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Home > Main Library > Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar

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Preservation of the environment in Burma/Myanmar

Individual Documents

Title: Determinants of Local People's Perceptions and Attitudes Toward a Protected Area and Its Management: A Case Study From Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... Without local support, the long-term existence of PAs is not assured (Wells and McShane 2004). Local people are unlikely to support PAs if they have negative perceptions and attitudes toward them (Alkan et al. 2009). An attitude is a cognitive evaluation of a particular entity with favor or disfavor, and it reflects the beliefs that people hold about the attitude object or entity (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Beliefs are the associations that people establish between the attitude object and various attributes (Allendorf 2007). Attitudes toward PAs, conservation, or wildlife may be influenced by PA staff or management interventions, local economic needs and history, or other indirectly related socioeconomic factors such as government policy. The cognitions or thoughts that are associated with attitudes are typically termed beliefs by attitude theorists (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Perception refers to people’s beliefs that derive from their experiences and interaction with a program or activity. Xu et al. (2006) argue that local people’s perceptions are related to costs and benefits produced by PAs, their dependence on PA resources, and their knowledge about PAs. The influences of socioeconomic characteristics on local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward an adjacent PA are often site-specific and inconsistent (Allendorf et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Rao et al. 2003; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006). Some studies report that education is a strong predictor of attitude (Allendorf et al. 2006; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006), while others have found no correlation between educational status and people’s perceptions and attitudes (Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001). Mehta and Heinen (2001), Allendorf et al. (2006), and Xu et al. (2006) reported that women were less likely to hold positive attitudes, whereas Baral and Heinen (2007) and Shibia (2010) found no correlation between gender and attitude. Allendorf et al. (2006) and Shrestha and Alavalapati (2006) found that individuals from larger families have negative attitudes to PAs, whereas Xu et al. (2006) reported that individuals from larger families hold positive attitudes toward PAs. Jim and Xu (2002) and Alkan et al. (2009) argue that local people’s perceptions and attitudes are shaped by their knowledge about the neighboring PA. This knowledge might include objectives, activities, size, regulations, or location of the boundary of PAs (Jim and Xu 2002; Rao et al. 2003; Xu et al. 2006). The knowledge is gained empirically through one’s perceptions, and it is the recognition of something sensed or felt (Ziadat 2010). It is important to investigate whether more knowledge of PAs would be associated with positive perceptions and attitudes toward them. We examined the effects of both knowledge and socioeconomic factors on the perceptions and attitudes of local people toward Popa Mountain Park, in central Myanmar, and its management through a questionnaire survey. Myanmar is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, and its PAs play a crucial role in conserving the country’s rich biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). During the last 10 years the number of protected areas in Myanmar has increased from 20 to 42, covering 7.3% of total land area of the country (Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division 2008). The Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD) of the Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, is mainly responsible for PA management in Myanmar. Generally, PAs in Myanmar can be categorized into national park, marine park, wildlife sanctuary, nature reserve, and zoo park. Although Myanmar’s PAs do not fully conform to PA categories of the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), they are most similar to IUCN category IV (Aung 2007). Myanmar’s PA management rules and regulations prohibit local people from using resources within PAs. Conflicts arise as local people often have no other source of resource than the PA. Rao, Rabinowitz, and Khaing (2002) reported that nontimber forest products were extracted from 85% and fuelwood was collected from more than 50% of PAs in Myanmar. The mean annual population growth rate is 2.1% (Central Statistics Organisation 2006) and is highest in rural areas where most Myanmar PAs are located. Population increase is linked to an increase in the number of people seeking land for grazing, collecting fuelwood, and extracting timber and other forest products. The rapid growth of PAs and the huge pressures placed on them by the increasing human population are a great challenge for sustainable PA management. Popa Mountain Park (PMP) possesses a diverse forest ecosystem in central Myanmar where most forests have already disappeared. PMP was selected for the present study for two reasons: (1) a historic relationship between PMP and local communities and (2) high people’s pressure on the park resulting from the high population density together with resource scarcity in the surrounding area. The Forest Department has had great success in the reforestation of Popa Mountain, which is a high priority for forest conservation. It is important to understand local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward PMP for its sustainability. The objectives of the present study were (1) to examine the responses of local people toward the park and its management and (2) to study how local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward the PA and its management relate to their socioeconomic status and knowledge about the park..."
Author/creator: Naing Zaw Htun , Nobuya Mizoue, Shigejiro Yoshida
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)
Format/size: pdf (352K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016


Title: Gender and Attitudes toward Protected Areas in Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... From grassroots conservation projects to international committees on the environment, women are often underrepresented in the conservation process (Deda and Rubian 2004; Sodhi et al. 2010). Women’s participation is often limited to awareness-raising activities and labor contribution projects (Arya 2007). In their review of implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Deda and Rubian (2004) conclude that greater efforts must be made to address the gender disparity in biodiversity conservation policy and actions. Positive relationships between local residents and protected areas are critical to the long-term successful conservation of protected areas. Ensuring that women’s perspectives are included in our understanding of those relationships is not only an important component of a fair and inclusive conservation process, but also has positive practical implications for conservation of protected areas. On one hand, this is because protected areas can disproportionately impact women. For example, women have been shown to bear a greater share of the psychological and physical costs of wildlife conflicts in India (Ogra 2008). If these differences are not recognized, women may receive fewer direct benefits from conservation and be left bearing more costs (Hunter et al. 1990). On the other hand, women can make significant contributions to conservation. Westermann et al. (2005) found in natural resource management groups in 20 countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, that collaboration, solidarity, and conflict resolution were greater in groups where women were present. In Nepal and India, Agarwal (2009) found that greater women’s participation in forestry groups was correlated with better forest condition, in terms of both conservation and regeneration, and increased forest patrolling and rule compliance. Unfortunately, our understanding of gender in the context of people’s attitudes toward protected areas (PAs) is limited. Many studies limit their sample to household heads, who are most often men (e.g., Tessema et al. 2010; Vodouheˆ et al. 2010), or do not break down results by gender (e.g., Silori 2007; Rinzin et al. 2009). Studies that include gender as one of many socioeconomic characteristics that may influence people’s relationships with PAs, along with others such as education and wealth, have had mixed results. Some studies find that men have more positive attitudes toward specific protected areas (Mehta and Heinen 2001; Xu et al. 2006; King and Peralvo 2010), some find women more positive (Arjunan et al. 2006), and some find no difference (Bauer 2003; Carrus et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Ferreira and Freire 2009). As described earlier, studies examine the role of gender in conservation without attention to attitudes toward protected areas or they explore the determinants of attitudes toward protected areas without a focus on gender. To our knowledge, however, there are no studies that focus on the effect of gender on attitudes toward protected areas. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by directly examining gender differences in local residents’ perceptions of protected areas in Myanmar. We explore whether men and women differ in their attitudes toward the protected areas and perceptions of protected area benefits and problems. Then we explore whether gendered differences in perceptions and socioeconomic characteristics account for any difference in women’s and men’s attitude toward the protected areas..."
Author/creator: Teri D. Allendorf, Keera Allendorf
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Illinois
Format/size: pdf (599K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016


Title: Think Like a Mountain: Toward a Perspective for Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Research
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "This might refer to our relationship with the environment just as well as to that between a man and a woman. Our relationship with the environment requires careful attention for we must take care of it if we want it to reciprocate. Around the globe today, that relationship is being challenged. We are here in a wondrous and wonderful part of the world. This sketch of Asia’s major rivers flowing down from the Tibetan plateau illustrates just how central our location is, both geographically and in terms of the hundreds of millions of human lives and other biological phenomena impacted by the flow of these waters. The river of concern for me today is the Salween, in some locations called the Nu Jiang or the Thanlwin. Lately my focus has been on Myanmar (Burma) and its current struggles to emerge form a long period of difficult political and economic conditions. Many, dare I say all of us, desire to help this great country to achieve higher levels of prosperity and sustainable well-­being. One focal point for many has become the Salween..." .....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Author/creator: James Lin Compton
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (85K)
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2015


Title: Dawna Tenasserim Landscape (WWF leaflet)
Date of publication: 18 February 2014
Description/subject: "...The forests of the Dawna Tenasserim are under pressure from deforestation due to agricultural expansion and logging, forest fragmentation, subsistence poaching, commercial poaching for the illegal wildlife trade, unsustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products and wild meat, and major infrastructure development such as roads, pipelines and dams...WWF is conserving the Dawna Tenasserim Landscape as an intact ecosystem with protected and connected habitats for wildlife, and safeguarding its valuable ecosystem services for local communities and the nations of Myanmar and Thailand..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Format/size: pdf (539K-OBL reduced version; 628K-WWF low res; 7.7MB-WWF high res)
Date of entry/update: 20 September 2014


Title: Preparing for Myamar's Environment-Friendly Reform
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "... Myanmar is a predominantly agricultural country in Mekong River Basin, also known as Burma, the second largest country in mainland South-East Asia, known as the ‘‘Asia’s Barn’’ in the past years, once the world’s largest exporter of rice. Myanmar is a resource-rich country that has abundant arable land, timber, mineral resources, natural gas and oil, which made it one of the best developing countries in South-East Asia until the early 1960s. Myanmar’s total area is 676 578 km2. Forest area is 317 730 km2, 48.32% of land area; other wooded land accounts for 30.59% of land area; other land accounts for 21.09% of land area, and inland water area is 19 030 km2 (FAO, 2010). Extensive changes in altitude and latitude produced a seemingly unparalleled abundance of habitats and species. Myanmar occupied completely or partially nine of the Global 200 Eco-regions (Olson and Dinerstein, 2002). Indo-Burma includes most of Myanmar is described as one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al., 2000). There is no doubt that Myanmar has an unmatched level of biological diversity. Myanmar has 7000 plant species, has 1027 known bird species, 4 of which are endemic, and 19 others are restricted range birds. Myanmar is also home to 300 known species of mammals, 425 reptile and amphibian species, and 350 freshwater fish, especially the endangered species such as the one-horned rhinoceros, the Irrawaddy Dolphin and the Gurney’s Pitta (BEWG, 2011)..."
Author/creator: Changjian Wang, Fei Wang, Qiang Wang, Degang Yang, Lianrong Li, Xinlin Zhang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Format/size: pdf (234K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: ဤနုိးေဆာ္မႈမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး က႑မ်ားတြင္ပါ၀င္မည့္ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၊ တသီးပုဂၢလမ်ားအတြက္ အခ်က္အလက္ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤအခ်က္အလက္ ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားသည္ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးအယူအဆ၊ ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ၏ တာ၀န္၀တၱရားမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ရွိသည့္အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကိုေဖာ္ျပသည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ ႏိုင္ငံ၏သဘာ၀သယံဇာတအရင္းအျမစ္ႏွင့္ ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ကို ထိခုိက္ပ်က္စီးေစမႈ မရွိဘဲ လူသားတုိ႔၏လုိအပ္ခ်က္၊ အထူးသျဖင့္ အမွန္တကယ္အကာအကြယ့္မဲ့ဒုကၡေရာက္လ်က္ရွိေသာ လူမႈအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၏ လိုအပ္ခ်က္ကို တိုက္႐ိုက္အက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္ေစမည့္ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး ျဖစ္သည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ သဘာ၀ကမၻာေျမႀကီး ႏွင့္ လူေနထိုင္မႈဘ၀တို႔ကို က႑ေပါင္းစံုျဖင့္ ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ က႑ေပါင္းစံုဟုဆိုရာတြင္ ဇီ၀မ်ိဳးကြဲမ်ား (သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္အတြင္း ကြဲျပားမႈအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး)၊ ေျမယာ (သတၱဳတြင္းတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း အပါအ၀င္)၊ သစ္ေတာမ်ား၊ စိုက္ပ်ဳိးေရး၊ ေရ၊ စြမ္းအင္ႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရးတို႔ျဖစ္သည္။...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (English)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB); ppt (4.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Kachin)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Ndai gaw uhpung uhpawng ni hte tinghkrai hku nna myen mung Kata n amazing bawng ring lam a matu sut nhprang laika rai nga ai. Ndai sut nhprang laika gaw, matut manoi kyem mazing bawng ring masa a shiga hte dai mazing bawng ring lam galaw sa wa yang myen mungdan a ap nawng ai hte lit la ai shiga hpe jaw nga ai. Madi shadaw kyem mazing bawng ring masa gaw makau grup yin hpe n jahten shaza ai (sh) mungdan a shingra nhprang sut rai hpe n jahten ai bawngring lam rai nna grau jahten shaza hkrum ai shinggyim uhpawng ni mada’ shawa masha ni hta ra ai lam ni hpe jahkum shatsup ya nga ai. Kawn” mazing bawng ring lam gaw shingra mungkan hte shinggyim masha ni a asak hkrung lam hta na nsam maka law law hte matut mahkai nga ai. Ndai nsam maka kumla ni hta lawm ai gaw sakhkrung hpan hkum (grup yin nga ai arai amyu baw hkum sumhpa), lamu ga (ja maw, sut nhprang maw ni lawm ai), nam maling hkai sun, hka tsam n-gun hte sut masa ni rai nga ma ai.
Language: Kachin
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (869K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Shan)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: Shan
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Accessible Alternatives: Ethnic Communities' Contribution to Social Development and Environmental Conservation in Burma (English)
Date of publication: September 2009
Description/subject: CONTENTS Acknowledgments ...About BEWG ... Executive Summary... Notes on Place Names and Currency... Burma Map & Case Study Areas ... Introduction ..... Arakan State: Cut into the Ground: The Destruction of Mangroves and its Impacts on Local Coastal Communities (Network for Environmental and Economic Development - Burma)... Traditional Oil Drillers Threatened by China�s Oil Exploration (Arakan Oil Watch)..... Kachin State: Kachin Herbal Medicine Initiative: Creating Opportunities for Conservation and Income Generation (Pan Kachin Development Society) ... The Role of Kachin People in the Hugawng Valley Tiger Reserve (Kachin Development Networking Group) ..... Karen State: Environmental Protection, Indigenous Knowledge and Livelihood in Karen State: A Focus on Community Conserved Areas (Karen Environmental and Social Action Network) ... Threats to Food Security and Local Coping Strategies in Northern Karen State (Karen Environmental and Social Action Network) ... Gold Mining in Shwegyin Township, Pegu Division (EarthRights International) ..... Shan State: Drowned Out: The Tasang Dam and its Impacts on Local Shan Communities and the Environment (Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization) ... Building up of the Narco-State and Reef Blasting: Failed State-Sponsored Development Projects and their Impacts on the Lahu People (Lahu National Development Organization)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB - OBL version; 7.3MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.kesan.asia/Resources/bewg_report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2009


Title: Accessible Alternatives: Ethnic Communities' Contribution to Social Development and Environmental Conservation in Burma (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: September 2009
Description/subject: ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ (စက္တင္ဘာ ၂ဝဝ၉)...ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ (BEWG) အေၾကာင္း… အစီရင္ခံစာ အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္… ေနရာအမည္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေငြေၾကး အေခၚအေဝၚမွတ္စုမ်ား … ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေျမပံုႏွင့္ ျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ေလ့လာမႈေဒသမ်ား … နိဒါန္း … ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္… ေျမလွန္ပစ္ျခင္း။ ဒီေရေတာမ်ား ဖ်က္ဆီး ပစ္ျခင္းႏွင့္ ေဒသခံကမ္းရိုးတမ္း လူမႈ အသုိက္အဝန္းမ်ား အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္ မႈမ်ား။ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရးဖြံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္မႈ လုပ္ငန္းကြန္ယက္ (NEED-Burma)… တရုတ္ ေရနံရွာေဖြ တူးေဖာ္ျခင္း ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္မႈကို ခံေန ရေသာ မိရိုးဖလာ ေရနံတြင္းတူးသူမ်ား… အာရ္ရကန္ ေရနံေစာင့္ၾကည့္ ေလ့လာေရးအဖြဲ႔ (AOW)… ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ ကခ်င္ ရိုးရာ တုိင္းရင္းေဆး လုပ္ငန္း အစီအစဥ္၊ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ထိန္း သိမ္းျခင္းႏွင့္ ဝင္ေငြဖန္တည္းျခင္း အတြက္ အခြင့္ အလမ္းမ်ားဖန္တီးျခင္း။ ပန္ကခ်င္လူမႈအသိုက္အဝန္း ဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတိုးတက္ေရးအဖြဲ႔ (PKDS)… ဟူးေကာင္း ခ်ိဳင့္ဝွမ္း က်ားထိန္းသိမ္းေရး နယ္ေျမရွိ ကခ်င္ျပည္သူမ်ား အခန္းက႑၊ ကခ်င္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္းကြန္ယက္အဖြဲ႔ (KDNG) … ကရင္ျပည္နယ္ အတြင္းရိွ။ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ကာကြယ္ေစာင့္ ေရွာက္ျခင္း။ ဌာေန တုိင္းရင္း သားမ်ား အသိပညာ ႏွင့္ အသက္ေမြးဝမ္းေက်ာင္းမႈ၊ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ထိန္းသိမ္းေသာ လူမႈအသိုက္အဝန္းတစ္ခု ကိုေလ့လာျခင္း၊ ကရင္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ႏွင့္ လူမႈေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ ကြန္ယက္ (KESAN) … ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ အလုပ္အဖြဲ႔ ကရင္ျပည္ နယ္ ေျမာက္ ဘက္ျခမ္း အတြင္း အစားအစာ လံုၿခံဳမႈ ႏွင့္ ေဒသခံ ျပည္သူမ်ား ရင္ဆိုင္ ေျဖရွင္းျခင္း နည္းလမ္းမ်ား အေပၚၿခိမ္းေျခာက္မႈမ်ား။ ကရင္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ ႏွင့္ လူမႈေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ ကြန္ယက္ (KESAN)… ပဲခူးတိုင္း။ ေရႊက်င္ၿမိဳ႔နယ္အတြင္း ေရႊတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း။ ေျမကမာၻအခြင့္အေရး(EarthRights International)… ႏွစ္ျမဳပ္ပစ္လိုက္ျခင္း - တာဆန္းေရကာတာ ႏွင့္ ေဒသခံ ရွမ္းလူမႈအသိုက္ အဝန္းႏွင့္သဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အေပၚ သက္ေရာက္မႈ။ ရွမ္းသဘာဝ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရး အဖြဲ႔ (Sapawa)… မူးယစ္ေဆးဝါး တိုင္းျပည္ တည္ေဆာက္ျခင္း ႏွင့္ သႏာၱေက်ာက္တန္း ေဖာက္ခြဲျခင္း။ ညံ့ဖ်င္းသည့္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္က ေက်ာေထာက္ ေနာက္ခံ ျပဳ ထားေသာ ဖြံၿဖိဳး တိုးတက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း စီမံခ်က္မ်ားႏွင့္ လားဟူ ျပည္သူမ်ားအေပၚ သက္ေရာက္မႈမ်ား။ လားဟူအမ်ိဳးသား ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးအဖြဲ႔ (LNDO)…
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (5.46MB)
Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


Title: Development of Environmental Management Mechanism in Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 June 2008
Description/subject: "... Officials of Myanmar recognize that with a certain development in the country, deforestation, water pollution and other adverse environmental conditions may have occurred, though off the record, from various economic and industrial sectors. Like elsewhere in the world, the demands of a growing population and a market-oriented economy have altered consumption patterns and infringed on natural resources. In the effort to keep a balance between development and environment, Myanmar has made efforts and will have to sustain them to protect the environment. Whatever the awareness and commitment, the efforts may not be perfect in achieving this comprehensive task; there is strength and so are the weaknesses. This paper is to track down the success in this aspect and identify the challenges that may be awaiting..."
Author/creator: Myo Nyunt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Yangon Technical University
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: The Green Monks
Date of publication: February 2006
Description/subject: Despite political restrictions, monks in Burma are a force to preserve nature... "Buddhist monks have always been a potent force for political and social change in Burma, from protesting against colonialism to providing basic education. Over the past decade, some monks have even begun to promote environmental conservation. While environmentalist monks are fairly common in Thailand and Cambodia, in Burma they are little known and little studied. For my undergraduate thesis, I studied several aspects of these environmentalist monks, and I feel it is safe to conclude that they work mostly in a decentralized fashion and that political, ecological, and cultural factors unique to Burma limit the role they can play..."
Author/creator: Dominic Nardi
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 14, No.2
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 May 2006


Title: A Brief Review of Forest Restoration Programmes in Myanmar
Date of publication: 1993
Description/subject: "... Evolution of the Myanmar strategy of forest restoration is reviewed and five types of forest plantations, with different sets of objectives, under different ecological conditions are described. Socio-economic and environmental issues of reforestation through plantation forestry are discussed and technical aspects of site selection, species choice, nursery practice, planting methods and follow-up silvicultural treatments are briefly presented. Use of well-adapted genetic resources; correct site/species matching, good silviculture and sustained protection at all stages from seed collection to harvesting is stressed. Priority areas of further research needs are also indicated..."
Author/creator: Sein Maung Wint
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA)
Format/size: pdf (52K)
Date of entry/update: 16 April 2016