climate policy staffing—which will require funding and capacity enhancement."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Indra Overland et al|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Norwegian Institute of International Affairs and Myanmar Institute of Strategic and International Studies|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (3.85MB)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320622312_Impact_of_Climate_Change_on_ASEAN_International_...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||09 March 2018|
|Title:|| ||Myanmar Climate-Smart Agriculture Strategy
|Date of publication:|| ||September 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||"A roadmap to resilience and sustainability: Myanmar’s climate-smart agriculture strategy....."In light of climate change, people often talk about achieving climate resilience and sustainability. How do we get there? Is there a roadmap for climate change adaptation and mitigation?
At first, it might seem daunting to address climate change in Myanmar. Germanwatch’s Climate Risk Index for 1994-2013 ranked Myanmar as the second most vulnerable country in the world, after Honduras. In 2008, category 4 cyclone Nargis hit the country. According to a World Bank report, Nargis severely affected the country’s agriculture sector with losses equivalent to 80,000 tons and damaging 251,000 tons of stored crops, across 34,000 hectares of cropland.
Myanmar is an agriculture-based country, with 61% of the country’s 53 million people depending on agriculture for their living. The country has also been experiencing more climate extremes like drought, flood, sea-level rise and natural disasters.
The recent launching of Myanmar’s Climate-Smart Agriculture Strategy has paved the path towards guided planning for national climate change adaptation and mitigation. Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) focuses on three pillars in tackling climate change: food security, adaptation, and mitigation.
The first national consultation meeting on ‘Climate-Smart Agriculture Strategies in Myanmar’ was conducted in September 2013, facilitated by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) in Southeast Asia and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
The strategy aligns with the country’s National Adaptation and Plan of Action (NAPA) for climate change, which prioritizes agriculture, early warning systems and forest in its plans and development initiatives.
The strategy institutionalizes Climate-Smart Villages in Myanmar as a community-based approach to a climate-resilient and sustainable agricultural development. These are benchmark villages that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and where CSA interventions will be tested, prioritized and implemented in close cooperation with the village, government units, and other stakeholders.
The foundation has been laid. The next challenge now is translating the strategy into on-the-ground initiatives to achieve agricultural productivity and have climate-ready villages, provinces, and country."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Myanmar Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (1MB-reduced version; 1.5MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.cgiar.org/consortium-news/a-roadmap-to-resilience-and-sustainability-myanmars-climate-sm...
|Date of entry/update:|| ||10 July 2016|
|Title:|| ||Land‐based climate change mitigation, land grabbing and conflict: understanding intersections and linkages, exploring actions for change
|Date of publication:|| ||May 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||Authors: Carol
"Recent research highlights the potential for climate change mitigation projects and large-
scale land deals to produce conflicts over land and resources. However, this literature
generally views climate change policies and land grabbing as separate processes, and
focuses on discrete areas where displacement or
contested claims occur. We argue that
additional research strategies are needed to understand the social and ecological spill-over
effects that take place within larger areas where land-based climate change projects (e.g.
biofuel production, forest conservation, or hydroelectric projects) and large land-based
investments (e.g. plantations or mines) are found. We propose adopting a landscape
perspective to study intersections and complex interactions within and across social,
ecological and institutional domains. By co-producing knowledge with local actors, building
capacity with civil society groups, and informing advocacy that targets policy processes at
multiple scales, we suggest that such research could contribute to preventing, resolving or
transforming conflicts – even in places where difficult political transitionLand
changes are underway".....
Conflict, climate change mitigation, land grab, resource conflict, green grab,
|Author/creator:|| ||Carol Hunsberger et al|
|Source/publisher:|| ||MOSAIC Research Project, International Institute of Social Studies, (Netherlands) RCSD, Chiangmai University)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (222K-reduced version; 330K-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.iss.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/iss/Research_and_projects/Research_networks/MOSAIC/CMCP_72-Hunsb...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||26 June 2015|
|Title:|| ||The role of Community Forests in REDD+ implementation; Cases of Thailand and Myanmar
|Date of publication:|| ||27 April 2014|
|Description/subject:|| ||Overview: • Definition of CF and its significance to
• CF in Thailand and Myanmar
- Background &Characteristics
- Existing challenges
• Connecting CF and REDD+
• REDD+ progresses in Thailand and
• Risks and Opportunities to CF|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Ratchada Arpornsilp and ZawWin Myint|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (5.1MB)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||23 May 2014|