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Forced Relocation/Forced migration
Aka Forced Eviction, Forced Resettlement, Forced Displacement, Forcible Population Transfer. See also the sections on Internal Displacement and Humanitarian Action/Relief.

  • Forced relocation of several ethnic groups

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: Brookings Institution
    Description/subject: Some docs on IDPs in Burma
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) - Myanmar page
    Description/subject: Highly recommended. Well-organised site. In "list of sources used" are most of the main reports from 1995 bearing on IDPs (though the reports from 1995 to 1997 are missing - temporarily, one hopes) and more Burma pages updated June 2001. Go to the home page for links on IDPs, including the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IDMC
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: http://www.internal-displacement.org (Homepage)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Description/subject: The largest body of high-quality reports on the civil war in Burma, especially focussed on the civilian victims.
    Language: English, Karen
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/index.php
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees International Burma page
    Description/subject: One major report, several shorter articles. " The repressive government of Burma has caused hundreds of thousands of people, mainly members of minority ethnic groups, to flee to Thailand, Bangladesh and other countries in search of safety."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Refugees International
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Refworld UNHCR
    Description/subject: A Search engine. UNHCR Documentation Centre's website. Lots of refugee and other documents.
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: US Committee for Refugees
    Description/subject: Some reports and articles on Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: US Committee for Refugees (USCR)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Individual Documents

    Title: Police roundup pushes homeless people out of Pyay City, Bago Division, August 2012
    Date of publication: 08 July 2013
    Description/subject: "This report is based on information submitted to KHRG in September 2012 by a community member from Yangon Region trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. It describes events occurring in Pyay City, Bago Division, on August 3rd 2012 when City Development Committee staff and policemen carried out a nighttime city-sweep to remove homeless families. The authorities used a public rubbish truck to forcibly detain the families and then to transport them to Okshittpin Forest, which is halfway between Pyay City and the border with Rakhine State. The families were abandoned in the forest during a monsoon rain, and were threatened not to return to Pyay. Both children and adults were threatened with prison if they returned. However, the families did return to Pyay, after they encountered several problems along the way, including being without food to eat for two days, not having baby formula for infants, inadequate shelter under which to sleep, and most of the younger children became sick. Once they returned to Pyay City, the families were assisted with medicine. Pocket money and education was provided to the children by a local organization."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
    Format/size: html, pdf (85K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/sites/default/files/khrg13b43.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 10 August 2013


    Title: Housing, Land, and Property Rights in Burma
    Date of publication: October 2004
    Description/subject: "...The main objective of this research is to examine housing, land, and property rights in the context of Burma’s societal transition towards a democratic polity and economy. Much has been written and discussed about property rights in their various manifestations, private, public, collective, and common in terms of “rights”. When property rights are widely and fairly distributed, they are inseparable from the rights of people to a means of living. Yet in the contemporary world, millions of people are denied access to the land, markets, technology, money and jobs essential to creation of livelihoods (Korten, 1998). The most significant worldwide problems of unjust property rights remain those associated with landlessness, rural poverty, and inequality (Hudson-Rodd & Nyunt, 2000)..."
    Author/creator: Nancy Hudson-Rodd
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Edith Cowan University, Centre for Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE)
    Format/size: pdf (741K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2007


    Title: State-induced violence and poverty in Burma
    Date of publication: April 2004
    Description/subject: "...The objective of this research paper is to describe specific ways in which the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) deprives the people of Burma of their land and livelihood. Confiscation of land, labour, crops and capital; destruction of person and property; forced labour; looting and expropriation of food and possessions; forced sale of crops to the military; extortion of money through official and unofficial taxes and levies; forced relocation and other abuses by the State..."
    Author/creator: Dr Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Dr Myo Nyunt, Saw Thamain Tun, Sein Htay
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Edith Cowan University, National Council of Union of Burma (NCUB), Federation of Trade Unions-Burma (FTUB)
    Format/size: pdf (448K)
    Date of entry/update: 26 February 2007


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2002-03: Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation
    Date of publication: October 2003
    Description/subject: "The situation of internally displaced people (IDPs), in Burma remained critical throughout 2002. The U.S. State Department’s country report for 2002 on Burma estimated that forced relocations had produced hundreds of thousands of refugees, with as many as one million internally displaced persons. "Throughout 2002 the military continued to forcibly relocate minority villages, especially in areas where ethnic activists and rebels were active, and in areas targeted for the development of international tourism." (Human Rights Watch World Report 2003) In 2002, Human Rights Watch reported that tens of thousands of villagers in the ethnic insurgent areas remained in forced relocation sites or were internally displaced. It has been estimated that in 2002 around 170 villages have been burned down and 300 villages have been forced to relocate, in the Karen area alone. (Source: UN Wire) The most significant displacement has occurred in the border ethnic areas where the military regime has been at war with ethnic armed opposition groups for over 50 years. Ethnic minorities such as the Muslim Rohingyas of Arakan State, the Shan, Karen, Kachin and the Karenni, as well other smaller ethnic groups that live in the same areas have suffered disproportionately. Whatever their background, internally displaced persons in Burma live under conditions of severe deprivation and hardship. Almost all are without adequate access to food or basic health and education services. A large number of IDPs are women and children. People in Burma become displaced as a result of SPDC policies that either directly or indirectly compel them to leave their homes. Villagers are subject to forced relocation by the SPDC as part of the military’s four-cuts program; for urban resettlement or "beautification" projects, which are often linked to the SPDC’s campaigns to promote tourism; and for rural resettlement programs. People are also frequently left with no choice but to flee their home villages when faced with resource scarcity, and the loss of their security and livelihoods that result from oppressive SPDC policies. Economic reasons for fleeing include: numerous demands for forced labor and portering; government crop quotas; ceaseless taxes and fees to support the army; army looting or destruction of property; and uncompensated loss of land or property due to SPDC development projects. Even more pressing are people’s fears of the torture, rape, arbitrary arrest and arbitrary killings perpetuated in border areas by the military. Finally, villagers also often flee in anticipation of forced relocation..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 10 November 2003


    Title: The Impact of the confiscation of Land, Labor, Capital Assets and forced relocation in Burma by the military regime
    Date of publication: May 2003
    Description/subject: 1. Introduction 1; 2. Historical Context and Current Implications of the State Taking Control of People, Land and Livelihood 2; 2.1. Under the Democratically Elected Government 2; 2.1.1. The Land Nationalization Act 1953 2; 2.1.2. The Agricultural Lands Act 1953 2; 3. Under the Revolutionary Council (1962-1974) 2; 3.1. The Tenancy Act 1963 3; 3.2. The Protection of the Right of Cultivation Act, 1963 3; 4. The State Gains Further Control over the Livelihoods of Households 3; 4.1. Under the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) Rule (1974 - 1988) 3; 4.1.1 Land Policy and Institutional Reforms 3; 4.2 Under the Military Rule II - SLORC/SPDC (1988 - present) 4; 4.2.1. Keeping it Together: Agriculture, Economy, and Rural Livelihood 5; 5. Militarization of Rural Economy 8; 5.1. Land confiscation 8; 5. 2. Land reclamation 11; 5.3. Military Agricultural Projects 13; 5.4. The Fleecing of Burmese Farmers 15; 5.5. Procurement 17; 5.5.1. Other crops 20; 5.5.2. Farmers tortured in Mon State 23; 6. Forced Relocation and Disparity of Income and wealth 25; 7. Conclusion 29... APPENDICES NOT YET ACQUIRED Appendix 1. Summary Report on Human Rights Violations by SPDC and DKBA Troops in 7 Districts of KNU ( 2000 to 2002) 31; Appendix 2. Forced labor by SPDC troops on road construction from Pa-pun to Kamamaung in 2003 38; Appendix 3. Survey Questionnaires (Ward/village and Household - in Burmese) 45.
    Author/creator: Dr Nancy Hudson-Rodd, Dr Myo Nyunt, Saw Thamain Tun, Sein Htay
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: NCUB, FTUB
    Format/size: html (19K) pdf (649K, 812K, 413K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs17/land_confiscation-NHR+al-en-red.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 12 August 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2001-2002: Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation
    Date of publication: September 2002
    Description/subject: "The situation of Internally Displaced People (IDPs), in Burma remained critical throughout 2001. The US State Department estimates that there could be up to1 million members of ethnic minority groups who the SPDC has forcibly relocated from their villages and districts, and who are currently living along the Thai border. Reports from NGOs also estimate that an additional 1 million IDPs are living a precarious existance in other locations throughout the country..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 2000: Internally Displaced People and Forced Relocation
    Date of publication: October 2001
    Description/subject: "The plight of Internally Displaced People, or IDPs, in Burma was a continuing problem over the year 2000. Burma contributes over an estimated 1 million IDPs to the estimated world IDP population of 21 million and estimated Asian IDP population of 5 million. (The CIDKP put the IDP number at 2 million in 2000.) Internally displaced persons in Burma live under conditions of severe deprivation and hardship. All but few of these people are without adequate access to food or basic social, health and education services. A large number of this group are women and children. As no legal instruments for IDPs exist in todays world, this mass population group in Burma has been left vulnerable because of the lack of international protection and assistance available to them. IDPs in Burma have been displaced by similar factors, which although are many, are all related to SPDC presence and policy..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit, NCGUB
    Format/size: html
    Alternate URLs: Yearbook main page: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/yearbooks/Main.htm
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: A Village on Fire: the Destruction of Rural Life in Southeastern Burma
    Date of publication: 31 October 2000
    Description/subject: "...Under military control, rural Burma's subsistence farming village is losing its viability as the basic unit of society. Internally displaced people are usually thought to have fled military battles in and around their villages, but this paradigm doesn't apply to Burma. In the thousands of interviews conducted by the Karen Human Rights Group with villagers who have fled their homes, approximately 95 percent say they have not fled military battles, but rather the systematic destruction of their ability to survive, caused by demands and retaliations inflicted on them by the SPDC military. Where there is fighting, it is fluid and sporadic, and most villagers can avoid it by hiding for short periods in the forest. Once the SPDC occupies the area around their village, however, the suffering is inescapable. Villages, rooted to the land, are defenseless and vulnerable, and villages can be burned -- destroying rural life in southeastern Burma. "
    Author/creator: Kevin Heppner
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Cultural Survival Quarterly" Issue 24.3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Refugees, Returnees and IDPs in Burma
    Date of publication: 24 May 2000
    Description/subject: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Seminar on IDPs in Burma,
    Author/creator: Ms. Kathleen Newland
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Total Denial Continues - Earth rights abuses along the Yadana and Yetagun pipelines in Burma
    Date of publication: May 2000
    Description/subject: "Three Western oil companies -- Total, Premier and Unocal -- bent on exploiting natural gas , entered partnerships with the brutal Burmese military regime. Since the early 1990's, a terrible drama has been unfolding in Burma. Three western oil companies -- Total, Premier, and Unocal -- entered into partnerships with the brutal Burmese miltary regime to build the Yadana and Yetagun natural gas pipelines. The regime created a highly militarized pipelinecorridor in what had previously been a relatively peaceful area, resulting in violent suppression of dissent, environmental destruction, forced labor and portering, forced relocations, torture, rape, and summary executions. EarthRights International co-founder Ka Hsaw Wa and a team of field staff traveled on both sides of the Thai-Burmese border in the Tenasserim region to document the conditions in the pipeline corridor. In the nearly four years since the release of "Total Denial" (1996), the violence and forced labor in the pipeline region have continued unabated. This report builds on the evidence in "Total Denial" and brings to light several new facets of the tragedy in the Tenasserim region. Keywords:, human rights, environment, forced relocation, internal displacement, foreign investment. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Earthrights International
    Format/size: pdf (6MB - OBL ... 20MB - original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.earthrights.org/files/Reports/TotalDenialCont-2ndEdition.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: CHR 2000: Food Scarcity in Myanmar
    Date of publication: 08 February 2000
    Description/subject: Written statement submitted by the Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC). "1. The right to food is a fundamental human right. It is guaranteed under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (art. 25 (1)) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (art. 11). 2. In the Union of Myanmar, people are being denied the right to food by the overwhelming military domination of that country. Substantial evidence suggests that the Government of Myanmar is systematically denying food to the civilian population through a range of practices implemented to ensure perpetuation of its undemocratic rule. 3. Food scarcity exists in Myanmar neither because of a natural disaster nor through mere administrative incompetence, but rather as a result of pervasive militarization. The Government has not only failed to meet its positive obligations to ensure conditions of food security, but it must also be held responsible for administrative and military practices that have resulted in widespread denial of food to civilian populations. In coming to these conclusions, the Asian Legal Resource Centre agrees with the findings of the People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma, which was invited to examine the issue by the Asian Human Rights Commission. The People's Tribunal released its findings in a report entitled "Voice of the Hungry Nation" (Asian Human Rights Commission, October 1999)..."
    Author/creator: Asian Legal Resource Centre
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: United Nations (E/CN.4/2000/NGO/61)
    Format/size: pdf, MS Office
    Date of entry/update: 05 January 2011


    Title: Hard Cases: Internal Displacement in Turkey, Burma (Myanmar) and Algeria
    Date of publication: December 1999
    Description/subject: "In some countries, the internally displaced are beyond the reach of international humanitarian organizations. Although the displaced populations concerned may be in dire need of assistance and protection, and could benefit immeasurably from outside support, few or no steps are taken, or strategies developed, to gain access to them. Whereas conflict is the inhibiting factor in some cases, in others, the governments concerned do not request aid and by and large reject any that is offered. Only rarely does the United Nations Security Council deem such situations to be threats to international peace and security and demand entry. Leading examples of governments that successfully bar international involvement with their displaced populations are Turkey, Burma, and Algeria. The situations in the three countries are, of course, quite different. In Turkey and Burma, governments have deliberately uprooted people in order to destroy their possible links to insurgency movements. In Algeria, displacement is a by-product of conflict, primarily between the government and Islamist insurgent groups..."
    Author/creator: Roberta Cohen
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Forced Migration Review" No. 6
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


    Title: Voice of the Hungry Nation
    Date of publication: October 1999
    Description/subject: This document presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma. The Tribunal’s work will appeal to all readers interested in human rights and social justice, as well as anyone with a particular interest in Burma. The Asian Human Rights Commission presents this report in order to stimulate discourse on human rights and democratization in Burma and around the world.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma
    Format/size: English version
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmadebate.org/archives/fall99bttm.html#hungry
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Voice of the Hungry Nation
    Date of publication: September 1999
    Description/subject: an edited version of a report by the People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma, which was published by the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) in October 1999.
    Author/creator: People's Tribunal on Food Scarcity and Militarization in Burma
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Burma Debate", Vol. VI, No. 3
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Internal Displacement in Myanmar
    Date of publication: July 1999
    Description/subject: Urban and rural displacement in Myanmar
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
    Format/size: html (146K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Report of the ILO Commission of Inquiry: customised version highlighting forced relocation and land confiscation.
    Date of publication: 02 July 1998
    Description/subject: Extracts on forced relocation and confiscation of land from the report of the Commission of Inquiry appointed under article 26 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization to examine the observance by Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29). Though its main focus was forced labour, the Commission of Inquiry also reported other violations of human rights. This series of customised versions of the report takes a number of these themes. The present document highlights references to forced relocation and confiscation of land. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ILO Commission of Inquiry (extracts)
    Format/size: html (222K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Rip: Rest in Pieces
    Date of publication: January 1997
    Description/subject: Urban Development. On Nov 14th 1996, the Slorc posted a notice at the gate of Kyandaw Cemetery giving relatives one month's notice to move the remains to a new site at Shwe Nyaung-bin, two hours drive from Rangoon. Kyandaw cemetery is located on 50-70 acres of what has become prime real estate in downtown Rangoon, near Hantha-waddy intersection. Both Burmese and foreigners are buried there of Christian, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist faiths. Rumours abound in Rangoon as to what the military government wants the land for; a casino to be built by Khun Sa, a hotel to be built with foreign investment, or, a Japanese shopping center.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol. 5. No. 1
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Total Denial - A Report on the Yadana Pipeline Project in Burma
    Date of publication: 10 July 1996
    Description/subject: "'Total Denial' catalogues the systematic human rights abuses and environmental degradation perpetrated by SLORC as the regime seeks to consolidate its power base in the gas pipeline region. Further, the report shows that investment in projects such as the Yadana pipeline not only gives tacit approval and support to the repressive SLORC junta but also exacerbates the grave human rights and environmental problems in Burma.... The research indicates that gross human rights violations, including summary executions, torture, forced labor and forced relocations, have occurred as a result of natural gas development projects funded by European and North American corporations. In addition to condemning transnational corporate complicity with the SLORC regime, the report also presents the perspectives of those most directly impacted by the foreign investment who for too long have silently endured the abuses meted out by SLORC for the benefit of its foreign corporate partners." ...Additional keywords: environment, human rights violations.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: EarthRights International (ERI) and Southeast Asian Information Network (SAIN)
    Format/size: pdf (310K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    Title: Burma Human Rights Yearbook 1994: 17 - Forced Relocation
    Date of publication: September 1995
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Human Rights Documentation Unit of the NCGUB
    Format/size: html (81K)
    Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • Forced relocation of individual ethnic groups

    • Forced relocation of Kachin

      Individual Documents

      Title: Resisting the Flood: Communities taking a stand against the imminent construction of Irrawaddy dams
      Date of publication: October 2009
      Description/subject: Message from KDNG: "As a network of residents of Kachin State, we, the Kachin Development Networking Group, have been monitoring plans by the stateowned China Power Investment Corporation and Burma’s military regime to build seven dams on the Irrawaddy River and its two main tributaries. In 2007 we published the report, "Damming the Irrawaddy" which surveyed the environment and peoples in the affected area and analyzed the negative impacts of these dams. Today construction of the 2,000-megawatt Chibwe Dam on the N’Mai River is already underway. The forced relocation of 15,000 people to clear out the flood zone of the Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam has also begun. In August 2009 villagers were informed that they must begin to move out within two months. There have been no public assessments of the projects, no consultation with affected people within the flood zone or downstream, and no consent from local residents or the larger population of Burma. As a result, public resistance to the dams is growing. Despite the risks of arrest, torture or death for dissent in military-ruled Burma, brave people are demanding a halt to the dams. Mass prayer ceremonies calling for the protection of the rivers have been held along the river banks and in churches up and downstream. Posters, open letters, and graffi ti from students, elders and prominent leaders have objected to the dams. In a face-to-face meeting with the Burma Army’s Northern Commander, local residents made it clear that no amount of compensation will make up for the losses these dams will bring to their community and future generations. We stand with the people of Kachin State and throughout Burma who oppose these dams. The demand to stop this project has been made clear to our military rulers and now we specifically appeal to China Power Investment Corporation and the government of China to stop these dams..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
      Source/publisher: Burma Rivers Network
      Format/size: pdf (1.37MB - English; 2.42MB - Burmese; 1.21MB - Chinese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/burmese/ResistingtheFlood-Burwebsite.... (Burmese)
      http://www.burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/chinese/ResistingtheFloodChinese.pdf (Chinese)
      Date of entry/update: 21 November 2009


    • Forced relocation of Karen

      Individual Documents

      Title: Toungoo Interview: Saw H---, April 2011
      Date of publication: 05 September 2012
      Description/subject: This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during April 2011 in Tantabin Township, Toungoo District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed a 37 year-old township secretary, Saw H---, who described abuses committed by several Tatmadaw battalions, including forced relocation, land confiscation, forced labour, restrictions on freedom of movement, denial of humanitarian access, targeting civilians, and arbitrary taxes and demands. Saw H--- provided a detailed description of three development projects that the Tatmadaw has planned in the area. Most notable is Toh Boh[1] hydroelectric dam on the Day Loh River, which is expected to destroy 3,143 acres of surrounding farmland. Asia World Company began building the dam in Toh Boh, Day Loh village tract during 2005. The other two projects involved the confiscation of 2,400 acres, against which the villagers formed a committee to petition for compensation and were met with threats of imprisonment. Saw H--- also described how 30 people working on the dam die each year. Also mentioned is the Tatmadaw's burning of villagers' cardamom plantations, and the villagers' attempts to limit the fire damage using fire lines. It is also described by Saw H--- how some villagers have chosen to remain in KNLA/KNU-controlled areas and produce commodities for sale, despite the attendant increase in the price of goods purchased from Tatmadaw-controlled villages, while others have fled to refugee camps in other countries. For photos of the Toh Boh Dam taken by a different community member in March 2012, see "Photo Set: More than 100 households displaced from Toh Boh Dam construction site in Toungoo," published by KHRG on August 23rd
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (225K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b72.html
      Date of entry/update: 05 November 2012


      Title: Photo Set: More than 100 households displaced from Toh Boh Dam construction site in Toungoo
      Date of publication: 23 August 2012
      Description/subject: "This Photo Set presents 17 still photographs taken by a local community member who has been trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The photos were all taken in March 2012 at the Toh Boh Dam construction site in Tantabin Township within locally-defined Toungoo District. According to the community member who took these photos, more than 100 households have been relocated from the area now occupied by the dam construction site, where construction is ongoing."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (400K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b71.html
      Date of entry/update: 24 August 2012


      Title: Pa'an Interview: Saw Bw---, September 2011
      Date of publication: 13 June 2012
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during September 2011 in Lu Pleh Township, Pa'an District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Saw Bw---, a 25-year-old logger from Eg--- village, who described events that occurred while he was carrying out logging work between the villages of A--- and S---. He provides information on military activity in the area, specifically about shifting relations between armed groups, with Border Guard and DKBA troops ceasing to cooperate, and a heightened Tatmadaw presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also explained the disruptive impact of fighting between Border Guard and armed groups in the area on A--- villagers, who are described as fleeing to avoid conflict, as well as providing information on one instance in which A--- villagers were ordered to relocate by the commander of Border Guard Battalion #1017, but instead chose strategic displacement into hiding. He mentions the difficulties that he had in logging following the Border Guard's increased presence in the area. Saw Bw--- also described the presence of landmines in the area around A--- and how his employer paid approximately US $1222.49 to DKBA troops to have them removed. This incident concerning landmines is also described in a thematic report published by KHRG on May 21st, 2012, Uncertain Ground: Landmines in eastern Burma."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (164K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b58.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 July 2012


      Title: Papun Situation Update: Dweh Loh Township, January to March 2012
      Date of publication: 24 May 2012
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in April 2012 by a community member describing events occurring in Papun District, in the period between January and March 2012. It provides information on land confiscation by Border Guard Battalion #1013, which has appropriated villagers’ communal grazing land between D--- and M--- villages for the construction of barracks for housing soldiers' families. Related to this project is the planned construction of a dam on the Noh Paw Htee River south of D--- village, which is expected to result in the subsequent flooding of 150 acres of D--- villagers’ farmland, valued at US $91,687. Villagers from K’Ter Tee, Htee Th’Bluh Hta, and Th’Buh Hta village tracts have also reported facing demands for materials used for making thatch shingles, for which villagers receive either minimal or no payment. Updated information concerning other military activity is also provided, specifically on troop augmentation, with LID #22, and IB #8 and #96 reported to have joined Border Guard Battalion #1013 by establishing bases at K’Ter Tee, as well as reports of increased transportation of rations, weapons and troops to camps in the border regions. Details are also provided on new restrictions introduced since the January 2012 ceasefire agreement on the movement of Tatmadaw units; similar restrictions have been documented in Toungoo District in a report published by KHRG in May 2012, "Toungoo Situation Update: Tantabin Township, January to March 2012." Information is also given on a recent Tatmadaw directive, which stipulates that soldiers and villagers living near to military camps must inform any KNU officials they encounter that they are welcome to meet with Tatmadaw commanders or officers."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (295K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b45.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw P---, October 2011
      Date of publication: 18 May 2012
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted during October 2011 in Nyaunglebin District by a community member trained by KHRG to monitor human rights conditions. The community member interviewed Naw P---, a 42-year-old flat field farmer, who described her experiences being forcibly relocated by Tatmadaw troops, most recently in 2004 from D--- to T--- relocation village. Villagers continue to face movement restrictions, specifically a curfew which prevents villagers from leaving T--- after 6:00 pm, as well as demands from people's militia and Tatmadaw troops for food on a bi-monthly basis following troop rotations, and monthly demands for a big tin (16 kg. / 35.2 lb.) of rice. Payments are also reported in lieu of sentry duties for the Tatmadaw. An incident involving the disappearance and suspected killing of a previous village head in the past was also mentioned. Relocation is reported to have severely undermined villagers’ food security; food scarcity in the relocation village has been exacerbated by the area being more highly populated, with less agricultural land available for villagers to cultivate or on which to graze cattle, and as a consequence they are forced to purchase the bulk of their food in order to survive."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (249K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b42.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2012


      Title: Toungoo Situation Update: Received in November 2011
      Date of publication: 19 April 2012
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in November 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Toungoo District prior to October 2011. It frames present village conditions within the context and consequences of the 2005 – 2008 Northern Offensive by Tatmadaw forces and details the following human rights abuses: forced relocation of villages; movement restrictions; forced labour by adult and child villagers; arbitrary taxation and demands; beating and torture of villagers, especially of village leaders; and attacks on and killing of villagers. This situation update also documents a number of villagers' concerns related to village leadership systems, livelihood challenges, the provision of education for children and food shortages. Moreover, this report describes ways by which villagers have sought to mitigate aspects of the abuses and concerns noted above, namely villagers bribing soldiers in order to allow them to transport more supplies than permitted to their village and establishing a rotating village governance system."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (124K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2012/khrg12b37.html
      Date of entry/update: 21 April 2012


      Title: Pa'an Situation Update: June to August 2011
      Date of publication: 17 October 2011
      Description/subject: "This report includes a situation update submitted to KHRG in September 2011 by a villager describing events occurring in Pa'an District between June 2011 and August 2011. It details recent Tatmadaw and Tatmadaw Border Guard activity, including camp locations and troop strength, and incidents related to a forced relocation order issued to eight villages in Lu Pleh Township by Tatmadaw Border Guard units on July 15th 2011. After the July 20th deadline for relocation, Tatmadaw and Border Guard forces commenced joint attacks against six of the villages ordered to relocate, including multiple days of heavy shelling and machine gun fire which the villager who submitted this report described as indiscriminate. On July 20th 2011 Border Guard troops also deliberately killed villagers' livestock and fired mortars into civilian areas of R--- village, injuring a 50-year-old woman, while retreating from an attack by the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) on the Border Guard camp in R---. This report further documents Tatmadaw Border Guard demands for forced labour and forced porters. The villager who submitted this update raises villagers' concerns related to flooding along the Dta Greh [Hlaing Bwe] River during the 2011 monsoon season, and the abandonment of schools and loss of trade and livelihood opportunities due to forced relocation. This report notes that, in response to the abuses and concerns mentioned above, villagers in Pa'an District adopt strategies that include: moving to areas beyond Tatmadaw control, monitoring local security conditions, and hiding food stores in the jungle."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (404K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b40.html
      Date of entry/update: 29 January 2012


      Title: Pa'an Situation Update: April 2011
      Date of publication: 21 September 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains a situation update submitted to KHRG in April 2011 and written by a villager describing events occurring in Lu Pleh and Dta Greh townships in Pa'an District between February and April 2011. It contains information on incidents of forced labour by the Tatmadaw, including the use of villagers to build huts, deliver palm leaves for thatching buildings and provide unpaid forced labour during gold-mining and logging operations. It also documents the forced relocation of villagers from upland areas, and relates an incident in which a Tatmadaw deserter, who was later summarily executed by Tatmadaw troops, shot and injured a 53-year-old woman in Tantabin Township, Toungoo District. In response to human rights and related humanitarian concerns, including access to health care, the researcher reported that villagers travel covertly to seek medical care from cross-border groups, sell betel leaves to supplement incomes and laminate currency in plastic to prevent it from becoming damaged. This situation report also contains updated information on military activity in Pa'an District, specifically the defection of Tatmadaw Border Guard soldiers in February 2011 to a breakaway faction of the DKBA that had previously refused to transform into Border Guard battalions, and to the KNLA."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (763K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b31.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw Sa---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 05 August 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Naw Sa---, a 26-year-old villager who described human rights and humanitarian conditions in her village, in a mixed administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Naw Sa--- cited the following human rights concerns: forced relocation and displacement; demands for provision of food; shelling of civilian areas, resulting in civilian injuries; arrest and detention of villagers; physical violence against detained villagers; forced labour, including sentry duty; and movement restrictions. She also explained the challenges to accessing medical care and adequate education for children faced by members of her community; and described how villagers returned to work covertly on their agricultural projects in order to protect their livelihoods, after they were ordered by the Tatmadaw to abandon their village."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (690K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b23.html
      Date of entry/update: 12 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Saw My---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 04 August 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Saw My---, a 45 year-old farmer who described his experiences when he was forced to leave his village in a mixed-administration area and live for two years in a neighbouring village, including specific incidents in which Tatmadaw soldiers fired small arms at children in school uniforms, forced women to serve as human shields for Tatmadaw columns during patrols, and ordered villagers at gunpoint to leave their homes and possessions during the rainy season. He further cited the following abuses: movement restrictions; forced labour; and arbitrary taxation and demands. Saw My--- also highlighted the difficulties his village currently faces accessing health care and education, but explained that villagers counter these difficulties by using traditional medicine and by hiring and supporting local teachers."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (713K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b22.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw Ka---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 03 August 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Naw Ka---, a 50-year-old villager who described the situation prior to and after her community was forcibly relocated by the Tatmadaw in 2007. Naw Ka--- cited the following human rights abuses in her testimony: forced labour, including sentry duty and portering; arrest and detention, including physical violence against detained villagers; forced relocation; and movement restrictions. The interviewee also described the humanitarian challenges people in her community have faced, including serious constraints on access to adequate education for children, healthcare, and food. In order improve their humanitarian situation, Naw Ka--- explained how residents of her village decided to return to their homes in 2010 without formal permission from the Tatmadaw, despite villagers' fears that this action entailed serious risks to their physical security."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (706K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b21.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Saw Th---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 02 August 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher during May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Saw Th---, a 37-year-old farmer and village elder, who described his experiences living in Tatmadaw-controlled relocation sites for over two years and in a village in a mixed-administration area, in which various Tatmadaw battalions and non-state armed groups operated. Saw Th--- described the following abuses: forced relocation; movement restrictions; taxation and demands; and forced labour including forced portering and camp maintenance. He said he believed that forced labour demands have decreased due to media attention on the issue. Saw Th--- also explained that villagers pursued agricultural livelihoods activities secretly while living in forced relocation sites, to lessen the impact of movement restrictions; and used herbal medicines because medical infrastructure and access to medical care were inadequate."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (694K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b20.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Saw S---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 30 July 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Saw S---, a 17 year-old student who compared his experiences living in a Tatmadaw-controlled relocation site, and in his own village in a mixed-administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Saw S--- described the following abuses: killing of villagers; forced relocation; movement restrictions; taxation and demands; theft and looting; and forced labour including portering, sentry duty, camp maintenance and road construction. Saw S--- also discussed the impact of forced labour and movement restrictions on livelihoods; access to, and cost of, health care; and constraints on children's access to education, including the prohibition on Karen-language education. In order to address these issues, Saw S--- explained that villagers attempt to bribe military officers with money to avoid relocation, and with food and alcohol to lessen forced labour demands; conceal from Tatmadaw commanders that villagers sometimes leave the village to work without valid permission documents; and go into hiding to protect their physical security when conflict occurs near the village."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (744K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b19.html
      Date of entry/update: 18 February 2012


      Title: Nyaunglebin Interview: Naw P---, May 2011
      Date of publication: 26 July 2011
      Description/subject: "This report contains the full transcript of an interview conducted by a KHRG researcher in May 2011 with a villager from Ler Doh Township, Nyaunglebin District. The researcher interviewed Naw P---, a 40-year-old farmer who described her experiences living in a Tatmadaw-controlled relocation site, and in her original village in a mixed-administration area under effective Tatmadaw control. Naw P--- described the following human rights abuses: rape and sexual violence; indiscriminate firing on villagers by Tatmadaw soldiers; forced relocation; arrest and detention; movement restrictions; theft and looting; and forced labour, including use of villagers as military sentries and porters. Naw P--- also raised concerns regarding the cost of health care and about children's education, specifically Tatmadaw restrictions on children's movement during perceived military instability and the prohibition of Karen-language education. In order to address these concerns, Naw P--- told KHRG that some villagers pay bribes to avoid forced labour and to secure the release of detained family members; lie to Tatmadaw commanders about the whereabouts of villagers working on farms in violation of movement restrictions; and organise covert Karen-language education for their children."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (158K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2011/khrg11b18.html
      Date of entry/update: 19 February 2012


      Title: DKBA burns village and forces residents to relocate in Pa'an District
      Date of publication: 04 June 2010
      Description/subject: DKBA soldiers in Dta Greh Township, Pa'an District, have burnt the small village of Gk'Law Lu and forced its residents to relocate. This incident is the second time Gk'Law Lu has been burnt and relocated by DKBA soldiers: the village was first burnt and residents forcibly relocated in October 2008. Relocated families, meanwhile, may face serious threats to their livelihoods if potential DKBA travel restrictions and risks from landmines limit access to farm fields in their home village.
      Language: English, Karen
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010-B9)
      Format/size: pdf (428K - English version; 501K - Karen version)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg10b9_karen_language.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 10 October 2010


      Title: Attacks on displaced villagers in Nyaunglebin District
      Date of publication: 22 January 2010
      Description/subject: "On January 17th 2010 the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Army set up a camp at Kheh Der village tract, Kyauk Kyi Township, Nyaunglebin District. At least 1,000 residents of the ten villages that made up Khe Der tract have fled to avoid attack.[1] KHRG has also confirmed that these SPDC troops have killed two villagers, including a village head, from Kheh Der..." "At least 1,000 villagers have fled from ten villages during the last five days following the establishment of a new SPDC Army camp in central Nyaunglebin District. Two villagers in the area of the camp are confirmed to have been killed by soldiers from this camp. Three other villagers are missing after another SPDC battalion attacked a party of villagers that had escaped from an SPDC relocation site to tend to their farms..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2010 B-1)
      Format/size: pdf (492 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2010/khrg10b1.html
      Date of entry/update: 24 March 2010


      Title: Life in Burma’s Relocation Sites
      Date of publication: January 2010
      Description/subject: Abstract: :Widespread human rights violations have been occurring in ethnic areas of Burma since the late nineteen sixties. This report, based on a 2008/9 field survey, focuses on the government’s use of mass displacement and relocation designed to destabilize the ethnic populations of Karen State. The government first initiated a policy of ethnic relocation in Karen State in 1975 as part of what became known as the four cuts campaign, a policy intended to deprive the ethnic resistance movement of food, money, intelligence and recruits. While noting the existence of such earlier camps, this report specifically examines the lives of people living in sites after a further concerted effort to control the civilian population was initiated in 2006. This report identifies three types of site created by the military regime. The first, roughly translated from Burmese as ‘model’ villages, are some of the most recent examples and have been created under the guise of development; the second type, initiated in 1979, are primarily security driven and have resulted in highland villages being relocated to the plains; the third, which are also security initiated and mainly located in Taungoo, consists of villages cleared from areas of military infrastructure. Villagers in this latter type, unlike the previous two, have been given no provision for relocation; rather, the population was told to vacate the area with little regard as to where they would go. Relocated villagers, despite the fact that purported contact with resistance forces has all but been eradicated, continue to face severe abuses by Burmese authorities. Forced labour on infrastructure projects and military controlled business is widespread. Villagers are ordered to act as sentries, messengers, porters and minesweepers by the Burma Army. Corruption and illegal taxation is prevalent in all the sites assessed. In addition, the opportunity for making a living has been drastically reduced. Malnutrition, especially in infants, has increased and is exacerbated by army restrictions that prevent villagers from access to food, medicine and education. This report identifies serious issues of concern that continue to affect the ethnic populations of Burma. It highlights the government’s disregard for the rights of its people and its blatant use of the local population as little more than a captive workforce to be used as the military dictates."
      Author/creator: Paul Keenan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Ethnic Nationalities Council
      Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
      Date of entry/update: 03 August 2010


      Title: Living conditions for displaced villagers and ongoing abuses in Tenasserim Division
      Date of publication: 29 October 2009
      Description/subject: "Villagers in SPDC-controlled parts of Tenasserim Division, including 60 villages forced to move to government relocation sites in 1996, continue to face abuses including movement restrictions, forced labour and arbitrary demands for 'taxation' and other payments. In response, thousands of villagers continue to evade SPDC control in upland jungle areas. These villagers report that they are pursued by Burma Army patrols, which shoot them on sight, plant landmines and destroy paddy fields and food stores. This report primarily draws on information from September 2009. Because KHRG has not released a field report on the region since 2001, this report also includes quotes and photographs from research dating back to 2007..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F19)
      Format/size: pdf (359 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f19.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


      Title: Insecurity amidst the DKBA - KNLA conflict in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts
      Date of publication: 06 February 2009
      Description/subject: "The DKBA has intensified operations across much of eastern Pa'an and north-eastern Dooplaya districts since it renewed its forced recruitment drive in Pa'an District in August 2008. These operations have included forced relocations of civilians, a new round of forced conscription and attacks on villages. The DKBA has also pushed forward in its attacks on KNLA positions in both districts in an apparent effort to eradicate the remaining KNLA presence and wrest control of lucrative natural resources and taxation points in the lead up to the 2010 elections. Skirmishes between DKBA, SPDC and KNLA forces have thus continued throughout this period. Local villagers have faced heightened insecurity in connection with the ongoing conflict. DKBA, SPDC and KNLA forces all continue to deploy landmines in the area and DKBA forces have fined or otherwise punished local villagers for attacks by KNLA soldiers. This report documents incidents of abuse in Dooplaya and Pa'an districts from August 2008 to February 2009..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F3)
      Format/size: pdf (978 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f3.html
      Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


      Title: Attacks, killings and the food crisis in Papun District
      Date of publication: 04 February 2009
      Description/subject: "SPDC abuses against civilians continue in northern Karen State, especially in the Lu Thaw and Dweh Loh townships of Papun District. Abuses have been particularly harsh in Lu Thaw, most of which has been designated a "black area" by the SPDC and so subject to constant attacks by Burma Army forces. Villagers who decide to remain in their home areas are often forced to live in hiding and not only face constant threats of violence by the SPDC, but also a worsening food crisis due to the SPDC's disruption of planting cycles. This report covers events in Papun District from August 2008 to January 2009..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2009-F2)
      Format/size: pdf (578 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg09f2.html
      Date of entry/update: 31 October 2009


      Title: Cycles of Displacement: Forced relocation and civilian responses in Nyaunglebin District
      Date of publication: 12 January 2009
      Description/subject: "Over the past three years, the Burma Army has conducted an extensive forced relocation campaign in Nyaunglebin District. As part of the wider offensive in northern Karen State, the forced relocations in Nyaunglebin District have aimed to bring the region's entire civilian population into more easily controllable settlements in the plains, along vehicle roads and alongside army camps and bases. Local villagers, however, have resisted these efforts in numerous ways. Villagers' resistance strategies include: fleeing into hiding to evade forced relocation; negotiating with local SPDC commanders to avoid relocation or garner increased freedom of movement at relocation sites; and covertly leaving relocation sites to temporarily or permanently return to their former homes and lands. The Burma Army's attacks against civilian communities in hiding, combined with forced relocation efforts and civilian evasion in Nyaunglebin District, have created ongoing cycles of displacement..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2009-01)
      Format/size: pdf (6.1 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2009/khrg0901.html
      Date of entry/update: 11 November 2009


      Title: Human minesweeping and forced relocation as SPDC and DKBA step up joint operations in Pa'an District (English and Karen)
      Date of publication: 20 October 2008
      Description/subject: "Since the end of September 2008, SPDC and DKBA troops have begun preparing for what KHRG researchers expect to be a renewed offensive against KNU/KNLA-controlled areas in Pa'an District. These activities match a similar increase in joint SPDC-DKBA operations in Dooplaya District further south where these groups have conducted attacks against villagers and KNU/KNLA targets over the past couple of weeks. The SPDC and DKBA soldiers operating in Pa'an District have forced villagers to carry supplies, food and weapons for their combined armies and also to walk in front of their columns as human minesweepers. This report includes the case of two villagers killed by landmines during October while doing such forced labour, as well as the DKBA's forced relocation of villages in T'Moh village tract of Dta Greh township, demands for forced labourers from the relocated communities and the subsequent flight of relocated villagers to KNLA-controlled camps in Pa'an District as a means to escape this abuse; all of which took place in October 2008."
      Language: English, Karen
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: pdf (English, 534K; Karen, 446K), html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/reports/karenlanguage/khrg08b11_karen_language.pdf
      http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08b11.html
      Date of entry/update: 13 March 2012


      Title: Military expansion and exploitation in Nyaunglebin District
      Date of publication: 05 August 2008
      Description/subject: "With the SPDC Army's continued expansion in Nyaunglebin District, local villagers not under military control have had to once again flee into the surrounding forest while troops have forcibly interned other villagers in military-controlled relocation sites. These relocation sites, typically in the plains of western Nyaunglebin, alongside army camps or SPDC-controlled vehicle roads, serve as containment centres from which army personnel appropriate labour, money, food and supplies to support the military's ongoing expansion in the region. Extortion by military officers operating in Nyaunglebin District has included forced 'donations' allegedly collected for distribution to survivors of Cyclone Nargis in the Irrawaddy Delta. This field report looks at the situation in Nyaunglebin up to the end of May 2008..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F10)
      Format/size: pdf (697 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f10.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


      Title: Burma Army attacks and civilian displacement in northern Papun District
      Date of publication: 12 June 2008
      Description/subject: "Following the deployment of new Burma Army units in the area of Htee Moo Kee village, Lu Thaw township of northern Karen State, Papun District, during the first week of March 2008, at least 1,600 villagers from seven villages were forced to relocate to eight different hiding sites in order to avoid the encroaching army patrols. These displaced communities are now facing heightened food insecurity and an ongoing risk of military attack. This report is based on in-depth interviews with displaced villagers from Lu Thaw township regarding the recent Burma Army operations and the resultant effects on the local communities. It also includes information on the recent military attack on Dtay Muh Der village, Lu Thaw township, Papun District which Burma Army forces conducted during the first week of June 2008 and which led to the further displacement of over 1,000 villagers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F6)
      Format/size: pdf (537 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f6.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


      Title: SPDC spies and the campaign to control Toungoo District
      Date of publication: 31 March 2008
      Description/subject: "According to reports from KHRG field researchers working in the forested mountains of Toungoo District, local SPDC forces have recently begun utilising spies operating under the guise of escaped convict porters to locate civilian hiding sites. These individuals have reportedly utilised their cover to gain information on the location of displaced hiding sites, farm fields and food storage containers. This information has, in turn, allowed for the rapid deployment of SPDC patrols to target particular displaced communities in military attacks. Alongside this strategy, the SPDC has maintained heavy movement restrictions and imposed persistent forced labour in those areas already under its control. This report examines the human rights situation in Toungoo District up to March 2008..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Reports (KHRG #2008-F5)
      Format/size: pdf (736 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f5.html
      Date of entry/update: 01 November 2009


      Title: Village-level decision making in responding to forced relocation: A case from Papun District
      Date of publication: 07 March 2008
      Description/subject: "As part of its campaign of militarisation in Northern Karen State the SPDC has had as a principle strategy the forcible relocation of villagers from areas outside of its control to relocation sites close to Army camps or vehicle roads where civilian control can be firmly established. Over the years, villagers in Papun District and across Karen State have come to learn well that SPDC control means regular abuse and exploitation and, therefore, have sought to avoid such control wherever possible. This report presents one recent example from January to February 2008 of the courageous and varied response strategies villagers use to resist forced relocation and abuse and evade control by SPDC soldiers. Interestingly, this case also hints at some internal dissent and corruption within the SPDC ranks..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2008-F3)
      Format/size: pdf (650 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2008/khrg08f3.html
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


      Title: Increased roads, army camps and attacks on rural communities in Papun District
      Date of publication: 16 November 2007
      Description/subject: "Having initially begun construction a decade ago, the SPDC has this year completed the Papun section of a roadway which extends northwards from the east-west Kyauk Kyi to Saw Hta vehicle road towards the SPDC army camp at Buh Hsa Kee in southern Toungoo District. While still incomplete on the Toungoo side of the border the Papun section effectively cuts the northern half of Lu Thaw township into two east-west sections and forms a dangerous and difficult to cross barrier for those civilians fleeing from ongoing military attacks against their communities. Nevertheless villagers in Lu Thaw and other areas of Papun continue to evade SPDC forces and the district currently has the highest number of internally displaced people in hiding out of any area of eastern Burma. Notwithstanding the creative and courageous strategies which these villagers have adopted in order to avoid the army columns which continue to hunt them down, they remain in a precarious situation; one which has only heightened in its severity with the completion of the Papun section of the north-south vehicle road and the upgrading of other roadways further south..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F10)
      Format/size: pdf (517 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f10.html
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


      Title: SPDC Army atrocities in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract in the words of a local resident
      Date of publication: 24 October 2007
      Description/subject: "While the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) continues its diplomatic manoeuvring claiming a 'return to normalcy' and courting favour with United Nations special envoy to Burma, Ibrahim Gambari, attacks on villages and military atrocities in northern Karen State have continued unabated. Nevertheless, local villagers continue to resist such abuse and speak out, where possible, against its daily perpetration. The report below comprises a translated account of the situation in Ler Muh Bplaw village tract, Lu Thaw township, Papun District written not by a KHRG researcher or any other of the organisation's staff, but rather by a local village head from Ler Muh Bplaw village tract who testifies in his own words to the atrocities that continue to undermine rural lives and livelihoods. The report discusses SPDC operations including attacks on villages and the killing of civilians as well as the state of health and education for the communities of Ler Muh Bplaw village tract. The text of the report is supported with photographs taken by KHRG field researchers..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2007-F9)
      Format/size: pdf (517 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2007/khrg07f9.html
      Date of entry/update: 07 November 2009


      Title: Burma Army
      Date of publication: 15 July 2007
      Description/subject: Die Armee der SPDC Militärdiktatur ist mittlerweile auf eine Truppenstärke von 500.000 Soldaten angewachsen und jetzt selbst nur noch durch ein System der Angst zu kontrollieren. Fast jeder hat einen Vorgesetzten und die Exekution ist nur einen Schuß entfernt. Der militärische Geheimdienst ist überall und selbst die höheren Ränge werden oft ‘Reinigungen’ nach sowietischem Vorbild unterzogen. Karen; Flüchtlinge; Burma Army; Refugees
      Language: German, Deutsch
      Source/publisher: Burma Riders
      Date of entry/update: 21 August 2007


      Title: Forced Labour, Extortion, and Festivities: The SPDC and DKBA burden on villagers in Pa'an District
      Date of publication: 22 December 2006
      Description/subject: "In Pa'an District of central Karen State, Burmese authorities impose strict controls on the movements and activities of all villagers while also taking their land, money and livestock, using them as forced labour, and forcing them to join state paramilitary organisations. Muslims are being forcibly evicted from their villages into relocation camps to make way for new SPDC army camps. Simultaneously the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army (DKBA) acts on behalf of the SPDC in many areas, extending the regime's control in return for impunity to exploit and extort from the civilian population. The double burden of forced labour, extortion, restrictions and forced conscription imposed by two sets of authorities takes a heavy toll on the villagers, yet in a cruel irony they are also being forced to give money and unpaid child labour to prepare New Year festivities where the DKBA plays host to foreigners and Rangoon movie stars..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F12)
      Format/size: pdf (972 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f12.html
      Date of entry/update: 08 November 2009


      Title: Toungoo District: The civilian response to human rights violations
      Date of publication: 15 August 2006
      Description/subject: "Attacks on villages in Toungoo and other northern Karen districts by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) since late 2005 have led to extensive displacement and some international attention, but little of this has focused on the continuing lives of the villagers involved. In this report KHRG's Karen researchers in the field describe how these attacks have been affecting local people, and how these people have responded. The SPDC's forced relocation, village destruction, shoot-on-sight orders and blockades on the movement of food and medicines have killed many and created pervasive suffering, but the villagers' continued refusal to submit to SPDC authority has caused the military to fail in its objective of bringing the entire civilian population under direct control. This is a struggle which SPDC forces cannot win, but they may never stop trying..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F8)
      Format/size: pdf (588 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f8.html
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


      Title: Forced Relocation, Restrictions and Abuses in Nyaunglebin District
      Date of publication: 10 July 2006
      Description/subject: "This report presents information on ongoing abuses in Nyaunglebin (Kler Lweh Htoo) District, Karen State committed by SPDC forces during the period of March to May 2006. Attacks on hill villagers have continued as SPDC units seek to depopulate the hills and force all villagers to relocate to military-controlled villages in the plains and along roadways. However, those villagers living in SPDC-controlled areas are subject as well to continued abuses including arbitrary arrest and detention, extortion, restricted movement and forced labour..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Field Report (KHRG #2006-F6)
      Format/size: pdf (645 KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06f6.html
      Date of entry/update: 09 November 2009


      Title: Civilians as Targets
      Date of publication: 30 April 2006
      Description/subject: "This Commentary takes a closer look at the SPDC's ongoing offensive against civilian villages in northern Karen State which has already displaced over 16,000 villagers and shows no sign of abating. Going beyond the images of burned villages and people hiding in the forest, it discusses the offensive's motivating factors, its tactics, why the SPDC is specifically targeting the villagers and how the villagers see their position..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Right Group Commentaries (KHRG #2006-C1)
      Format/size: pdf (267KB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2006/khrg06c1.html
      Date of entry/update: 16 November 2009


      Title: Nyaunglebin District: Food supplies destroyed, villagers forcibly displaced, and region-wide forced labour as SPDC forces seek control over civilians
      Date of publication: 04 May 2005
      Description/subject: "Between October 2004 and January 2005 SPDC troops launched forays into the hills of Nyaunglebin District in an attempt to flush villagers down into the plains and a life under SPDC control. Viciously timed to coincide with the rice harvest, the campaign focused on burning crops and landmining the fields to starve out the villagers. Most people fled into the forest, where they now face food shortages and uncertainty about this year's planting and the security of their villages. Meanwhile in the plains, the SPDC is using people in relocation sites and villages they control as forced labour to strengthen the network of roads and Army camps - the main tools of military control over the civilian population - while Army officers plunder people's belongings for personal gain. In both hills and plains, increased militarisation is bringing on food shortages and poverty..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2005-F4)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 23 May 2005


      Title: Operation Than L'Yet: Forced Displacement, Massacres and Forced Labour in Dooplaya District
      Date of publication: 25 September 2002
      Description/subject: "In January 2002 it appeared that the SPDC considered most of Dooplaya district of southern Karen State to be pacified and under their control. But then Light Infantry Division 88 was sent in and commenced Operation Than L'Yet, forcibly relocating as many as 60 villages by July. Villagers were rounded up and detained without food for days, or force-marched to Army-controlled relocation sites after their houses were burned. Village heads, women and children were tortured. People who tried to flee into the forests were shot on sight, including one brutal massacre of ten people, six of them children under 15. Over a thousand people fled into Thailand, and several thousand more are still trying. Another five thousand are in Army relocation camps, where they have been provided with nothing and are struggling to survive on rice gruel and whatever roots they can forage. Their movements are tightly controlled and they are being used as forced labour to build roads, bridges and Army camps which will help Division 88 to clamp down further on the district. They are also forced to work as porters for the Army columns which go out to loot and destroy even more villages. KHRG researchers expect a renewed onslaught after the rains end in October, when Division 88 will probably set out to hunt down those still in hiding and may extend the forced relocations to more areas."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Information Update (KHRG #2002-U5)
      Format/size: html (34K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Flight, Hunger and Survival: Repression and Displacement in the Villages of Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts
      Date of publication: 22 October 2001
      Description/subject: "This report documents in detail the plight of villagers and the internally displaced in these two northern Karen regions. Since 1997 the SPDC has destroyed or relocated over 200 villages here, forcing tens of thousands of villagers to flee into hiding in the hills where they are now being hunted down and shot on sight by close to 50 SPDC Army battalions. The troops are now systematically destroying crops, food supplies and farmfields to flush the villagers out of the hills, making the situation increasingly desperate. Meanwhile, those living in the SPDC-controlled villages and relocation sites are fleeing to the hills to join the displaced because they can no longer bear the heavy burden of forced labour, extortion, restrictions on their movement and random torture and executions. KHRG's most intensive research effort to date, this report draws on over 300 interviews with people in the villages and forests, thousands of photographs and hundreds of documents assembled by KHRG researchers in the past 2 years." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #2001-03)
      Format/size: PDF version 9770K (yes, almost 10 MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.khrg.org/khrg2001/khrg0103.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: On the Trail of Burma's Internal Refugees
      Date of publication: June 2001
      Description/subject: An American dentist travels deep into the world of Burma's Internally Displaced Persons, and discovers a people driven by fear into an uncertain future. Armed with a Colt .45, American dentist Shannon Allison is on a dangerous mission of mercy: to bring emergency medical assistance to Internally Displaced Persons inside Burma. Veteran photojournalist Thierry Falise reports from Burma's war-torn jungles on efforts to assist these victims of endemic conflict.
      Author/creator: Thierry Falise
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy", Vol 9. No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Papun and Nyaunglebin Districts: Internally displaced villagers cornered by 40 SPDC Battalions; Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.
      Date of publication: 09 April 2001
      Description/subject: Food shortages, disease, killings and life on the run.Based on new interviews and reports from KHRG field researchers, this update summarises the increasingly desperate situation for villagers in these two districts. In the hills, the people of several hundred villages are still in hiding, their villages destroyed by SPDC troops. Their survival situation is now desperate as 40 SPDC Battalions continue to systematically destroy their rice supplies and crops and landmine their fields, and shoot them on sight. In the villages under SPDC control, people suffer under an impossible burden of many kinds of forced labour and extortion.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (Information Update #2001-U3)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: KHRG Commentary #2000-C2
      Date of publication: 17 October 2000
      Description/subject: The worsening situation of the internally displaced in all northern Karen districts, forced labour and convict porters, rice quotas, the desperate situation of rank-and-file SPDC soldiers, forced repatriation of refugees in Thailand, and the SPDC's persistence in denying that there is any problem whatsoever.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Peace Villages and Hiding Villages: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District
      Date of publication: 15 October 2000
      Description/subject: Roads, Relocations, and the Campaign for Control in Toungoo District. Based on interviews and field reports from KHRG field researchers in this northern Karen district, looks at the phenomenon of 'Peace Villages' under SPDC control and 'Hiding Villages' in the hills; while the 'Hiding Villages' are being systematically destroyed and their villagers hunted and captured, the 'Peace Villages' face so many demands for forced labour and extortion that many ofthem are fleeing to the hills. Looks at forced labour road construction and its relation to increasing SPDC militarisation of the area, and also at the new tourism development project at Than Daung Gyi which involves large-scale land confiscation and forced labour. Keywords: Karen; KNU; KNLA; SPDC deserters; Sa Thon Lon activities; human minesweepers; human shields; reprisals against villagers; abuse of village heads; SPDC army units; military situation; forced relocation; strategic hamletting; relocation sites; internal displacement; IDPs; cross-border assistance; forced labour; torture; killings; extortion, economic oppression; looting; pillaging; burning of villages; destruction of crops and food stocks; forced labour on road projects; road building; restrictions on movment; lack of education and health services; tourism project; confiscation of land and forced labour for tourism project;landmines; malnutrition; starvation; SPDC Orders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-05)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: SPDC & DKBA Orders to Villages: Set 2000-B
      Date of publication: 12 October 2000
      Description/subject: Pa'an, Dooplaya, Toungoo, Papun, & Thaton Districts. Over 250 orders dating from mid-1999 through late September 2000, the vast majority of them from the latter half of that period. Includes restrictions on the movement of villagers, forced relocation, demands for forced labour, extortion of money, food, and materials, threats to villagers and other demands, as well as documents related to rice quotas which farmers are forced to give, education and health. Also contains one order #174 which directly shows the role of a Dutch timber importing company in causing the SPDC to threaten all non-government controlled timber traders. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG #2000-04)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Interview Annex to "Starving Them Out"
      Date of publication: 31 March 2000
      Description/subject: Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG (#2000-02A)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Starving Them Out: Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
      Date of publication: 31 March 2000
      Description/subject: "This report consists of an Introduction and Executive Summary, followed by a detailed analysis of the situation supported by quotes from interviews and excerpts from SPDC order documents sent to villages in the region. As mentioned above, an Annex to this report containing the full text of the remaining interviews can be seen by following the link from the table of contents or from KHRG upon approved request..." Forced Relocations, Killings and the Systematic Starvation of Villagers in Dooplaya District
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-02)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Central Karen State: villagers fleeing forced relocations and other abuses forced back by Thai troops
      Date of publication: 29 September 1999
      Description/subject: Over the past four months, villagers from southeastern Pa'an District in Karen State have been steadily arriving at areas along the Thai border 35-60 km north of the Thai town of Mae Sot. They have risked treacherous travelling conditions during the rainy season to make the journey, camping in makeshift shelters along the way with little food or clothing. Testimonies collected from recent refugees indicate that the SPDC is intensifying its operation from August-December 1999 to clear all villages in the southeastern corner of Pa'an District in order to undermine Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) activities in the region.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Central Karen State: New Refugees Fleeing Forced Relocation, Rape and Use as Human Minesweepers
      Date of publication: 27 August 1999
      Description/subject: Since mid-August, new flows of refugees have begun arriving at the Thai border from Karen villages in southeastern Pa'an District, central Karen State. Over 100 families, totalling well over 500 people, have arrived thus far and they say that many more will follow. Those who have arrived so far come from the villages of Pah Klu, Taw Oak, Tee Hsah Ra, Kyaw Ko, Tee Wah Thay, Tee Khoh Taw, Tee Wah Klay, B'Naw Kleh Kee and Ker Ghaw, most of which are within 2-3 days' walk of the border. . . According to Karen National Union (KNU, the main Karen opposition group) sources, troops from as many as 5 different SPDC Light Infantry Divisions have been sent into the area for an operation to run from August to December 1999, intending to subjugate the area with a special focus on clearing landmines by using villagers as human minesweepers. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Death Squads and Displacement - Systematic Executions, Village Destruction and the Flight of Villagers in Nyaunglebin District
      Date of publication: 24 May 1999
      Description/subject: "This report is a detailed analysis of the current human rights situation in Nyaunglebin District (known in Karen as Kler Lweh Htoo), which straddles the border of northern Karen State and Pegu Division in Burma. Most of the villagers here are Karen, though there are also many Burmans living in the villages near the Sittaung River. Since late 1998 many Karens and Burmans have been fleeing their villages in the area because of human rights abuses by the State Peace & Development Council (SPDC) military junta which currently rules Burma, and this flight is still ongoing. Those from the hills which cover most of the District are fleeing because SPDC troops have been systematically destroying their villages, crops and food supplies and shooting villagers on sight, all in an effort to undermine the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) by driving the civilian population out of the region. At the same time, people in the plains near the Sittaung River are fleeing because of the ever-increasing burden of forced labour, cash extortion, and heavy crop quotas which are being levied against them even though their crops have failed for the past two years running. Many are also fleeing a frightening new phenomenon in the District: the Sa Thon Lon Guerrilla Retaliation units, which appeared in September 1998 and since then have been systematically executing everyone suspected of even the remotest contact with the opposition forces, even if that contact occurred years or decades ago. Their methods are brutal, their tactics are designed to induce fear, and they have executed anywhere from 50 to over 100 civilians in the District since September 1998..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports(KHRG #99-04)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Nyaunglebin District: Internally Displaced People and SPDC Death Squads
      Date of publication: 15 February 1999
      Description/subject: Nyaunglebin (known in Karen as Kler Lwe Htoo) District is a northern Karen region straddling the border of northern Karen State and Pegu Division. It contains the northern reaches of the Bilin (Bu Loh Kloh) River northwest of Papun, and stretches westward as far as the Sittaung (Sittang) River in the area 60 to 150 kilometres north of Pegu (named Bago by the SPDC). The District has 3 townships: Ler Doh (Kyauk Kyi in Burmese), Hsaw Tee (Shwegyin), and Mone. The eastern two-thirds of the district is covered by forested hills dotted with small Karen villages, and the Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA) operates extensively in this region. The western part of the district is in the plains of the Sittaung river basin; here there are larger villages of mixed Karen and Burman population, and this area is under strong SPDC control. For several years now SLORC/SPDC forces have tried to destroy Karen resistance in the eastern hills, largely by forcing villagers to move and wiping out their ability to produce food. Many villages in the parts of these eastern hills bordering PapunDistrict have been destroyed since 1997 as part of the SPDC campaign to wipe out Karen villages in northern Papun and eastern Nyaunglebin Districts (see "Wholesale Destruction", KHRG, April 1998). According to reports by KHRG monitors in the region and interviews with internally displaced villagers and new refugees, the situation continues to worsen for villagers in eastern and western Nyaunglebin, particularly with the recent creation of SPDC 'Dam Byan Byaut Kya' death squads.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG Information Update)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Displacement of Villagers in Southern Pa'an District ( Information Update)
      Date of publication: 19 September 1998
      Description/subject: "The region commonly known as Pa’an District forms a large triangular area in central Karen State, bounded in the west and north by the Salween River and the town of Pa’an (capital of Karen State), in the east by the Moei River where it forms the border with Thailand, and in the south by the motor road from Myawaddy (at the Thai border) westward to Kawkareik and Kyone Doh. Pa’an District is also known as the Karen National Liberation Army’s (KNLA’s) 7th Brigade area. The western parts of Pa’an District and the principal towns have been controlled by the SLORC/SPDC military junta for 10 years or longer, while the eastern strip adjacent to the Thai border has come largely under their control over the past 3 years. The easternmost strip of Pa’an District near the Moei River is separated from the rest of the district by the main ridge of the steep Dawna Mountains ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Forgotten Victims of a Hidden War: Internally Displaced Karen in Burma
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: 1. The Karen and Kawthoolei: The Karen; Kawthoolei; The Kawthoolei districts || 2. Displacement and counter-insurgency in Burma: Population displacement in Burma; Protracted ethnic conflict in Burma; Counter-insurgency: the four-cuts || 3. The war in Kawthoolei: Seasonal offensives: the moving front line and refugee flows, 1974-92; Cease-fires (1992-94) and the renewal of offensives (1995-97) || 4. Internal displacement in Kawthoolei: Counter-insurgency and displacement in Kawthoolei; Displacement in Kawthoolei; The situation of IDPs in Kawthoolei districts; Extent of population displacement in Kawthoolei; Patterns of displacement; Factors preventing the IDPs returning home; Factors preventing the IDPs becoming refugees in Thailand; Vulnerability of IDPs; Note on forced relocations sites || 5.Assistance: International responses to IDPs; International responses to IDPs in Burma; Responses inside Burma; The response from the border area to Karen IDPs || 6.Protection: Refugees on the Thai-Burma border: international assistance with limited protection; The case of the repatriation of the Mon; The Karen: the problem of security; Assistance and protection: refugees and IDPs; The need for leverage; Transition from armed conflict || Appendix III: Interview at Mae La (This version lacks the maps and tables)
      Author/creator: Brother Amoz, Steven Lanjouw, Saw Pay Leek, Dr. Em Marta, Graham Mortimer, Alan Smith, Saw David Taw, Pah Hsaw Thut, Saw Aung Win, Saw Kwe Htoo Win
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG) and Friedrich Naumann Foundation
      Format/size: PDF (570K, 505K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/(httpDocuments)/0787CA1BCAB95999802570B700599932/$file/Berg+Karen+IDP+report.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: CLAMPDOWN IN SOUTHERN DOOPLAYA: Forced relocation and abuses in newly SLORC-occupied area (Information Update)
      Date of publication: 18 September 1997
      Description/subject: "Forced relocation and abuses in newly SLORC-occupied area. KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports(KHRG #97-11)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: Ethnic Minority Rights under Attack
      Date of publication: 22 July 1997
      Description/subject: This report focuses . . . human rights violations against members of ethnic minority groups. These abuses, including extrajudicial executions; ill-treatment in the context of forced portering and labour; and intimidation during forcible relocations occur both in the context of counter-insurgency operations, and in areas where cease-fires hold. The State Law and Order Restoration Council SLORC, Myanmar's military government) continues to commit human rights violations in ethnic minority areas with complete impunity. This high level of human rights violations and the attendant political instability in Myanmar pose a major regional security issue for the country's new ASEAN partners. One dimension of this is the unprecedented numbers of refugees from Myanmar now in Thailand: a conservative estimate of some 200,000 refugees live in Thai cities and in camps along the Thai-Myanmar border. All of the refugees whom Amnesty International recently interviewed, and whose testimonies form the basis of this report, said that they had fled because they could no longer survive under the harsh forced labour and relocation practices of the SLORC. ... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English and French
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/20/97)
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/020/1997/en
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/020/1997/en/cfed5a5a-ea43-11dd-8810-c1f7ccd3559e/asa1... (French)
      Date of entry/update: 24 November 2010


      Title: Tenasserim Division: Forced Relocation and Forced Labour (Information Update)
      Date of publication: 09 February 1997
      Description/subject: "SLORC's campaign of forced relocations and forced-labour road building in the Palauk-Palaw, Mergui and Tenasserim regions, which began in September 1996, is now being accelerated ... Almost every village between the Tavoy-Mergui-Kawthaung car road in the west and the Tenasserim River in the east, from Palauk in the north to Tenasserim town in the south has been ordered to move one or more times between September 1996 and January 1997..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Karen Human Rights Group Commentary #96-C3
      Date of publication: 18 July 1996
      Description/subject: "...The State Law & Order Restoration Council (SLORC) junta ruling Burma is now using mass forced relocations of entire geographic regions as a major element of military strategy. While this is not new to SLORC tactics, they have seldom or never done it to such an extent or so systematically before. The large-scale relocations began in Papun District of Karen State in December 1995 and January 1996, when up to 100 Karen villages were ordered to move within a week or be shot [see "Forced Relocation in Papun District", KHRG #96-11, 4/3/96]. These were all the villages in the region between Papun and the Salween River, an area about 50-60 km. north-south and 30 km. east-west. Most of them were ordered to move to sites beside military camps at Papun, Kaw Boke, Par Haik and Pa Hee Kyo, where SLORC was gathering people to do forced labour on the Papun-Bilin and Papun-Kyauk Nyat roads. However, the main reasons for the forced relocation were to cut off all possible support for Karen guerrilla columns in the area, most of which has only been SLORC-controlled since mid-1995, and to create a free-fire zone which would also block the flow of refugees from inside Karen State to the Thai border. Recently, though, SLORC troops in the area have limited their movements rather than combing the area, allowing some villagers to trickle back to their villages. This may be partly because of rainy season or because of the current SLORC-Karen National Union ceasefire talks, but it is probably largely because SLORC realised it could not control the result - people were fleeing into hiding in the jungle, some were fleeing to Thailand, but none were heading for the relocation camps. This has not stopped SLORC from conducting new and larger relocation campaigns. Starting in March 1996 it began an unprecedented forced relocation campaign in central and southern Shan State, covering the entire region from the Salween River westward for 120 km. to Lai Kha and Mong Kung, and from Lang Ker and Mong Nai in the south (about 60 km. north of the Thai border) northward to the area west of the ruby mines at Mong Hsu - a total area of 120 km. east-west and 180 km. north-south. [See "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State", KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96.] In this area, between March and June almost every village away from towns and major roads has been forced to move. Estimates are that at least 400-500 villages are included, a total of 60,000-80,000 people. Information gathered by both the Shan Human Rights Foundation and KHRG already includes the names of 320 villages, as well as 22 other village tracts (averaging 5-15 villages per tract) for which lists of village names are not yet available, in Kun Hing, Mong Nai, Nam Sang, Lai Kha, Mong Kung, Lang Ker, Mong Nong, and Kay See townships..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #96-C3)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


      Title: Forced Relocation in Papun District
      Date of publication: 04 March 1996
      Description/subject: "SLORC has seriously stepped up its campaign to clear the entire rural population out of Papun District and make the entire area a free-fire zone. Since December 1995, orders have been issued to every rural village under SLORC control from Kyauk Nyat in the north to Ka Dtaing Dtee in the south, from the Salween River (the Thai border) in the east to at least 10 km. west of Papun - an area 50-60 km. north to south and 30 km. east to west. This area is rugged hills dotted with small villages, averaging 10-50 households (population 50-300) per village. Estimates are that 100 or more villages may be affected. Every village has been ordered to move either to SLORC Army camps surrounding Papun, such as Papun, Kaw Boke, Par Haik, or Ka Hee Kyo (all along the Papun - Kyauk Nyat road route) or to DKBA headquarters far to the south at Khaw Taw (Myaing Gyi Ngu) in Pa'an District. The orders have all been issued by SLORC. Generally a SLORC column enters the village with only a few DKBA soldiers accompanying them, and the SLORC officer issues the order. Villagers confirm that DKBA never operates in the area by themselves anymore - DKBA soldiers only appear in small groups as part of SLORC columns. SLORC units involved in the operation include Light Infantry Battalions (LIB) 340, 341, 434, and Infantry Battalion (IB) 5..." KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-11)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Papun District: Mass Forced Relocations
      Date of publication: 18 February 1996
      Description/subject: SLORC has seriously stepped up its campaign to clear the entire rural population out of Papun District and make the entire area a free-fire zone. Since December 1995, orders have been issued to every rural village underSLORC control . . .
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Karen Human Rights Group Commentary #95-C4
      Date of publication: 04 August 1995
      Description/subject: "...SLORC continues to show no remorse whatsoever for its continually expanding program of civilian forced labour throughout Burma. Roads, railways, dams, army camps, tourist sites, an international airport, pagodas, schools - virtually everything which is built in rural Burma is now built and maintained with the forced labour of villagers, as well as their money and building materials. Forced labour as porters fuels the SLORC's military campaigns, while forced labour farming land confiscated by the military, digging fishponds, logging and sawing timber for local Battalions fills the pockets of SLORC military officers and SLORC money-laundering front companies such as Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Ltd. Even farming one's own land is more and more becoming a form of forced labour, as SLORC continues to increase rice quotas which farmers must hand over for pitiful prices. Even after a year like 1994, when record floods destroyed crops in much of the country, the quotas must be paid - if not, the farmer is arrested and the Army takes his land, only to resell it or set up yet another forced labour farm. 1995 has seen very small harvests, increased confiscation and looting of rice and money from the farmers, 40 million people struggling to avoid starvation, and SLORC agreeing to sell a million tonnes of rice to Russia for profit - rice which it has confiscated from village farmers for 50 Kyat a basket, or for nothing..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG #95-C4)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 22 November 2009


      Title: Forced Relocation in Kyauk Kyi Township
      Date of publication: 10 June 1993
      Description/subject: "Nyaunglebin District. Feb 93. Karen men, women: Forced relocation to undrained land; Only Karen villages made to move; SLORC's control of rice to control the population; forced labour (incl. portering). Description of the difficult economic conditions. Extortion; ransoming; looting. Translation of an official SLORC Relocation Order; economic oppression..." _ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced_
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Statements by Internally Displaced People: Karen Civilians Displaced by SLORC Activities in Thaton District
      Date of publication: 28 April 1993
      Description/subject: "Pa'An Township, Thaton District. Late 92-early 93. Karen M,F,C: Difficulty supporting children under SLORC oppression; Looting; pillaging (incl. killing of 30 cows);EO; rape; torture; ransoming; forced relocation; beating of children; forced labour, incl. portering; extortion; disappearances..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Forced Relocation in Thaton District (Preliminary Report)
      Date of publication: 09 January 1993
      Description/subject: "Bilin and Pa'an Townships of Thaton Dist. Dec 92-Jan 93. Karen men, women and children: SLORC's official announcement of its "Key Village" or strategic hamleting strategy for its Border Areas Development Plan. Analysis by KHRG of the implications of the strategy, followed by interview and list of villages forced to relocate since 5 Dec 92. Forced relocation; Threat of shooting for non-compliance; detention; forced labour incl. forced portering; inhuman treatment(beating); extortion; looting; economic oppression; killing..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The SLORC'S New Forced Relocation Campaign: Translations of Some SLORC Orders Received So Far
      Date of publication: 08 January 1993
      Description/subject: "Papun, Pa'an, Thaton Townships. Nov-Dec 92. Five orders requiring the relocation of villages comprising many thousands of people (5,000-7000 in Papun Township alone) establishing free-fire zones at the original sites, along with other threats of severe action in the case of non-compliance. One order informs the village head that if the villagers run away on meeting a military column they will be shot..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Orders Reports (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The Current Situation in Mudraw Papun District
      Date of publication: 13 November 1992
      Description/subject: The current SLORC Offensive and Displaced People "From July 92. Karen men, women, children: Air-raids on civilian villages (20 civilians killed); precarious economic life of people hiding in jungle; children die of malnutrition; Saw Hta offensive; list of villages and numbers of the people displaced; economic oppression..." Area: Tee Moo Khee Area, Kaw Lu Der Area, Saw Hta
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Forced Relocation of Villages in Htan Ta Bin Township, Toungoo District by SLORC
      Date of publication: 16 August 1992
      Description/subject: KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Forced relocation of Karenni (Kayah)

      Individual Documents

      Title: Conflict and Displacement in Karenni: the Need for Considered Responses
      Date of publication: May 2000
      Description/subject: Click on the on the html link above to go to a neater, paginated table of contents or on the pdf links below to go straight to the document .... PDF File 1: Cover and Contents. PDF File 2: Boundaries; Climate; Physical Features; Population; Ethnic Groups in Karenni; Gender Roles in Karenni; Agriculture, Land Distribution and Patterns of Recourse; Resources; Water; Communication, Trade and Transport Conflict in Karenni; A History of Conflict; The Pre-Colonial Period; The Colonial Period; Independence in Burma and the Outbreak of Civil War in the Karenni States; State and Non-State Actors including Armed Groups and Political Parties; The Role of the Tatmadaw; The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); The Karenni National Peoples Liberation Front (KNPLF); The Shan State Nationalities Liberation Organisation (SSNLO); The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP; The NDF and CPB Alliances and their Impact in Karenni; War in the Villages; The Formation of Splinter Groups in the 1990s; The Economics of War; The Relationship between Financing the War and Exploitation of Natural Resources; The Course of the War; Cease-fires.... PDF file 3: Conflict-Induced Displacements in Karenni -- Defining Population Movements; Conflict Induced Displacement; Displacement in 1996; Displacements by Township; Relocation Policy; Services in Relocation Sites; Smaller Relocation Sites and so-called Gathering Villages; Displacement into Shan State; Displacement as a Passing Phenomenon; Displacement, Resettlement and Transition; Women outside Relocation Sites. Development Induced Displacement -- Displacements in Loikaw City; Confiscation of Land by the Tatmadaw; Displacement as a Result of Resource Scarcity; Food Scarcity; Water Shortages; Voluntary Migrations. Health and education needs and responses: Health Policy; Health Services; Health Status of the Population; Communicable Diseases; Nutrition; Reproductive and Womens Health; Landmine Casualties; Iodine Deficiency and Goitre; Vitamin A Deficiency; Water and Sanitation; Responses to Health Needs; Education Policy; Educational Services and Coverage; Traditional Attitudes to Education; Educational Services in Karenni; Responses to Educational Needs; Responses from the Thai-Burma border; Responses by International Humanitarian Agencies from Inside Burma. Appendices: A Comparison of Populations in Relocation Sites in Karenni; Refugee Arrivals at the Thai Border; Displacements by Township; Examples of Population Movements.
      Author/creator: Vicky Bamforth, Steven Lanjouw, Graham Mortimer
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Burma Ethnic Research Group (BERG)
      Format/size: 3 pdf files: (1) Cover and Contents (472K); (2) Text-pp1-47 (782K); 3 Text pp48-128 (1300K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-1.pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-2.pdf
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Considered_responses-3.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Update on Karenni Forced Relocations
      Date of publication: 05 March 1997
      Description/subject: Between April and July 1996, SLORC ordered at least 182 villages in Karenni (Kayah) State, with an estimated total population of 25-30,000 people, to move to various relocation sites. The primary intention of SLORC was to cut off all possibility of civilian support for the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); SLORC broke a ceasefire agreement to attack the KNPP in June 1995. The villages affected cover at least half the entire geographic area of Karenni. Some villages were marched at gunpoint to relocation sites without warning, but most were issued written orders to move within just 7 days or be 'considered as enemies', i.e. shot on sight without question. [For details see "Forced Relocation in Karenni", KHRG #96-24, 15/7/96.] ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #97-01)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Karenni (Kayah) State: Update on Relocations (Information Update) (#97-U2)
      Date of publication: 12 February 1997
      Description/subject: Between April and July 1996, SLORC ordered at least 183 villages in Karenni State, with an estimated total population of 25-30,000 people, to move to various relocation sites. The primary intention of SLORC was to cut off all possibility of civilian support for the Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); SLORC had broken a ceasefire agreement to attack the KNPP in June 1995. The villages affected cover at least half the entire geographic area of Karenni.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic (KHRG #97-01)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Forced Relocation in Karenni
      Date of publication: 15 July 1996
      Description/subject: "Throughout June and July 1996, the State Law & Order Restoration Council (SLORC) military junta ruling Burma has conducted a mass forced relocation campaign covering more than half of the geographic area of Karenni and affecting at least 183 villages so far with an estimated total population of 25-30,000. The first orders to move came as early as April in Baw La Keh (sometimes spelled Bawlake) area on the Pon River. However, the biggest wave of relocations began on 1 June, when an order was issued to all 98 villages between the Pon and Salween Rivers to move to relocation sites beside SLORC Army camps at Shadaw and Ywathit... " ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-24)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Mass Forced Relocations in Shan and Karenni (Kayah) States
      Date of publication: 16 June 1996
      Description/subject: "SLORC is currently using mass forced relocation campaigns as a method to try to eliminate all civilian support for opposition forces. In December 1995 and January 1996, about 100 Karen villages comprising all the hill villages in eastern Papun District were ordered to move to military sites in order to cut off any civilian support for Karen forces by completely removing the rural civilian population of the whole area. Includes list of relocated villages..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG _#96-U3)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: SLORC Activities in Ler Ba Ko Village
      Date of publication: 31 December 1992
      Description/subject: "Testimony by a refugee from central Karenni (Kayah) State and List of Villages Relocated in March 1992." "(Northwest Karenni State) List of 76 villages relocated in March 1992. Deemawso and Pruso Townships March, July 92. Karenni men, women: Rape; forced labour incl. portering and work on the Loikaw-Aung Ban railway -- 91); extortion; forced relocation; religious intolerance (the villages were Christian)..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Supplementary Report on Karenni State
      Date of publication: 15 November 1992
      Description/subject: "March 92 Karenni men, women, children: Forced relocation; killing; inhuman treatment (beating, deprivation of food and medicine -- especially hard on children); conditions in the relocation camp; forced labour (Aung Ban-Loikaw railway) incl. women and children; torture; extortion; economic difficulties caused by the SLORC occupation -- people scattered in the forest; economic oppression..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced, Kayah
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Karenni State: Forced Relocation, Concentration Camps, and Slavery
      Date of publication: 10 August 1992
      Description/subject: "March-July 92. Karenni men, women, children: Looting; rape; forced portering; killings; disappearances; forced relocation of more than 20,000 people in 76 villages (see Orders, 12 June 92). Description of conditions in a relocation camp (particularly bad for children); internal displacement; religious intolerance (destroying churches and pressure to convert to Buddhism); pillaging; inhuman treatment(deprivation of food and medicine); forced labour on Aung Ban-Loikaw railway; inhuman treatment during forced labour and arbitrary detention; torture.Including slavery under the United Nations Development Program..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Statements by Karenni Refugees
      Date of publication: 12 June 1992
      Description/subject: "Statement by Karenni refugees fleeing a SLORC ultimatum to all villagers in a large part of the State where the Karenni opposition is strong to leave their villages or die. Their statements describe some of the SLORC army’s activities in civilian villages of western Karenni..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) Regional & Thematic Reports
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: The SLORC's "Leave Or Die" Ultimatum to Karenni Villagers
      Date of publication: 12 June 1992
      Description/subject: "Direct translations of stamped and signed orders posted by the SLORC in villages throughout western Karenni State in late March of this year. The large areas affected are in the "brown" or "black" areas (those not firmly under SLORC control, where the KNPP opposition is active)..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Forced relocation of Palaung, Shan and Wa

      Individual Documents

      Title: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
      Date of publication: 13 August 2009
      Description/subject: 10,000 Shans uprooted, 500 houses burned in Burmese regime’s latest scorched earth campaign (press release)... Map of villages forcibly relocated... Summary of villages forcibly relocated... Images of the Burmese regime's latest scorched earth campaign
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation (SHRF), Shan Women's Action Network (SWAN), Shan Relief and Development Committee, Shan Sapawa Environmental Organisation, Shan Youth Power, Shan Health Committee
      Format/size: html, pdf
      Date of entry/update: 29 November 2010


      Title: Roots and Resilience - Tasang dam threatens war-torn Shan communities
      Date of publication: July 2009
      Description/subject: 'The report “Roots and Resilience” by the Shan Sapawa Environment Organization focuses on the ecologically unique area of Keng Kham, a community of 15,000 that was forcibly relocated over ten years ago; the majority have fled to Thailand. Today the estimated 3,000 that remain are managing to maintain their livelihoods and culture despite the constant threats of the Burma Army and the impending Tasang dam. Indigenous Shan cultural practices, river-fed farms, sacred cave temples and pristine waterfalls are depicted in photos from this isolated war-zone, together with updated information about the dam project, which has been shrouded in secrecy. The 7,110 MW Tasang Dam is the biggest of five dams planned on the Salween River; the majority of the power from the dam will be sold to Thailand. Project investors include the Thai MDX Company and China’s Gezhouba Group Company. Thailand’s support for the controversial dam was recently reiterated when the project was included in its national Power Development Plan. Military tension has escalated in recent months in Shan State as the Burmese regime has been putting pressure on the United Wa State Army to transform into a “Border Guard Force.” Abuses linked to anti-insurgency campaigns are also on the rise.'
      Language: English, Thai
      Source/publisher: Shan Sapawa Environmental Organization
      Format/size: pdf (4.68MB - English; 6.58MB - Thai)
      Alternate URLs: http://salweenwatch.org/images/PDF/rootsandresiliencethai.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 05 October 2009


      Title: Under The Boot - A Village's Story of Burmese Army Occupation to Build a Dam on the Shweli River
      Date of publication: 03 December 2007
      Description/subject: "At night the Shweli has always sung sweet songs for us. But now the nights are silent and the singing has stopped. We are lonely and wondering what has happened to our Shweli?" ... "Exclusive photos and testimonies from a remote village near the China-Burma border uncover how Chinese dam builders are using Burma Army troops to secure Chinese investments. Under the Boot, a new report by Palaung researchers, details the implementation of the Shweli Dam project, China's first Build-Operate-Transfer hydropower deal with Burma's junta. Since 2000, the Palaung village of Man Tat, the site of the 600 megawatt dam project, has been overrun by hundreds of Burmese troops and Chinese construction workers. Villagers have been suffering land confiscation, forced labour, and restriction on movement ever since, and a five kilometer diversion tunnel has been blasted through the hill on which the village is situated. Photos in the report show soldiers carrying out parade drills, weapons assembly, and target practice in the village. "This Chinese project has been like a sudden military invasion. The villagers had no idea the dam would be built until the soldiers arrived," said Mai Aung Ko from the Palaung Youth Network Group (Ta'ang), which produced the report. Burma's Ministry of Electric Power formed a joint venture with Yunnan Joint Power Development Company, a consortium of Chinese companies, to build and operate the project. Electricity generated will be sent to China and several military-run mining operations in Burma. As the project nears completion, plans are underway for two more dams on the Shweli River, a tributary of the Irrawaddy..."
      Language: English, Burmese, Chinese
      Source/publisher: Palaung Youth Network Group
      Format/size: pdf (4.76MB - English; 1.35MB - Chinese; 4.41MB - Burmese)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.salweenwatch.org/images/stories/downloads/brn/underthebootchinesewithcover_2.pdf (Chinese)
      http://www.salweenwatch.org/images/stories/downloads/brn/underthebootburmese.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 04 December 2007


      Title: RUNNING THE GAUNTLET: THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT IN SOUTHERN SHAN STATE
      Date of publication: January 2004
      Description/subject: "The plight of Burma's internally displaced persons has largely been overlooked by the international community and the Burmese government itself. Villagers in the country's war zones nevertheless have suffered for decades the adverse effects of conflict. For some, displacement has become a way of life and a multi-generational phenomenon. Displacement wherever it occurs profoundly changes the persons forced to move. People lose belongings, jobs, and loved ones. The case of the internally displaced in southern Shan State is no different. In this report, the Humanitarian Affairs Research Project documents the impact displacement has had on civilians in southern Shan State and the living conditions in the various places to which they fled. The report builds successfully on the work of other local research groups and adds updated information and perspective to the study of Burma's internally displaced. It will be a valuable addition to policy makers, academics, and anyone concerned about the fate of the people of Shan State. One lesson clearly emerging from the report is that the IDPs in southern Shan State clearly are in need of protection and assistance. More needs to be done and it needs to be done now. The Burmese government as well as other domestic and international actors should consider carefully the ways in which this important goal can be accomplished. This report offers some recommendations that can help to set the actors on the right path..."....This document contains a Shan version of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. Since this is an image file of almost 2MB, OBL has produced the whole document, with GP; the Guiding Principles as a separate document; and the English text without GP.
      Author/creator: GARY RISSER, OUM KHER, SEIN HTUN
      Language: English and Shan
      Source/publisher: Humanitarian Affairs Research Project, Asian Research Center for Migration, Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
      Format/size: pdf (2.9K), 1MB (English text) 1.9MB (Guiding Principles in Shan)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Gauntlet-minusGP-ocr.pdf (minus Guiding Principles)
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/Gauntlet-GP_in_Shan.pdf (Guiding Principles in Shan)
      Date of entry/update: 03 September 2005


      Title: Zwangsumsiedlung für Staudammbau in Burma
      Date of publication: December 2001
      Description/subject: Für den Energieexport nach Thailand will Burmas Militärregierung einen Großstaudamm bauen, für den Tausende Angehörige der Shan umgesiedelt werden sollen. Der Tasang Staudamm soll am Fluss Salween im zentralen Shan Bundesstaat entstehen. Teile des Gebietes sind bereits entvölkert. Überblick der Geselschaft für bedrohte Völker über die Pläne zum Bau des Tasang-Staudamms und die Konsequenzen für die einheimische Bevölkerung und die Umwelt. key words: Tasang-dam, forced relocation, consequences for local population, environment
      Language: Deutsch, German
      Source/publisher: Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker
      Format/size: html (6,5K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.gfbv.de/fset_druck.php?doctype=inhaltsDok&docid=323
      Date of entry/update: 08 January 2004


      Title: Exiled at Home: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State
      Date of publication: 05 April 2000
      Description/subject: Continued Forced Relocations and Displacement in Shan State. "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced well over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing after 4 brutal years, leaving much of the Shan population homeless. In this report, some of the villagers who both lived in relocation sites and hid in the jungle to avoid relocation describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group reports "Killing the Shan" (KHRG #98-03, 23/5/98) and "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), which are available online at this web site or by request from KHRG, and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #2000-03)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Killing the Shan: The Continuing Campaign of Forced Relocation in Shan State (Information Update)
      Date of publication: 23 May 1998
      Description/subject: "This report aims to provide a picture of the current situation in central Shan State, where the military junta ruling Burma has forcibly uprooted and destroyed over 1,400 villages and displaced over 300,000 people since 1996. This campaign against civilians is still continuing, and the number of villages destroyed is increasing each month. In this report, some of the villagers who have fled in 1997 and 1998 describe their experiences. Further background and detail on the campaign to uproot the Shan can be found in the previous Karen Human Rights Group report "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State" (KHRG #96-23, 25/6/96), and in the April 1998 report "Dispossessed: Forced Relocation and Extrajudicial Killings in Shan State" by the Shan Human Rights Foundation ..." ..... ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocaton, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #98-03)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar: Atrocities in the Shan State
      Date of publication: 15 April 1998
      Description/subject: The last two years have seen a profound deterioration in the human rights situation throughout the central Shan State in Myanmar. Hundreds of Shan civilians caught in the midst of counter-insurgency activities have been killed or tortured by the Burmese army. These abuses, occurring in a country which is closed to independent monitors, are largely unknown to the outside world. Denial of access for human rights monitors and journalists means that the full scale of the tragedy can not be accurately calculated. Therefore the information presented below represents only a part of the story.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Amnesty International (ASA 16/05/98)
      Format/size: html
      Alternate URLs: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/f6c634ab-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa1... (French)
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA16/005/1998/en/e22f5c7f-daea-11dd-903e-e1f5d1f8bceb/asa1...
      http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA16/005/1998
      Date of entry/update: 26 July 2010


      Title: Dispossessed
      Date of publication: April 1998
      Description/subject: A report on forced relocation and extrajudicial killings in Shan State, Burma. Since the publication of "Uprooting the Shan," the report by the SHRF detailing the forced relocation program carried out by the SLORC in Shan State during 1996, the SLORC military regime (recently renamed the State Peace and Development Council or SPDC) has been continuing to uproot more villages throughout 1997 and early 1998. Many of the relocation sites that were the results of 1996 relocations have been forced to move again. Human rights abuses such as mass killings, rape, torture and looting have been committed repeatedly by the SPDC troops against the displaced population. This has prompted the need to publish this updated report, containing more complete lists and maps of the relocated villages, and detailing the many extrajudicial killings committed by the military regime in the areas of relocation. We hope that this report will give a clearer picture to the international community of the devastating effects of the forced relocation program on the population of Central Shan State. KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Shan Human Rights Foundation
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 25 November 2010


      Title: Forced Relocation in Central Shan State
      Date of publication: 25 June 1996
      Description/subject: "Forced relocations (all stories), killings (#2), shootings (#2,11,13), beatings (#8,9,10,14), rape (#7,8,17), burning houses (#1,2,4-7,14,17), burning houses with people inside (#1,2,14,17), looting/theft (#1,4,8,12,17), confiscation of relocated people's rice (#3,12), going back to farm (#1,3,4, 11,12), overcrowding at relocation sites (#1,5,7,12,17), effect on monks (#3,11,13,17), forced conscription for SLORC militia (#3), MTA (#8,11,13,15,17), PNA (#8), SSA (#13), opium (#15), life in Thailand (#15,17), northern Shan State (#13,15). Forced labour: At army camps (#1,3,13,15), as porters (#8,14,15), as road and village sentries (#12,13,17), on Army farms (#2,15), Nam Sang - Kun Hing road (#15,17), Chiang Tong - Kun Hing road (#15), Lai Kha - Pang Long road (#17), Lai Kha - Mong Hsu road (#13,17), Mong Kung - Tsipaw road (#10), Lai Kha - Mong Kungrailway (#7), Lashio - Mu Seh - Kyu Kote road (#15)..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group Regional & Thematic Reports (KHRG #96-23)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Forced Relocation in Central Shan State (Appendix)
      Date of publication: 25 June 1996
      Description/subject: "Appendix: List of Shan State villages known to be relocated. This list accompanies KHRG report "Forced Relocation in Central Shan State", #96-23, 25/6/96..." ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: forced resettlement, forced relocation, forced movement, forced displacement, forced migration, forced to move, displaced
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003