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Home > Main Library > Environment > The environment of Burma/Myanmar > Human activity in the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Threats to the environment of Burma/Myanmar > Oil and gas pipelines

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Oil and gas pipelines

Individual Documents

Title: A Survey of the State of Disclosure of Environmental Impact Assessments in Myanmars Oil and Gas Sector
Date of publication: March 2016
Description/subject: "... This survey examines the state of disclosure of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and Initial Environmental Examinations (IEE) conducted by oil and gas companies in Myanmar who were awarded blocks after 2013. The survey reveals that 11 out of 19 offshore blocks (58%) have disclosed IEEs and 4 out of 15 onshore blocks (26%) have disclosed EIAs. It identifies the companies who have disclosed, and those who have not. It provides links to the IEE/EIA reports, and associated Environmental Management Plans (EMPs). The Executive Summaries of most disclosed IEE/EIA are available in Burmese as well as English, in line with the emerging guidance from MOECAF. The overall level of disclosure in the oil and gas sector is superior to other sectors in Myanmar where the IEE/EIA process has yet to be consistently applied, such as mining and construction. However some oil and gas companies have not disclosed their IEE or EIA reports. These are predominantly those with onshore blocks, who are mostly smaller companies and with fewer public commitments to operating to global standards than the offshore operators. They signed contracts 6-12 months earlier and may have undertaken their EIA/IEE in 2014. The survey does not attempt to comment on the quality of these IEE/EIA. However a quick review and anecdotal evidence suggests that the IEE/EIA reports disclosed by international oil/gas companies, who have used experienced international EIA consultancy firms partnering with Myanmar EIA consultancies, are generally of a higher quality – and cost - than those seen by MCRB for projects in other sectors in Myanmar. It is hoped that their example will lead to a raising of standards for EIA and disclosure across all sectors. The survey also analyses the challenges faced by companies in complying with the new requirement for IEE/EIA and disclosure, and makes recommendations for how these can be addressed. The issue of pre-existing projects is highlighted, which, under Article 8 of the new EIA Procedures, need to take steps to obtain an Environmental Compliance Certificate. The rationale for undertaking this research assumes that website disclosure, in addition to being a legal requirement under the new EIA procedures, will allow stakeholders to access and read the reports. These stakeholders – who may include national and regional government officials and parliamentarians, civil society organisations, local communities and the media – will therefore have the opportunity to study the assessments and engage critically with companies over the contractual commitments included in them, and hold companies to account for their environmental and social performance. However this requires those stakeholders to ‘do their homework’ and read the IEE/EIA. This survey is therefore also intended to raise awareness of the availability of these assessments; encourage stakeholders to read and engage with the EIA process; and encourage development partners to build their capacity to do so..."
Author/creator: Inna Lazareva, Vicky Bowman
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Centre for Responsible Business (MCRB)
Format/size: pdf (710K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.myanmar-responsiblebusiness.org/pdf/2016-04-04-EIA-Disclosure_PR_en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 18 April 2016

Title: Public opinion research report for Myanmar-China Oil and Gas Pipelines
Date of publication: 25 March 2014
Description/subject: (Survey in NgaPhe` Township, MinBu District, Magway Division and Thipaw Township, Kyauk Mae District, Northern Shan State) By BadeiDha Moe Civil Society Organization..... Summary: "During the political reform period in Myanmar, most of the critical issues that have arisen around land issues have concerned foreign investment projects. The civilian government, Houses of Parliament, Members of Parliament, political parties, civil society and farmers are all directly involved and troubled by the land grabbing that is taking place in the establishment of foreign investment projects. Among these projects, the Myanmar– China pipelines project is having the most effects on the largest number of local people in Myanmar simply because of its size: it crosses the entire length of the country from Rakhine State to Yunnan Province through heavily populated and fertile agricultural areas. Because of its length, it affects all types of Myanmar environmental resources such as cultivated land, virgin land, river, stream, forest and mountains, which are all vital to Myanmar’s rich biodiversity. This one project has the potential to impact negatively on the environment, livelihoods, culture and social life of a large part of the country. Local ethnic nationality groups have been concerned about unfair compensation without the proper regard given to the environment and social impact. State development should start with the involvement of people in each region. It is especially difficult for a government to start development projects when there is political instability, and the impact of this project is an impediment to the on-going peace process. Our team surveyed "public opinion'' on foreign investments, so-called development projects. Local people voluntarily participated in the research in NgaPhe` Township, Upper Myanmar and Thipaw (Hsipaw) Township, Northern Shan State. The survey used participatory action research methods, in which local people could learn how to define their issues, cooperate with each other and with civil society organisations, collect data on their situation and understand their rights with respect to government and private company projects. In summary, our report intends to expose the cases of injustice uncovered through our research to the public, members of parliaments, and civil society"
Language: English
Source/publisher: BadeiDha Moe Civil Society Organization
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-reduced version; 2.3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/BadeiDha_Moe-CSO-SIA_on.pdf
Date of entry/update: 22 May 2014

Title: Pipeline Nightmare (English and Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 07 November 2012
Description/subject: "Shwe Pipeline Brings Land Confiscation, Militarization and Human Rights Violations to the Ta’ang People. The Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO) released a report today called “Pipeline Nightmare” that illustrates how the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, which will transport oil and gas across Burma to China, has resulted in the confiscation of people’s lands, forced labor, and increased military presence along the pipeline, affecting thousands of people. Moreover, the report documents cases in 6 target cities and 51 villages of human rights violations committed by the Burmese Army, police and people’s militia, who take responsibility for security of the pipeline. The government has deployed additional soldiers and extended 26 military camps in order to increase pressure on the ethnic armed groups and to provide security for the pipeline project and its Chinese workers. Along the pipeline, there is fighting on a daily basis between the Burmese Army and the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army – North and Ta’ang National Liberation Army in Namtu, Mantong and Namkham, where there are over one thousand Ta’ang (Palaung) refugees. “Even though the international community believes that the government has implemented political reforms, it doesn’t mean those reforms have reached ethnic areas, especially not where there is increased militarization along the Shwe Pipeline, increased fighting between the Burmese Army and ethnic armed groups, and negative consequences for the people living in these areas,” said Mai Amm Ngeal, a member of TSYO. The China National Petroleum Corporation and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise have signed agreements for the Shwe Pipeline, however the companies have not conducted any Environmental Impact Assessments or Social Impact Assessments. While the people living along the pipeline bear the brunt of the effects, the government will earn an estimated USD$29 billion over the next 30 years. “The government and companies involved must be held accountable for the project and its effects on the local people, such as increasing military presence and Chinese workers along the pipeline, both of which cause insecurity for the local communities and especially women. The project has no benefit for the public, so it must be postponed,” said Lway Phoo Reang, Joint Secretary (1) of TSYO. TSYO urges the government to postpone the Shwe Gas and Oil Pipeline project, to withdraw the military from Shan State, reach a ceasefire with all ethnic armed groups in the state, and address the root causes of the armed conflict by engaging in political dialogue."
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Ta’ang Students and Youth Organization (TSYO)
Format/size: pdf (English, 2MB-OBL version; 6.77-original; 1.45-Burmese-OBL version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs14/Pipeline_Nightmare-bu-op--red.pdf (full report in Burmese)
http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/Immediate%20Release%207%20N... (Summary in Burmese)
http://www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/For%20Immediate%20Release%2... (Summary in Thai)
www.palaungland.org/wp-content/uploads/Report/S%20P%20N%20Report/2012-11%20Shwe%20Pipeline%20impact%20to%20the%20Ta_ang%20People%20-%20Chinese%20languages.pdf (Summary in Chinese)
Date of entry/update: 07 November 2012

Title: Total Denial Continues - Earth rights abuses along the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in Burma
Date of publication: May 2000
Description/subject: "Three Western oil companies -- Total, Premier and Unocal -- bent on exploiting natural gas , entered partnerships with the brutal Burmese military regime. Since the early 1990's, a terrible drama has been unfolding in Burma. Three western oil companies -- Total, Premier, and Unocal -- entered into partnerships with the brutal Burmese miltary regime to build the Yadana and Yetagun natural gas pipelines. The regime created a highly militarized pipelinecorridor in what had previously been a relatively peaceful area, resulting in violent suppression of dissent, environmental destruction, forced labor and portering, forced relocations, torture, rape, and summary executions. EarthRights International co-founder Ka Hsaw Wa and a team of field staff traveled on both sides of the Thai-Burmese border in the Tenasserim region to document the conditions in the pipeline corridor. In the nearly four years since the release of "Total Denial" (1996), the violence and forced labor in the pipeline region have continued unabated. This report builds on the evidence in "Total Denial" and brings to light several new facets of the tragedy in the Tenasserim region. Keywords:, human rights, environment, forced relocation, internal displacement, foreign investment. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
Language: English
Source/publisher: Earthrights International
Format/size: pdf (6MB - OBL ... 20MB - original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/files/Reports/TotalDenialCont-2ndEdition.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003

Title: Total Denial - A Report on the Yadana Pipeline Project in Burma
Date of publication: 10 July 1996
Description/subject: "'Total Denial' catalogues the systematic human rights abuses and environmental degradation perpetrated by SLORC as the regime seeks to consolidate its power base in the gas pipeline region. Further, the report shows that investment in projects such as the Yadana pipeline not only gives tacit approval and support to the repressive SLORC junta but also exacerbates the grave human rights and environmental problems in Burma.... The research indicates that gross human rights violations, including summary executions, torture, forced labor and forced relocations, have occurred as a result of natural gas development projects funded by European and North American corporations. In addition to condemning transnational corporate complicity with the SLORC regime, the report also presents the perspectives of those most directly impacted by the foreign investment who for too long have silently endured the abuses meted out by SLORC for the benefit of its foreign corporate partners." ...Additional keywords: environment, human rights violations.
Language: English
Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI) and Southeast Asian Information Network (SAIN)
Format/size: pdf (310K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003