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Home > Main Library > Wetlands > Wetlands (Burma/Myanmar) > Wetlands (Burma/Myanmar) coastal wetlands > Mangrove swamps > Mangrove swamps of Burma/Myanmar - general studies and articles

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Mangrove swamps of Burma/Myanmar - general studies and articles

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - mangrove* (video)
Description/subject: About 3,470 results (August 2017)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 24 August 2017


Title: Burmese Coast mangroves
Description/subject: Contents: 1 Location and description 2 Flora 3 Fauna 4 Threats and preservation 5 References
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


Title: Mangrove Action Project
Description/subject: "The Mangrove Action Project is dedicated to reversing the degradation and loss of mangrove forest ecosystems worldwide. Its central tenet is to promote the rights of traditional and indigenous coastal peoples, including fishers and farmers, to sustainably manage their coastal environs. Through its global network, MAP is stimulating the exchange of ideas and information on the conservation and restoration of mangrove forests, while promoting sustainable livelihoods for coastal communities." Search for Myanmar or Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mangrove Action Project
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: Results of a search for "Myanmar OR Burma" on the Mangrove Action Project site
Description/subject: 213 results (separate searches produced 141 results for "Myanmar" and 144 for "Burma"); 51 results for "Nargis"...From 2002. Results grouped by relevance
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mangrove Action Programme (MAP)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


Individual Documents

Title: Saving the mangroves
Date of publication: 02 August 2016
Description/subject: "Environmentalists are campaigning to prevent the destruction of the nation’s remaining mangrove forests because they provide protection from extreme weather and support a rich variety of marine life... IF another powerful cyclone were to pummel the Ayeyarwady Delta it could have a more devastating impact than Nargis in 2008, one of the worst natural disasters in Myanmar’s history, environmentalists have warned. The reason is the continuing destruction of mangrove forests that provide a coastal buffer against extreme weather. To help protect the delta and other coastal areas where mangroves are or have been abundant, projects to rehabilitate, regenerate and replant the forests are taking place in Ayeyarwady and Tanintharyi regions, as well as Rakhine State. “If a cyclone comes to the [Ayeyarwady] delta, the impact could be twice that of Nargis because most of the coastal areas are flat with no mangrove cover,” said U Win Maung, chairman of Worldview Myanmar, an non-government organisation associated with Sri Lanka-based Worldview International Foundation, that is planting mangroves in Ayeyarwady Region..."
Author/creator: Hein Ko Swe
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Frontier Myanmar"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 04 August 2016


Title: Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced
Date of publication: May 2014
Description/subject: "... Mangrove forests are one of the most valuable, thriving, and diverse ecosystems on the planet, but they are becoming increasingly exploited and mismanaged (Lee 1999; Giri et al. 2008). In Myanmar, many of these mangrove stands flourished for centuries, virtually untouched until extensive deforestation began in the late 1970’s. At the time there was no legislation to promote sustainable forest management, and as a result the forests were depleted at alarming rates. During the 1990’s, multiple environmental acts were passed to help regulate tree harvesting processes, including the 1992 Forest Law and the 1995 Forest Policy, but they were only mildly successful and difficult to enforce (Oo 2002). The 2000’s brought a new chapter as Myanmar’s expanding economy and lifted political embargos created an explosion of infrastructure and agriculture, once again encroaching on the mangrove’s habitat. Even with the increasing development and encroachment on mangroves, Myanmar’s long state of isolation has made it one of the most species rich countries in all of South-east Asia, and is considered to be one of the last strongholds for large mammals such as tigers and elephants (Leimgruber etal. 2005). In a country with such rich biodiversity and a large dependence on natural resources for income, fuel, and food, preserving Myanmar’s mangroves and raising awareness about sustainability has become a national priority. This study mapped the spatial extent of three main mangrove regions along the coast of Myanmar during 2000 and 2013, including the Ayeyarwardy Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi regions (Oo 2002). The three regions are spread along the coast and vary in population density, which provides a valuable comparison among the regions as to how human and economic pressures can affect mangroves. The Ayeyarwady Delta is centrally located and has the highest population density, followed by Rakhine to the north, and the most remote region being the Tanintharyi to the south. A land change model was then used to produce change maps between 2000 and 2013 and project mangrove coverage to the year 2030 to help resource managers and policy makers craft future decisions. Once the mangroves were classified and projected, SRTM data were used to derive tree canopy heights and biomass estimations using allometric equations. Mangroves in Myanmar house thriving biodiversity and provide citizens with essential natural products such as food, firewood, and construction materials (Oo 2002). This ecological forecasting project helped the Myanmar government visualize and quantify their current largest mangrove areas, as well as shed light on the success of previous preservation efforts that may influence future conservation strategies. This project ultimately allowed important decision makers to assess the negative impacts that have occurred due to the deforestation and degradation of mangrove ecosystems. To successfully implement this study and its findings, Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute were irreplaceable as they officially handed off the project and its decision making tools to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry. The project will serve as a valuable reference for efficiently allocating resources and man power, while adapting new management strategies to the changing mangrove landscape..."
Author/creator: Samuel J. Weber, Louis Keddell, Mohammed Kemal
Language: English
Source/publisher: NASA
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016


Title: Saving the Delta’s Fair Lady
Date of publication: September 2008
Description/subject: "The mangrove forests of the Irrawaddy delta support life and can save lives in times of disaster—but only if they’re in good health themselves..."
Author/creator: Tint Lwin, Min Khet Maung
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 16, No. 9
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 November 2008


Title: Myanmar Coast mangroves
Date of publication: 21 August 2008
Description/subject: "The Myanmar Coastal Mangroves are some of the most degraded or destroyed mangrove systems in the Indo-Pacific. The sedimentation rate of the Irrawaddy River is the fifth highest in the world. This is largely because of the deforestation that has occurred throughout central Myanmar. The mangroves have also been overexploited from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture, and development projects. The wild species have been severely reduced but hang on in isolated pockets.
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund via Encyclopoedia of the Earth
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


Title: PROGRESS REPORT ON ECOLOGICAL MANGROVE RESTORATION PROJECT IN THE AYEYARWADY DELTA , MYANMNAR
Date of publication: 30 June 2006
Description/subject: Table of Contents: 1. Background in Brief; 2. Objectives of the Ecological Mangrove Restoration Project; 3. Situation of Myanmar Mangroves; 4. Summary of the Project; 5. Summarized working process of regular and Ecological Mangrove Restoration (E.M.R); 6. Activities to be carried out in 5 Years; 7. Construction of supply canals and land maintenance; 8. Availability of local mangrove seeds/propagules in the project area; 9. Attachments: - Maps; - Documented Photos .
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mangrove Service Network – MSN
Format/size: pdf (1.52MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: Forest cover change patterns in Myanmar (Burma) 1990•2000
Date of publication: 22 April 2005
Description/subject: SUMMARY: "Myanmar is one of the most forested countries in mainland South-east Asia. These forests support a large number of important species and endemics and have great value for global efforts in biodiversity conservation. Landsat satellite imagery from the 1990s and 2000s was used to develop a countrywide forest map and estimate deforestation. The country has retained much of its forest cover, but forests have declined by 0.3% annually. Deforestation varied considerably among administrative units, with central and more populated states and divisions showing the highest losses. Ten deforestation hotspots had annual deforestation rates well above the countrywide average. Major reasons for forest losses in these hotspots stemmed from increased agricultural conversion, fuelwood consumption, charcoal production, commercial logging and plantation development. While Myanmar continues to be a stronghold for closed canopy forests, several areas have been experiencing serious deforestation. Most notable are the mangrove forests in the Ayeyarwady delta region and the remaining dry forests at the northern edge of the central dry zone."... Keywords: biodiversity, change detection, deforestation rates, forest, forest dynamics, Landsat
Author/creator: Peter Leimgruber, Daniel S. Kelly, Marc. K. Steininger, Jake Brunner, Thomas Mueller, Melissa Songer
Language: English
Source/publisher: Foundation for Environmental Conservation (Environmental Conservation 32 (4): 356•364 © 2005)
Format/size: pdf (314K)
Date of entry/update: 15 July 2012


Title: Myanmar's mangrove eco-system faces devastation
Date of publication: 12 April 2005
Description/subject: "Increased population and the demand for firewood shooting up in power-strapped Burma have led to rampant felling of trees, resulting in near destruction of the country's enormous mangrove area and its unique ecosystem. Invaded by steadily encroaching fisheries and illegal logging of species, mangrove areas in the country's coastal region, especially in the 35,138-kilometer Irrawadday (Ayeyarwaddy) division, have received the most awesome blow to be depleted 80 percent over the past seven decades..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Independent" Bangladesh via Greenburma
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 April 2005


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 1 - Summary)
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: Cover - Chapter 6...Letter of Transmittal: Dear Sir, We are pleased to submit to your agency the Final Report on 'The Study on Integrated Mangrove Management Through Community Participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar'. This report presents the results of all the studies conducted in both Myanmar and Japan over a three-year period from February 2002 to March 2005. The study formulated an integrated mangrove management plan (IMMP), with a total project period of 40 years starting from 2005 with the overall goal of establishing "coexistence of vivid mangrove vegetation and people's lives" in the study area through the rehabilitation of degraded mangrove forests and livelihood improvement of the local people by various community forestry activities under the authorization of the Community Forestry Instruction . We believe that implementation of this holistic plan will contribute much to improve the natural environment and socio-economic situation in the study area. We, therefore, hope that the Myanmar government will soon commence implementing the integrated mangrove management plan and follow the implementation schedule presented in this report. Finally, we wish to express our deep appreciation and sincere gratitude to your agency, the Advisory Committee, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Embassy of Japan in Myanmar, the JIC A Myanmar Office, and the Government of the Union of Myanmar for the close cooperation and assistance extended to us during our study..."
Language: English (Japanese accessible)
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. 
Format/size: pdf (5.9MB-OBL version; 7.26-orginal)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 2 - Chapters 1-6)
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.1 Objectives of the Study 1-1 1.2 Study Area 1-1 1.3 Framework of the Study 1-1 1.4 Pilot Project 1-2 1.5 Organization for the Study 1-3.... CHAPTER 2 PRESENT CONDITIONS IN THE STUDY AREA 2.1 Natural Condition in the Study Area 2-1 2.1.1 Topography, Geology and Soils 2-1 2.1.2 Meteorology and Hydrology 2-2 2.1.3 Fauna and Flora 2-5 2.2 Land Use and Vegetation 2-8 2.2.1 Current Land Use 2-8 2.2.2 Historical and Chorological Change 2-9 2.2.3 Land Use and Vegetation of Each Reserved Forest 2-11 2.3 National Socioeconomic Condition 2-17 2.3.1 National Administration System and Development Policy 2-17 2.3.2 Macro-economic situation 2-18 2.3.3 Agricultural Production 2-21 2.4 Socioeconomic Condition of Ayeyawady Division 2-22 2.4.1 Population 2-22 2.4.2 Products 2-22 2.5 Socioeconomic Condition of the study area 2-25 2.5.1 Locations of the Villages 2-25 2.5.2 Demography 2-26 2.5.3 Ethnicity and Religion 2-26 2.5.4 Landholding 2-27 2.5.5 Occupational Structure (Income Level) 2-28256 Transportation Infrastructure 2-29 2.5.7 Communication 2-29 2.5.8 Water 2-29 2.5.9 Sanitation 2-30 2.5.10 Education 2-31 2.5.11 Health and Medical Services 2-32 2.5.12 Housing 2-32 2.6 Current Value of Mangrove Forest 2-33 2.6.1 Introduction 2-33 2.6.2 Function of Mangrove Forest 2-34 2.6.3 Valuation of Each Function 2-35 2.6.4 Current Value of Mangrove Forest by Functions 2-36 2.6.5 Conclusion 2-37 2.7 Socioeconomic Condition and Livelihood of Local People 2-37 2.7.1 Poverty 2-37 2.7.2 Markets and Prices 2-38 2.7.3 Household Economy Model 2-40.... CHAPTER 3 PRESENT INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR FOREST AND FORESTRY 3.1 National Policy and Institutional Framework 3-1 3.1.1 National Policy 3-1 3.2 Institutional Framework of the Ministry of Forestry 3-4 3.2.1 National Institutional Framework of Forestry 3-4 3.2.2 District Institutional Framework of Forest Department 3-7 3.3 Institutional and Administrative Framework of the Forest Department 3-9 3.3.1 Functions and Responsibilities of the Forest Department 3-9 3.3.2 Organization 3-9 3.3.3 State/Division and District Offices of the Forest Department 3-10 3.3.4 Organizations of the FD in Laputta and Bogalay Township 3-11 3.3.5 Budget 3-13 3.4 Community Forestry Instruction 3-14 3.4.1 Outline of the Community Forestry Instruction 3-14 3.4.2 Institutional System and Mechanism of the Community Forestry Activity 3-17 3.4.3 Training for Participatory Development in Community Forestry 3-19 35 Current Mangrove Forest Management 3-21 3.5.1 Application of National Policy, Forest Law, and Regulations 3-21 352 Institutional and Financial System for Mangrove Forest Management 3-23 3.5.3 Current Situation of Community Forestry with Mangrove Forest Management 3-24 3.5.4 Review of Kadonkani Reserved Forest Integrated Resource Management 3-31 3.5.5 Other Relevant Agencies Associated with Mangrove Forest Management in the Study Area 3-37....CHAPTER 4 PRESENT CONDITION OF NATURE AND RESOURCE OF THE STUDY AREA 4.1 Conditions of Mangrove Forests 4-1 4.1.1 Historical Review of Mangrove Forests 4-1 4.1.2 Current Situation of Mangrove Forests 4-2 4.1.3 Usage of Mangrove Resources 4-9 4.1.4 On-going Operations related to Mangrove Forests 4-12 4.2 Current Condition of Agricultural Resource Use and Development in the Study Area 4-19 4.2.1 Agriculture 4-19 4.2.2 Agroforestry 4-25 4.2.3 Implications of Mangrove Forest Management 4-26 4.3 Aquatic Resource Use and Development 4-28 4.3.1 Fishery Resources and Fishery 4-28 4.3.2 Extracting Fisheries 4-31 4.3.3 Aquaculture 4-33 4.3.4 On-Going and Future Fishery Plan 4-34 4.4 Fauna and Flora 4-36 4.4.1 On-Going and Future Wildlife Conservation Plan 4-36.... CHAPTER 5 PRESENT SITUATION OF PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT FOR EXTENSION OF COMMUNITY FORESTRY INSTRUCTION 5.1 Participatory Development Projects in the Study Area 5-1 5.1.1 UNDP-HDI Project 5-1 5.1.2 FREDA Project 5-4 5.1.3 Forest Department Activity 5-5 5.1.4 Participatory Development and Constraints 5-7 5.2 Community Forestry User Groups 5-9 5.2.1 Social Cohesiveness 5-9 5.2.2 Participation in CF 5-10 5.2.3 Willingness to Participate in the CF Activities 5-11 5.2.4 Villager’s Needs 5-11 5.2.5 Constraints to Participation 5-11.... CHAPTER 6 PILOT PROJECT 2003 AND 2004 6.1 Background 6-1 6.1.1 Objectives, Themes and Target Villages 6-1 6.1.2 Timeframe and Component of Pilot Project 6-2 6.2 Pilot Project 2003 6-3 6.2.1 Objective and Scope of Works 6-3 6.2.2 Target Area 6-3 6.2.3 Implementation Procedure 6-4 6.2.4 Implementation Framework 6-4625 Components of the Pilot Project 2003 6-5 6.2.6 Monitoring and Evaluation Methods 6-6 6.2.7 Physical Result 6-7 6.2.8 Outputs of the Pilot Projects 6-11 6.3 Pilot Project 2004 6-12 6.3.1 Objective and Scope of Works 6-12 6.3.2 Target Area 6-13 6.3.3 Implementation Procedures 6-13 6.3.4 Implementation Frameworks 6-14 6.3.5 Components of the Pilot Project 2004 6-15 6.3.6 Monitoring and Evaluation Methods 6-15 6.3.7 Physical Results: FD Capacity Development Pilot Project 6-16 6.3.8 Physical Results: Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin CF Pilot Project 6-18 6.3.9 Outputs of the Pilot Project 2004 6-21 6.4 Implication for IMMP: Summary of Pilot Project 2003 and 2004 6-22
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-OBL version; 3.61MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 2 - Chapters 7-15)
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: CHAPTER 7 EVALUATION OF CAPACITY OF STAKEHOLDERS OF IMMP 7.1 Method of Evaluation 7-1 7.1.1 Employed Evaluation Method 7-1 7.1.2 Capital and Evaluation Element 7-2 7.1.3 Scoring of the Activities and Evaluation Points 7-4 7.2 Current and Anticipated Assets of the Forest Department 7-5 7.2.1 Human Capital 7-5 7.2.2 Social Capital 7-7 7.2.3 Physical Capital 7-9 7.2.4 Financial Capital 7-11 7.2.5 Natural Capital as the Needs of Community Forestry of the Forest Department 7-13 7.3 Current and Anticipated Assets of the Community Forestry User Group 7-15 7.3.1 Human Capital 7-15 7.3.2 Social Capital 7-18 7.3.3 Physical Capital 7-21 7.3.4 Financial Capital 7-23 7.3.5 Natural Capital 7-25 7.4 Evaluation Results 7-27 7.4.1 Overall Results 7-27 7.4.2 Summary of Asset Evaluation of Forest Department 7-30 7.4.3 Subjects to Secure Sustainable CF Activities 7-31...CHAPTER 8 OVERALL CONCEPT OF THE INTEGRATED MANGROVE MANAGEMENT PLAN 8.1 Rationale 8-1 8.2 Objectives 8-1 8.2.1 Overall Goal 8-1822 Project Purpose 8-2 8.3 Scope of Work 8-2 8.3.1 Target Area 8-2 8.3.2 Project Year and Phasing 8-3 8.3.3 Framework of IMMP 8-4 84 Basic Concept for IMMP Formulation 8-6 8.4.1 Wise-use of Reserved Forest 8-6 8.4.2 Introduction of Zoning Concept 8-6 8.4.3 Promotion of Sustainable Community Forestry 8-8 8.4.4 Promotion of Livelihood Improvement Activities 8-9 8.4..5 Capacity Development of FD/Stakeholders 8-9 8.5 Strategies for IMMP 8-11 8.5.1 Integrated Approach (Program Approach) 8-11 8.5.2 Model Development 8-12 8.5.3 CF Prototype Development 8-12 8.5.4 Action Research Forest Development 8-13 8.5.5 FD Self Reliance Concept 8-14 8.6 Proposed Mangrove Forestry Operation and Management for IMMP 8-15 8.6.1 Approach and Description of the Proposed Mangrove Management 8-15 8.6.2 Category and Description of Applicable Mangrove Forestry Operation 8-18 8.6.3 Desirable and Preferable Species for Mangrove Forestry Operation 8-20 8.6.4 Direction of Mangrove Forest Management 8-20 8.6.5 Mangrove Forestry Operational Area and Zoning 8-21 8.7 Targets of IMMP 8-24 8.7.1 Assumptions and Conditions Applied 8-24 8.7.2 Targets 8-27... CHAPTER 9 INTEGRATED MANGROVE MANAGEMENT PLAN 9.1 Overview of the Integrated Mangrove Management Plan 9-1 9.1.1 Objectives of the IMMP 9-1 9.1.2 Proposed Project Design Matrix of the IMMP Phase I 9-1 9.1.3 Policy Initiative for Securing Right of CF User Groups 9-3 9.2 Proposed Land Use Plan 9-4 9.2.1 Assumption 9-4 9.2.2 Land Use Plan 9-4 9.2.3 Activity Unit for CF Operation Compartment 9-6 9.3 IMMP Phase I: Foundation Period 9-6 9.3.1 Development of Core / Model CF User Groups 9-6 9.3.2 Capacity Development of FD for CF Support 9-11 933 Development of Integrated Forestry Technologies in the Delta 9-18 9.3.4 Integration of Updated Information/Knowledge and Lessons Learned through the Implementation of the IMMP 9-22
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (3.9MB-OBL version; 4.24MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 2 - Figures) 
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (589K-OBL version; 3.86MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 2 - Tables)
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-OBL version; 1.46MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 2 -- Appendices)
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (435K-OBL version; 2.14MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 3 - Pilot Project 2003/2004)
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: Location Map... CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 2003/2004 1-1 1.1 Background 1-1 1.2 The Study 1-1 1.3 Pilot Project 1-2 131 Objectives, Themes and Target Villages 1-2 1.3.2 Timeframe and Component of Pilot Project 1-2 1.3.3 Pilot Project 2003: Objective and Scope of Works 1-3 1.3.4 Pilot Project 2004: Objective and Scope of Works 1-4... CHAPTER 2 FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 2003 2-1 2.1 Overall Implementation Procedure 2-1 2.2 Planning of Pilot Project 2003 2-1 2.2.1 Target Area and User Group of the Pilot Project 2003 2-1 2.2.2 Preparation of Community Forestry Management Plan 2-2 2.2.3 Preparation of Community Forestry Pilot Project Plan 2-2 2.2.4 Plan Formulation for the Thar Yar Kone FD Integrated Mangrove Nursery pilot project 2-3 2.2.5 Plan Formulation for the FD Frontline Staff Capacity Development Pilot Project 2-4 2.2.6 Procurement of Subcontractor and Trainers 2-4 2.3 Institutional Framework of the Pilot Project 2003 2-5 2.4 Components of the Pilot Project 2003 2-6 2.4.1 Preparation of Action Plan for the Pilot Project Implementation 2-6 2.5 Implementation of the Pilot Project 2003 2-8 2.5.1 Commencement Ceremony of the Pilot Project 2-8 2.5.2 Implementation Schedule of the pilot project 2003 2-8 2.6 Physical Result of the Pilot Project 2003 2-9 2.6.1 Thar Yar Kone Village and Nyaung Ta Pin Village CF Pilot Projects 2-9 2.6.2 Thar Yar Kone FD Integrated Mangrove Nursery Pilot Project 2-16 2.6.3 FD Frontline Staff Capacity Development Pilot Project 2-18 2.7 Completion and Evaluation of the Pilot Project 2003 2-18271 Monitoring and Evaluation Methods 2-18 2.7.2 Completion Ceremony 2-19 2.7.3 Potential of Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin CF User Groups 2-19 2.7..4 Overall Organization Review concerned to the Pilot Project 2-21 2.7.5 Non-participants Survey in Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin Villages 2-23 2.7.6 Outputs of the Pilot Projects 2-25 2.7.7 Findings and Lessons Obtained 2-26 2.8 Continuation of Pilot Project 2003 2-26 2.8.1 Consideration of Continuation of the Pilot Project 2-26 2.8.2 Basic Approach for the Continuation of the Pilot Project 2-27.... CHAPTER 3 FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 2004 3-1 3.1 Overall Implementation Procedures 3-1 3.2 Planning of Pilot Project 2004 3-1 3.2.1 Plan Formulation for FD Capacity Development Pilot Project 3-1 3.2.2 Information Sharing with Local Authorities 3-2 3.2.3 Target Area and User Group of the Pilot Project 2004 3-2 3.2.4 Update of the Action Plan of the CF Management Plan Prepared in the Pilot Project 2003 3-3 3.2.5 Update of CF management plan 3-3 3.2.6 Other Updates related to CF Activities 3-4 3.3 Institutional Framework of the Pilot Project 2004 3-5 3.4 Components of the Pilot Project 2004 3-6 3.5 Implementation Schedule of the Pilot Project 2004 3-8 3.6 Physical Result of the Pilot Project 2004 3-9 3.6.1 Physical Results: FD Capacity Development Pilot Project 3-9 3.6.2 Physical Results: Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin CF Pilot Project 3-19 3.7 Completion and Evaluation of the Pilot Project 2004 3-28 3.7.1 Achievement of the Pilot Project to be Delivered to the Stakeholders 3-28 3.7.2 Monitoring and Evaluation Methods 3-29 3.7.3 Potential of FD and CF User Groups for CF Implementation 3-29 3.7.4 Outputs of the Pilot Project 2004 3-30.... CHAPTER 4 EVALUATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 2003/2004 4-1 4.1 Evaluation of Capacity of Stakeholder of the Pilot Project 2003/2004 4-1 4.1.1 Employed Evaluation Method 4-1 4.1.2 Capital and Evaluation Element 4-2 4.1.3 Scoring of the Activities and Evaluation Point 4-4 4.1.4 Current and Anticipated Assets 4-5 4.1.5 Overall Evaluation Results 4-5 4.1.6 Subjects to Secure Sustainable CF Activities 4-8 4.2 Findings and Lessons Learned from the Pilot Project 2003/2004: Implication for IMMP 4-10....CHAPTER 5 CONSIDERATION OF CONTINUATION OF THE PILOT PROJECT 5-1 5.1 Forest Department Capacity Development 5-1 5.1.1 Key for Establishment and Institutional Development of FD Organization for CF Management and Support 5-1 5.1.2 Key for Sustainable Operation of the Thar Yar Kone FD Integrated Mangrove Nursery 5-2 5.2 Community Forestry in Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin Village 5-5 5.2.1 Key for Planning CF Activities 5-5 5.2.2 Key for Implementing CF Activities 5-6... Attachments: Pilot Projects Information of Pilot Project 2003; Work Quantity; Work Schedule; Achievement of Thar Yar Kone FD Integrated Mangrove Nursery Pilot Project; Community Forestry Action Plan 2004; Community Forestry Action Plan 2004; Format for the update of the Action Plan; Community Forestry Management Plan (updated 2004); Individual Community Forestry Management Plan (sample); Church Wood Lot Community Forestry Management Plan (sample); Rules and Regulations of Community Forestry (samples); Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin Community Forestry User Groups; Thar Yar Kone CF Agro Nursery Sub User Group; Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin CF Agroforestry Sub User Group; Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin Donation Boat; Thar Yar Kone and Nyaung Ta Pin CF Aqua-agroforestry Sub User Group; Thar Yar Kone Women’s Group (Phoenix Heart Production); Thar Yar Kone CF Church Woodlot; Thar Yar Kone CF School Woodlot Nyaung Ta Pin CF Village Woodlot Sales Voucher for Community Forestry Production Removal Pass for Community Forestry; Production Integrated Community Forestry Management Map; Community Forestry Management Map and Stock Map (2003); Updated Community Forestry Management Map (2004); Organization and Terms of Reference of the Community; Forestry Task Force of the Forest Department; Progress Report of Community Forestry User Group (sample) ;Pilot Project 2004 Components Delivered to the Forest; Department Scoring of Asset for Forest Department (FD) and User Groups(UG).
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB-OBL version; 4.86MB-original
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 4 - Chapter 1 -- Guideline, Manual and Maps)
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: CHAPTER 1 Fauna and Flora Conservation Guideline 1.1 Introduction 1-1 1.2 Objective 1-1 1.3 Management Area and Organization 1-1 1.4 Action Plan 1-1 Table 2.4.1: List of Areas to be protected Table 242: Conservation Concept and Measure Figure: Fauna & Flora Conservation Area.... CHAPTER 2 Mangrove Rehabilitation Manual for the Forest Department Frontline Staff of the Ayeyawady Delta (English.... CHAPTER 3 Target Project Area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I Figure3-1: Target project area for FD Action Research of the IMMP Figure3-2: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Kyakankwinpauk Reserved Forest No19 & 26) Figure3-3: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Pyinalan Reserved Forest No54 & 55) Figure3-4: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Pyinalan Reserved Forest No65) Figure3-5: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Pyinalan Reserved Forest No69) Figure3-6: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Kadonkani Reserved Forest No14) Figure3-7: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Kadonkani Reserved Forest No64) Figure3-8: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Pyindaye Reserved Forest No65) Figure3-9: Target project area for FD Action Research of Option Plan of the IMMP Phase I (The Pyindaye Reserved Forest No66).... CHAPTER 4 Land use & Forest Type Map and Zoning Maps for Integrated Mangrove management Planning Map Figure4-1: Land use & Forest Type Map of Five Reserved Forests Figure4-2: Zoning Map of Five Reserved Forests Figure4-3: Land use & Forest Type Map of the Kyakankwinpauk Reserved Forest Figure4-4: Zoning Map of the Kyakankwinpauk Reserved Forest Figure4-5: Land use & Forest Type Map of the Pyinalan Reserved Forest Figure4-6: Zoning Map of the Pyinalan Reserved Forest Figure4-7: Land use & Forest Type Map of the Kadonkani Reserved Forest Figure4-8: Zoning Map of the Kadonkani Reserved Forest Figure4-9: Land use & Forest Type Map of the Meinmahla Reserved Forest Figure4-10: Zoning Map of the Meinmahla Reserved Forest Figure4-11: Land use & Forest Type Map of the Pyindaye Reserved Forest Figure4-12: Zoning Map of the Pyindaye Reserved Forest
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-OBL version; 4.77MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 4 - Chapter 2) 
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB-OBL version; 3.37MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 4 - Chapter 3) 
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (816K-OBL version; 5.29K-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 4 - Chapter 4 - Land use & Forest Type Map and Zoning Maps for Integrated Mangrove management Planning Map)
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (576K-OBL version; 4.85MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 4, - land use and forest type maps)
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (544K-OBL version; 4.86MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 12 June 2007


Title: The study on integrated mangrove management through community participation in the Ayeyawady Delta in the Union of Myanmar : final report (Vol. 5 - Data Book)
Date of publication: March 2005
Language: English
Source/publisher: Japan International Cooperation Agency : Nippon Koei Co., Ltd.
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB-OBL version; 4.2MB-original)
Date of entry/update: 12 June 2007


Title: Burma: Upstream deforestation and shrimp farming are destroying the mangroves
Date of publication: December 2002
Description/subject: "... Deforestation occurring in highland forests throughout central Burma triggers off several environmental alterations such as landslides and soil erosion. Once the soil is deprived of the several protective, cohesive and integral functions provided by the forest, it is prone to run off and deposit in the bed of the rivers, causing sedimentation and consequent impacts downstream. One of them is the impact on mangroves..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Rainforest Movement, "WRM Bulletin" No. 65 - December 2002
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Saving The Mangroves in Ayeyarwaddy Delta--Myanmar Report
Date of publication: June 2002
Description/subject: "...The fate of the Ayeyarwaddy delta mangroves in Myanmar, where mangrove forestlands were reclaimed mainly for paddy (rice) over many decades, illustrates how mangroves are being degraded and destroyed, generally at a very much higher rate than that of tropical rainforests. The delta was formerly covered with dense mangrove forests, most of which has been cleared during the last two decades to grow rice and to produce charcoal for domestic use..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Mangrove Service Network via "Late Friday News"
Format/size: html (19K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: Wetland Conservation in Myanmar
Description/subject: Myanmar with an area of 667,553 square kilometers is endowed with vast areas of natural forests ranging form beach and dune forests, mangrove forests in costal and delta areas in the south to varied terrestrial vegetation of dry and moist deciduous forest and evergreen forest in the central and coniferous dominated sub-temperate forest types on the high mountain parts of far north. Occurrence of diverse forest types are largely due to influence of rainfall, temperature, type of soil, topography and closeness to the sea. Moreover, in Myanmar unique ecosystems are recognized according to the interaction between physical components in environment of a locality and plant communities thrive therein.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Convention on Migratory Species
Format/size: pdf (32K), MS Word
Date of entry/update: 25 October 2010