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Agricultural Economics

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Title: Rural Livelihood and Agricultural Reform In Chiba Village, Shwebo Township, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Rural community is one of the strengths in country building. In a nation-­‐state administrative policy changes are followed by economic policy changes, then by changes in livelihood strategies. To members of rural society mostly existing on agriculture livelihood strategies go different based on accessibility of assets. To become a modern, developed nation mainly means brisk economic development, in which increased rural production plays an important part. A bout (70) percent of Myanmar population are rural and farmers by the livelihood. Agriculture sector is the main prop to Myanmar's economic structure. Rice is the staple food of Myanmar people and paddy cultivation is the livelihood of majority of cultivators in the country. The Union Government is working for betterment of agriculture sector as well as farmers' life. In implementing with increased momentum rural development program aimed at enhancement of rural people’s socio-­‐economic development, it is necessary to know of their present status, needs and desires.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shin Thynn Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015

Date of publication: 04 October 2014
Description/subject: Key findings: Price fluctuations are common in agricultural markets. However, rice price volatility in Myanmar is more profound than in neighboring rice net-exporter countries like Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand. The economic liberalization in 2004 removed local trade barriers and this reduced risks and price volatility in the domestic rice market. Even if Myanmar’s price fluctuations decreased in recent years (compared to the mid-2000s), it remains high. Beyond price volatility, rice prices have risen by 41% between 2009 and 2013. This is much higher than that of rice exporters in neighboring countries like Thailand and Cambodia. The high concentration of the paddy harvest in November and December is the main cause of rice price volatility. Nearly 70% of paddy is harvested in just two months of the monsoon season. This results into sharp price drops from December to January and spike-ups between May and October. Production in dry season is small due to a lack of rice varieties with different harvesting periods, growth durations, and appropriate irrigation. The rice market is fragmented and weakened due to poor roads and low phone coverage. There is also inaccurate information on rice production, consumption, trade, and stocks. Due to the latter, farmers, millers, exporters, and the government often overreact when there are minor price changes. This ignites volatility even further, given that private stocks are too small to buffer price fluctuations. Poor diversification of export markets also contribute to price volatility. Most of the formal rice exports go to Africa with stable prices. The informal cross-border export to China, in contrast, has been highly unpredictable. The recent closure of informal trade with China is an example of such unpredictability.
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Executive Summary)
Source/publisher: World Bank (Agriculture Global Practice East Asia and Pacific Region)
Format/size: pdf (2.9MB-reduced version; 6.3MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/myanmar/publication/rice-price-volatility-and-poverty-reduction...
Date of entry/update: 26 November 2014

Title: MYANMAR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK: Initial Assessment and Restructuring Options
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "Myanmar is an agricultural country. It is estimated that the agriculture sector represents between 35 to 40 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and that up to 70 percent of the labor force (of 32.5 million) is directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural activities or depend on agriculture for their income. Moreover, it is estimated that agriculture products generate between 25 and 30 percent of total export earnings. Given agriculture’s important contribution to the economy, the modernization of the agriculture sector is a top priority in the economic and social development agenda of the Government of Myanmar. Looking forward, Myanmar’s agricultural potential is enormous given the country’s rich natu- ral resources and favorable geographical location. Myanmar’s diverse topography, climates, water resources, and eco-systems offer farmers and investors the opportunity to produce a wide range of cereals, pulses, horticultural products, fruits, livestock, and fish. Because of its strategic location between the two enormous regional markets of India and China, and easy access to buoyant markets in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Myanmar’s agriculture sector is well positioned to grow, develop a dynamic agribusiness industry, and provide people with the opportunity to improve their living standards...... 1.Diagnostic of MADB: 1.1 Overview of the Agriculture Sector and the Role of MADB... 1.2 MABD’s Mission and Policy Mandate... 1.3 Lending Operations: Seasonal Crop Production Loan (SCPL) and Term Loan (TL), Breakdown of the Loan Portfolio, Loan Guarantees, Loan Amount per Farmer... 1.4 Credit Policies... 1.5 Pricing and Funding... 1.6 Risk Management... 1.7 Corporate Governance: Board, Internal Control System, External Audit System... 1.8 Operations... 1.9 Legal, Regulatory, and Supervisory Regime... 1.10 Accounting and Financial Reporting... Human Resources..... 2.Options for the Transformation of MADB... 2.1 Strengthening MADB in the Short Term... 2.2 Issues to Consider for MADB’s Long-Term Transformation..... 3.Lessons from International Experience... 3.1 Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives... 3.2 Bank Rakyat Indonesia... 3.3 Financiera Rural of Mexico..... 4.Conclusions
Language: English
Source/publisher: The World Bank Group
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015

Title: Rapid Value Chain Assessment: Structure and Dynamics of the Rice Value Chain in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2013
Description/subject: This Background Paper is an integral part of the Diagnostic Assessment. It involves an assessment of the Myanmar rice value chain within the context of the Myanmar rice industry. Special focus is paid to its structure and performance, dynamics, and future prospects. Also included is a consideration of its weaknesses and constraints that had influenced the development of the industry as well as an evaluation of the prospect of improving the value chain and consequently the industry and suggesting crucial steps that should be taken for the short game and the long game. Basically, the report integrates the findings from intensive literature review and desk research coupled with observations and interviews conducted during field visits in October and November 2012 and supplemented by persona communication with key players in the public and private sectors as well as civil society at various levels of the rice value chain.
Author/creator: Larry C.Y. Wong and Eh Mywe Aye Wai
Language: English
Source/publisher: Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 11 April 2016

Title: Inle Lake Conservation and Rehabilitation Project
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... Inle Lake situated in Southern Shan State is well known by local populace and foreign visitors for the natural beauty of the lake waters, surrounding mountain ranges, tomato floating gardens and leg rowers of boats. The lake plays a vital role for the ecosystem and economy of Shan State, providing many important goods and services for the communities. It is an ASEAN heritage site and also on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. It is the main water source for Lawpita hydroelectricity power plant, a major tourist attraction site and a habitant for rich biodiversity and traditional culture. The lake is now facing devastating effects of unsustainable practices in forestry, agriculture and fishing activities. The situation is accelerated by impact of climate change. Water surface area and sanitation is decreasing, fish and plant species are disappearing at a fast rate while water hyacinth species are increasing, blocking water ways and dominating other useful water cress that farmers use for building floating gardens. Therefore with the collaboration of Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF), UNDP and UNESCO, a fund has been provided from Norwegian Government to implement conservation and rehabilitation activities in the area. UNDP acting as the funding agency is working together with implementing partners to restore the area with the assistance of local communities. Due to the need of the communities, organic farming and market linkages activity has been implemented by Doe Taung Thu, a local non-government organization. For Organic farming, farmers have been trained in compost making, vermiculture, production of agriculture organic inputs such as natural pesticides, plant juice, fruit juice containing indigenous micro-organisms. With these products farmers are utilizing natural resources in the area. In addition an attempt is made to utilize water hyacinth for agricultural use. Objectives  To collect water hyacinth from water ways and shred into small pieces for compost making  To decrease water hyacinth in the lake and clear water ways for easy access to villages  To use shredded water hyacinth for mulching crops in a form of composting  To conserve moisture in soil by mulching, protect soil erosion and slow down rain run off so that moisture can penetrate deep down to the roots  To prevent rain splashing onto leaves and minimize leaf diseases  To suppress weeds and minimize weeding  To use chopped water hyacinth to feed earth worms  To increase chicken and duck feed for communities..."
Author/creator: Heather Morris, U Myint Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)
Format/size: pdf (405K)
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2016

Title: Transformation of the Rice Marketing System and Myanmar’s Transition to a Market Economy
Date of publication: December 2005
Description/subject: Abstract: "Creating a rice marketing system has been one of the central policy issues in Myanmar’s move to a market economy since the end of the 1980s. Two liberalizations of rice marketing were implemented in 1987 and 2003. This paper examines the essential aspects of the liberalizations and the subsequent transformation of Myanmar’s rice marketing sector. It attempts to bring into clearer focus the rationale of the government’s rice marketing reforms which is to maintain a stable supply of rice at a low price to consumers. Under this rationale, however, the state rice marketing sector continued to lose efficiency while the private sector was allowed to develop on condition that it did not jeopardize the rationale of stable supply at low price. The paper concludes that the prospect for the future development of the private rice marketing sector is dim since a change in the rice market’s rationale is unlikely. Private rice exporting is unlikely to be permitted, while the domestic market is approaching the saturation point. Thus, there is little momentum for the private rice sector to undertake any substantial expansion of investment."... Keywords: Myanmar, rice, marketing system, liberalization
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English (available also in Japanese - ?)
Source/publisher: IDE Discussion Papaer No. 43
Format/size: pdf (761K)
Date of entry/update: 16 July 2006

Title: Crop Choice, Farm Income, and Political Relations in Myanmar
Date of publication: March 2005
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar's agricultural economy is in transition from a planned to a market system. However, the economy does not seem to capture the full gains of productivity growth expected from such a transition. Using a micro dataset collected in 2001 and covering more than 500 households in eight villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, this paper shows that policy interventions in land use and agricultural marketing underlie the lack of income growth. Regression analyses focusing on within-village variations in cropping patterns show that the acreage share under nonlucrative paddy crops is higher for farmers who are under tighter control of the local administration. Keywords: reform, food policy, transitional economies, Asia, Myanmar."
Author/creator: Takashi Kurosaki
Language: English
Source/publisher: Hitotsubashi University Research Unit for Statistical Analysis in Social Sciences
Format/size: pdf (227K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008

Title: Agricultural Marketing Reform and Rural Economy in Myanmar
Date of publication: 28 January 2004
Description/subject: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of marketing reforms implemented in the late 1980s in Myanmar. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the reform on the rural economy and its participants, namely farmers, landless laborers and marketing intermediaries. The reform had a positive effect on all these participants through the creation of employment opportunities and increased income. The driving force of this success was "market forces,"absence of bad policy" is emphasized as a key for the success in the context of Myanmar, where excessive and murky government intervention often resulted in failure to induce private sector development.
Author/creator: Ikuko Okamoto
Language: English
Source/publisher: IIDE ( Institute of Developing Economies)
Format/size: pdf (98KB)
Date of entry/update: 08 January 2005

Title: Agro-Based Industry in Myanmar - Prospects and Challenges
Date of publication: 2003
Description/subject: 400-page book in image files divided into chapters..... Title page, Content, etc...Acknowledgement...Chapter 1- Introduction...Chapter 2 - Agro-Based Industrializing Strategy...Chapter 3 - Rice Industry...Chapter 4 - Wheat Flour Industry...Chapter 5 - Pulses Industry...Chapter 6 - Feed Industry...Chapter 7 - Edible Oil Industry... Chapter 8 - Growth, Survival and and Prospects of Sugar Processing SMEs...Chapter 9 - Cotton textile Industry... Chapter 10 - Facts About Myanmar Jute Industries...Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Rubber& Rubber Product Industry
Author/creator: U Tin Htut Oo and Toshihiro Kudo
Language: English
Source/publisher: IDE- Institute of Developing Economies / JETRO - Japan External Trade Organization
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 September 2012

Title: Agricultural diversification and rural industrialization as a strategy for rural income growth and poverty reduction in Indochina and Myanmar
Date of publication: 1999
Description/subject: Abstract: CONTENTS: Introduction; concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in areas and production of crops and meat production; agricultural exports; future challenges and guiding principles; references....Keywords: Agricultural diversification Economic aspects.; Indochina Economic policy.; Poverty alleviation.; Myanmar Economic policy.; Meat industry and trade.
Author/creator: Francesco Goletti
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Food Policy Research Institute
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2008