VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Environment > Biodiversity > Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Biodiversity - Burma/Myanmar-related

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Convention on Biological Diversity - Myanmar, Country Profile
Description/subject: Links to the Convention, Myanmar reports etc.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Secretariat of the Convention on Biologicql Diversity
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


Title: Results of a Google search for Biodiversity Myanmar
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


Individual Documents

Title: Determinants of Local People's Perceptions and Attitudes Toward a Protected Area and Its Management: A Case Study From Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... Without local support, the long-term existence of PAs is not assured (Wells and McShane 2004). Local people are unlikely to support PAs if they have negative perceptions and attitudes toward them (Alkan et al. 2009). An attitude is a cognitive evaluation of a particular entity with favor or disfavor, and it reflects the beliefs that people hold about the attitude object or entity (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Beliefs are the associations that people establish between the attitude object and various attributes (Allendorf 2007). Attitudes toward PAs, conservation, or wildlife may be influenced by PA staff or management interventions, local economic needs and history, or other indirectly related socioeconomic factors such as government policy. The cognitions or thoughts that are associated with attitudes are typically termed beliefs by attitude theorists (Eagly and Chaiken 1998). Perception refers to people’s beliefs that derive from their experiences and interaction with a program or activity. Xu et al. (2006) argue that local people’s perceptions are related to costs and benefits produced by PAs, their dependence on PA resources, and their knowledge about PAs. The influences of socioeconomic characteristics on local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward an adjacent PA are often site-specific and inconsistent (Allendorf et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Rao et al. 2003; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006). Some studies report that education is a strong predictor of attitude (Allendorf et al. 2006; Mehta and Heinen 2001; Shibia 2010; Shrestha and Alavalapati 2006; Xu et al. 2006), while others have found no correlation between educational status and people’s perceptions and attitudes (Baral and Heinen 2007; Mehta and Heinen 2001). Mehta and Heinen (2001), Allendorf et al. (2006), and Xu et al. (2006) reported that women were less likely to hold positive attitudes, whereas Baral and Heinen (2007) and Shibia (2010) found no correlation between gender and attitude. Allendorf et al. (2006) and Shrestha and Alavalapati (2006) found that individuals from larger families have negative attitudes to PAs, whereas Xu et al. (2006) reported that individuals from larger families hold positive attitudes toward PAs. Jim and Xu (2002) and Alkan et al. (2009) argue that local people’s perceptions and attitudes are shaped by their knowledge about the neighboring PA. This knowledge might include objectives, activities, size, regulations, or location of the boundary of PAs (Jim and Xu 2002; Rao et al. 2003; Xu et al. 2006). The knowledge is gained empirically through one’s perceptions, and it is the recognition of something sensed or felt (Ziadat 2010). It is important to investigate whether more knowledge of PAs would be associated with positive perceptions and attitudes toward them. We examined the effects of both knowledge and socioeconomic factors on the perceptions and attitudes of local people toward Popa Mountain Park, in central Myanmar, and its management through a questionnaire survey. Myanmar is one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world, and its PAs play a crucial role in conserving the country’s rich biodiversity (Myers et al. 2000). During the last 10 years the number of protected areas in Myanmar has increased from 20 to 42, covering 7.3% of total land area of the country (Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division 2008). The Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD) of the Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, is mainly responsible for PA management in Myanmar. Generally, PAs in Myanmar can be categorized into national park, marine park, wildlife sanctuary, nature reserve, and zoo park. Although Myanmar’s PAs do not fully conform to PA categories of the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN), they are most similar to IUCN category IV (Aung 2007). Myanmar’s PA management rules and regulations prohibit local people from using resources within PAs. Conflicts arise as local people often have no other source of resource than the PA. Rao, Rabinowitz, and Khaing (2002) reported that nontimber forest products were extracted from 85% and fuelwood was collected from more than 50% of PAs in Myanmar. The mean annual population growth rate is 2.1% (Central Statistics Organisation 2006) and is highest in rural areas where most Myanmar PAs are located. Population increase is linked to an increase in the number of people seeking land for grazing, collecting fuelwood, and extracting timber and other forest products. The rapid growth of PAs and the huge pressures placed on them by the increasing human population are a great challenge for sustainable PA management. Popa Mountain Park (PMP) possesses a diverse forest ecosystem in central Myanmar where most forests have already disappeared. PMP was selected for the present study for two reasons: (1) a historic relationship between PMP and local communities and (2) high people’s pressure on the park resulting from the high population density together with resource scarcity in the surrounding area. The Forest Department has had great success in the reforestation of Popa Mountain, which is a high priority for forest conservation. It is important to understand local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward PMP for its sustainability. The objectives of the present study were (1) to examine the responses of local people toward the park and its management and (2) to study how local people’s perceptions and attitudes toward the PA and its management relate to their socioeconomic status and knowledge about the park..."
Author/creator: Naing Zaw Htun , Nobuya Mizoue, Shigejiro Yoshida
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)
Format/size: pdf (352K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016


Title: Gender and Attitudes toward Protected Areas in Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 October 2015
Description/subject: "... From grassroots conservation projects to international committees on the environment, women are often underrepresented in the conservation process (Deda and Rubian 2004; Sodhi et al. 2010). Women’s participation is often limited to awareness-raising activities and labor contribution projects (Arya 2007). In their review of implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Deda and Rubian (2004) conclude that greater efforts must be made to address the gender disparity in biodiversity conservation policy and actions. Positive relationships between local residents and protected areas are critical to the long-term successful conservation of protected areas. Ensuring that women’s perspectives are included in our understanding of those relationships is not only an important component of a fair and inclusive conservation process, but also has positive practical implications for conservation of protected areas. On one hand, this is because protected areas can disproportionately impact women. For example, women have been shown to bear a greater share of the psychological and physical costs of wildlife conflicts in India (Ogra 2008). If these differences are not recognized, women may receive fewer direct benefits from conservation and be left bearing more costs (Hunter et al. 1990). On the other hand, women can make significant contributions to conservation. Westermann et al. (2005) found in natural resource management groups in 20 countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, that collaboration, solidarity, and conflict resolution were greater in groups where women were present. In Nepal and India, Agarwal (2009) found that greater women’s participation in forestry groups was correlated with better forest condition, in terms of both conservation and regeneration, and increased forest patrolling and rule compliance. Unfortunately, our understanding of gender in the context of people’s attitudes toward protected areas (PAs) is limited. Many studies limit their sample to household heads, who are most often men (e.g., Tessema et al. 2010; Vodouheˆ et al. 2010), or do not break down results by gender (e.g., Silori 2007; Rinzin et al. 2009). Studies that include gender as one of many socioeconomic characteristics that may influence people’s relationships with PAs, along with others such as education and wealth, have had mixed results. Some studies find that men have more positive attitudes toward specific protected areas (Mehta and Heinen 2001; Xu et al. 2006; King and Peralvo 2010), some find women more positive (Arjunan et al. 2006), and some find no difference (Bauer 2003; Carrus et al. 2005; Wang et al. 2006; Baral and Heinen 2007; Ferreira and Freire 2009). As described earlier, studies examine the role of gender in conservation without attention to attitudes toward protected areas or they explore the determinants of attitudes toward protected areas without a focus on gender. To our knowledge, however, there are no studies that focus on the effect of gender on attitudes toward protected areas. Thus, this article contributes to the literature by directly examining gender differences in local residents’ perceptions of protected areas in Myanmar. We explore whether men and women differ in their attitudes toward the protected areas and perceptions of protected area benefits and problems. Then we explore whether gendered differences in perceptions and socioeconomic characteristics account for any difference in women’s and men’s attitude toward the protected areas..."
Author/creator: Teri D. Allendorf, Keera Allendorf
Language: English
Source/publisher: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Illinois
Format/size: pdf (599K)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016


Title: Land Suitability for Oil Palm in Southern Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 June 2014
Description/subject: "... The first commercial small-scale oil palm plantations were introduced to Myanmar in 1926 covering 120 ha. In the 1980’s the European Economic Community and Swiss government implemented a palm oil project to stimulate growth in the sector. As of 2014 401,813 ha have been allocated and 134,539 ha planted. The government target is to plant 282,470 ha by 2030. The land is allocated to 44 companies, comprising 43 local companies and one Foreign Direct Investment. Three foreign companies have joint-ventures with local companies. Although much land is now planted, there appears to be significant scope to improve yields with better technical capacity and planting material. Down-stream, there are five mills owned by three companies with crude palm oil (CPO) processing capacity varying from 1.5 to 60 tonnes of fresh fruit bunch per hour (Zaw Win, 2014). Expansion of mills currently faces financing constraints. The main driver for expansion is to meet domestic demand for edible oil; there are 60 million people in Myanmar consuming 400-500,000 metric tonnes of edible oil (palm oil, sesame and ground nut). Myanmar is importing palm oil; in 2012 this was 330,000 metric tonnes with a value of $376 million from Indonesia and Malaysia. Self sufficiency in edible palm oil is a national target, but local production is currently dwarfed by these imports. Oil palm plantations in Myanmar are principally found within a narrow belt of coastal lowlands in Myeik and Kawthaung Districts (Figure 1). Donald et al. 2014 report that potential productivity in this area is low by international standards (Figure 2) due to climatic conditions. As a contribution to assessing the long term commercial viability of Myanmar’s oil palm industry, as well as its social and environmental impacts, we surveyed the agroecological conditions where it presently occurs and where it could be further developed. The Agritech Portal of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University states that, “Oil palm requires evenly distributed annual rainfall [of at least] 2000 mm without a defined dry season. In areas with a dry spell, deep soil with high water holding capacity and a shallow water table augmented with copious irrigation will satisfy the water requirement of the oil palm. “Temperature can be a limiting factor for oil palm production. Best oil palm yields are obtained in places where a maximum average temperature of 29o-33oC and minimum average temperature of 22o-24oC are available. Higher diurnal temperature variation causes floral abortion in regions with a dry season.” Within Myanmar, annual rainfall, the presence of a distinct dry season (Figure 3) and elevation (an indicator of local variation in diurnal temperature range) already limit the area suitable for plantations. Sandy loam soils restrict the potential for irrigation and make the requirements for fertilizer high. Across the entire country, the duration and reliability of the wet season has decreased as climate variability has increased, and this trend is likely to continue..."
Author/creator: Stuart M. Sheppard, Earl C. Saxon
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forest Inform/Fauna & Flora International (FFI)
Format/size: pdf (4.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016


Title: Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced
Date of publication: May 2014
Description/subject: "... Mangrove forests are one of the most valuable, thriving, and diverse ecosystems on the planet, but they are becoming increasingly exploited and mismanaged (Lee 1999; Giri et al. 2008). In Myanmar, many of these mangrove stands flourished for centuries, virtually untouched until extensive deforestation began in the late 1970’s. At the time there was no legislation to promote sustainable forest management, and as a result the forests were depleted at alarming rates. During the 1990’s, multiple environmental acts were passed to help regulate tree harvesting processes, including the 1992 Forest Law and the 1995 Forest Policy, but they were only mildly successful and difficult to enforce (Oo 2002). The 2000’s brought a new chapter as Myanmar’s expanding economy and lifted political embargos created an explosion of infrastructure and agriculture, once again encroaching on the mangrove’s habitat. Even with the increasing development and encroachment on mangroves, Myanmar’s long state of isolation has made it one of the most species rich countries in all of South-east Asia, and is considered to be one of the last strongholds for large mammals such as tigers and elephants (Leimgruber etal. 2005). In a country with such rich biodiversity and a large dependence on natural resources for income, fuel, and food, preserving Myanmar’s mangroves and raising awareness about sustainability has become a national priority. This study mapped the spatial extent of three main mangrove regions along the coast of Myanmar during 2000 and 2013, including the Ayeyarwardy Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi regions (Oo 2002). The three regions are spread along the coast and vary in population density, which provides a valuable comparison among the regions as to how human and economic pressures can affect mangroves. The Ayeyarwady Delta is centrally located and has the highest population density, followed by Rakhine to the north, and the most remote region being the Tanintharyi to the south. A land change model was then used to produce change maps between 2000 and 2013 and project mangrove coverage to the year 2030 to help resource managers and policy makers craft future decisions. Once the mangroves were classified and projected, SRTM data were used to derive tree canopy heights and biomass estimations using allometric equations. Mangroves in Myanmar house thriving biodiversity and provide citizens with essential natural products such as food, firewood, and construction materials (Oo 2002). This ecological forecasting project helped the Myanmar government visualize and quantify their current largest mangrove areas, as well as shed light on the success of previous preservation efforts that may influence future conservation strategies. This project ultimately allowed important decision makers to assess the negative impacts that have occurred due to the deforestation and degradation of mangrove ecosystems. To successfully implement this study and its findings, Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute were irreplaceable as they officially handed off the project and its decision making tools to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry. The project will serve as a valuable reference for efficiently allocating resources and man power, while adapting new management strategies to the changing mangrove landscape..."
Author/creator: Samuel J. Weber, Louis Keddell, Mohammed Kemal
Language: English
Source/publisher: NASA
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016


Title: Myanmar: Fifth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity
Date of publication: March 2014
Description/subject: "...This report is composed of three main parts, providing the latest information on the country’s implementation on biodiversity conservation since the Fourth National Report in 2009. Part I provides the latest information on the Status, Trends and Threats to the different types of Biodiversity in Myanmar. Part II presents the current degreeof implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), and the achievements of mainstreaming biodiversity into relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral strategies, plans and programmes. Finally, Part III examines the linkages and contribution of Myanmar’s NBSAP implementation towards the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the 2015 Targets of the Millennium Development Goals..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry, Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB-reduced version; 3.8MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nr-05-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


Title: Myanmar's Rosewood Crisis: Why Key Species and Forest Must be Protected Through CITES
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "... Extremely rapid growth in Chinese imports of ‘redwood’, ‘rosewoods’ or ‘Hongmu’ timbers from Myanmar in the past two years is directly driving increased illegal and unsustainable logging, posing a real threat to governance, the rule of law and the viability Myanmar’s dwindling forests. EIA research shows that, based on current trends, the two most targeted Hongmu species in Myanmar - tamalan and padauk - could be logged to commercial extinction in as little as three years. With financial rewards for illegal loggers and timber smugglers dwarfing traditional incomes, and evidence of corruption facilitating illegal business, Myanmar’s domestic controls will be unable to effectively stem illegal trade. Myanmar urgently needs to engender legal reciprocity from strategic timber trade partners, particularly China, to ensure Myanmar’s forestry and trade laws are respected along its land border. In the absence of laws prohibiting illegal timber in China, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) presents the most immediate and effective mechanism to secure China’s respect for Myanmar’s forestry and trade laws. The Myanmar Government should seek CITES Appendix III protection for its at-risk Hongmu species – Dalbergia oliveri / bariensis (tamalan) and Pterocarpus macrocarpus (padauk) - at the soonest opportunity to ensure trade is in line with sustainable exploitation of existing standing stocks. The CITES community should assist Myanmar in both instituting and enforcing CITES listings for these key species, and in seeking regional Appendix II listings by the 17th CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) in 2016. Enhancing the capacity of Myanmar’s existing CITES Management and Scientific Authorities will be an important element of this work...."
Language: English
Source/publisher: EIA
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 17 April 2016


Title: Preparing for Myamar's Environment-Friendly Reform
Date of publication: 09 November 2012
Description/subject: "... Myanmar is a predominantly agricultural country in Mekong River Basin, also known as Burma, the second largest country in mainland South-East Asia, known as the ‘‘Asia’s Barn’’ in the past years, once the world’s largest exporter of rice. Myanmar is a resource-rich country that has abundant arable land, timber, mineral resources, natural gas and oil, which made it one of the best developing countries in South-East Asia until the early 1960s. Myanmar’s total area is 676 578 km2. Forest area is 317 730 km2, 48.32% of land area; other wooded land accounts for 30.59% of land area; other land accounts for 21.09% of land area, and inland water area is 19 030 km2 (FAO, 2010). Extensive changes in altitude and latitude produced a seemingly unparalleled abundance of habitats and species. Myanmar occupied completely or partially nine of the Global 200 Eco-regions (Olson and Dinerstein, 2002). Indo-Burma includes most of Myanmar is described as one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots (Myers et al., 2000). There is no doubt that Myanmar has an unmatched level of biological diversity. Myanmar has 7000 plant species, has 1027 known bird species, 4 of which are endemic, and 19 others are restricted range birds. Myanmar is also home to 300 known species of mammals, 425 reptile and amphibian species, and 350 freshwater fish, especially the endangered species such as the one-horned rhinoceros, the Irrawaddy Dolphin and the Gurney’s Pitta (BEWG, 2011)..."
Author/creator: Changjian Wang, Fei Wang, Qiang Wang, Degang Yang, Lianrong Li, Xinlin Zhang
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chinese Academy of Sciences
Format/size: pdf (234K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Burmese ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: ဤနုိးေဆာ္မႈမ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး က႑မ်ားတြင္ပါ၀င္မည့္ အဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၊ တသီးပုဂၢလမ်ားအတြက္ အခ်က္အလက္ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားပင္ ျဖစ္သည္။ ဤအခ်က္အလက္ ရင္းျမစ္မ်ားသည္ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးအယူအဆ၊ ျမန္မာ အစိုးရ၏ တာ၀န္၀တၱရားမ်ားႏွင့္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ရွိသည့္အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကိုေဖာ္ျပသည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ ႏိုင္ငံ၏သဘာ၀သယံဇာတအရင္းအျမစ္ႏွင့္ ပတ္၀န္းက်င္ကို ထိခုိက္ပ်က္စီးေစမႈ မရွိဘဲ လူသားတုိ႔၏လုိအပ္ခ်က္၊ အထူးသျဖင့္ အမွန္တကယ္အကာအကြယ့္မဲ့ဒုကၡေရာက္လ်က္ရွိေသာ လူမႈအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား၏ လိုအပ္ခ်က္ကို တိုက္႐ိုက္အက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္ေစမည့္ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရး ျဖစ္သည္။ ေရရွည္တည္တံ့ခိုင္ၿမဲေသာ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးသည္ သဘာ၀ကမၻာေျမႀကီး ႏွင့္ လူေနထိုင္မႈဘ၀တို႔ကို က႑ေပါင္းစံုျဖင့္ ဆက္စပ္လ်က္ရွိသည္။ က႑ေပါင္းစံုဟုဆိုရာတြင္ ဇီ၀မ်ိဳးကြဲမ်ား (သဘာ၀ပတ္၀န္းက်င္အတြင္း ကြဲျပားမႈအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး)၊ ေျမယာ (သတၱဳတြင္းတူးေဖာ္ျခင္း အပါအ၀င္)၊ သစ္ေတာမ်ား၊ စိုက္ပ်ဳိးေရး၊ ေရ၊ စြမ္းအင္ႏွင့္ စီးပြားေရးတို႔ျဖစ္သည္။...
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (5.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (English)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB); ppt (4.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Kachin)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Ndai gaw uhpung uhpawng ni hte tinghkrai hku nna myen mung Kata n amazing bawng ring lam a matu sut nhprang laika rai nga ai. Ndai sut nhprang laika gaw, matut manoi kyem mazing bawng ring masa a shiga hte dai mazing bawng ring lam galaw sa wa yang myen mungdan a ap nawng ai hte lit la ai shiga hpe jaw nga ai. Madi shadaw kyem mazing bawng ring masa gaw makau grup yin hpe n jahten shaza ai (sh) mungdan a shingra nhprang sut rai hpe n jahten ai bawngring lam rai nna grau jahten shaza hkrum ai shinggyim uhpawng ni mada’ shawa masha ni hta ra ai lam ni hpe jahkum shatsup ya nga ai. Kawn” mazing bawng ring lam gaw shingra mungkan hte shinggyim masha ni a asak hkrung lam hta na nsam maka law law hte matut mahkai nga ai. Ndai nsam maka kumla ni hta lawm ai gaw sakhkrung hpan hkum (grup yin nga ai arai amyu baw hkum sumhpa), lamu ga (ja maw, sut nhprang maw ni lawm ai), nam maling hkai sun, hka tsam n-gun hte sut masa ni rai nga ma ai.
Language: Kachin
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (869K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Advocating for Sustainable Development in Burma (Shan)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... This is a resource for organisations and individuals advocating about sustainable development issues in Burma. This resource provides information about the concept of sustainable development and about the government of Burma’s commitments and responsibilities when it comes to sustainable development. Sustainable development is development that does not damage the environment or the country’s natural resources, and that meets people’s needs, including the needs of the most vulnerable communities. Sustainable development relates to many aspects of the natural world and of people’s lives. These aspects include: biodiversity (variety in the natural environment), land (including mining), forests, agriculture, water, energy, and the economy..."
Language: Shan
Source/publisher: Burma Environmental Working Group (BEWG)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/Advocating_for_Sustainable_Development_in_Burma_full.ppt
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Inle Lake Conservation and Rehabilitation Project
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: "... Inle Lake situated in Southern Shan State is well known by local populace and foreign visitors for the natural beauty of the lake waters, surrounding mountain ranges, tomato floating gardens and leg rowers of boats. The lake plays a vital role for the ecosystem and economy of Shan State, providing many important goods and services for the communities. It is an ASEAN heritage site and also on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. It is the main water source for Lawpita hydroelectricity power plant, a major tourist attraction site and a habitant for rich biodiversity and traditional culture. The lake is now facing devastating effects of unsustainable practices in forestry, agriculture and fishing activities. The situation is accelerated by impact of climate change. Water surface area and sanitation is decreasing, fish and plant species are disappearing at a fast rate while water hyacinth species are increasing, blocking water ways and dominating other useful water cress that farmers use for building floating gardens. Therefore with the collaboration of Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF), UNDP and UNESCO, a fund has been provided from Norwegian Government to implement conservation and rehabilitation activities in the area. UNDP acting as the funding agency is working together with implementing partners to restore the area with the assistance of local communities. Due to the need of the communities, organic farming and market linkages activity has been implemented by Doe Taung Thu, a local non-government organization. For Organic farming, farmers have been trained in compost making, vermiculture, production of agriculture organic inputs such as natural pesticides, plant juice, fruit juice containing indigenous micro-organisms. With these products farmers are utilizing natural resources in the area. In addition an attempt is made to utilize water hyacinth for agricultural use. Objectives  To collect water hyacinth from water ways and shred into small pieces for compost making  To decrease water hyacinth in the lake and clear water ways for easy access to villages  To use shredded water hyacinth for mulching crops in a form of composting  To conserve moisture in soil by mulching, protect soil erosion and slow down rain run off so that moisture can penetrate deep down to the roots  To prevent rain splashing onto leaves and minimize leaf diseases  To suppress weeds and minimize weeding  To use chopped water hyacinth to feed earth worms  To increase chicken and duck feed for communities..."
Author/creator: Heather Morris, U Myint Zaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF)
Format/size: pdf (405K)
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2016


Title: Market Research and Enterprise Development for Community Forestry in Myanmar
Date of publication: September 2011
Description/subject: "... Pyoe Pin is a programme aimed at strengthening civil society in Myanmar. The programme is supported by DFID, the British Department for International Cooperation and implemented through the British council in partnership with local NGOs. Community Forestry (CF) is a key element of the programme, as it is seen as pathway to increasing the participation of civil society in influencing policy and practice with regards to communities. access and sustainable use of forestry land. CF can also improve forestry conservation and enhance the livelihoods of communities. CF has been a national development tool since 1995, when the Ministry of Forestry issued instructions for the issuing of Community Forest certificates. In Kachin state in northern Myanmar bordering China, Pyoe Pin has been working with two local NGOs (ECODEV and Shalom Foundation), who are in turn engaging with forest villages, to increase their awareness of appropriate forest usage and management, through assisting these communities to apply for community forest certificates. These certificates provide community rights to forest products and tenure for 30 years. Working through 120 villages, 54 Forest User Groups (FUGs) consisting of about 40,000 people have been created, who are replanting degraded forest areas, and also balancing their livelihood needs with greater understanding of sustainability. So far, 31,445 acres have been prepared for CF, but aside from 3000 of these acres, the rest has not yet been granted the lease, largely a result of lack of institutional support for this process as government prioritizes commercial allocations of land over community allocations for CF. As yet, CF has not shown significant direct economic impacts, but it is hoped that income from forest products, produced by and for the communities engaged, will have an impact on the incomes of the communities and households involved. One of the challenges has been how to increase the commercial viability and impact of CF by bringing greater alignment between commercial and community priorities. Some parts of the CF Instruction have hindered the maximization of economic benefits that can be gained by CF as they limit community rights to harvesting and selling at minimal levels. In addition, both private sector and Government have not considered CF as a potential partner for sourcing raw materials. But the environment is ripe for undertaking analysis and piloting of alternative models. There is a new Minister of Forestry, formerly head of Myanmar Timber Enterprise, who has experience in extensive forest-based commercial ventures. In addition, a recent national CF workshop was the first of the kind to bring experts from around the region to discuss findings from a national-level appraisal of CF in Myanmar since inception 15 years ago. In this context, Pyoe Pin envisages to develop a pilot project that will seek to demonstrate: 1. the value of CF as a real national development tool for the poorest communities, and to increase institutional support for its realization. 2. CF can be a commercially viable business partner for private sector 3. that it is important that communities who apply for CF status should be supported with the expedient granting of leases 4. that CF Instructions need to be revised to allow communities to commercialize their CF Towards these objectives, Pyoe Pin started to identify CF products that could have the greatest market potential and feasibility of being taken up by community forestry, which can then supply the products to larger domestic and possibly even international markets. An initial brainstorming session with foresters from NGOs and research institutes and businessmen from the Timber Market Association in December 2010 identified a preliminary shortlist of forest products. This selection was mainly based on secondary sources of information on market potential to help narrow down a more appropriate list for additional value-chain analysis..."
Author/creator: Foppes, J., Moe Aung, Paing Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Pyoe Pin
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 20 April 2016


Title: Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan - Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.8MB-reduced version; 8.27MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nbsap-01-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


Title: Myanmar Protected Areas: Context, Current Status and Challenges
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "... Protected areas (PAs) are important tools for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. PAs safeguard ecosystems and their services, such as water provision, food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation, thus improving people’s livelihoods. They preserve the integrity of spiritual and cultural values placed by indigenous people on wild areas and offer opportunities of inspiration, study and recreation. Due to a long period of isolation, Myanmar has conserved an extraordinary natural and cultural heritage that is in part represented in its protected area system. The expansion of agriculture and industry, pollution, population growth, along with uncontrolled use and extraction of resources, are causing severe environmental and ecosystem degradation. Loss of biodiversity is the most pressing environmental problem because species extinction is irreversible. Realising the urgency of Myanmar environmental challenges, several stakeholders, at national, international and regional level, have committed to support conservation and management of PAs. However, baseline information on natural resources, threats, management, staff, infrastructure, land use, tourism and research in Myanmar PAs was hardly ever updated and not systematically organised, thus limiting the subsequent planning and management of resources. Therefore, the aim of this publication is twofold: to raise awareness on the condition of the conservation of PAs and to mobilise national and international support for cost-effective initiatives, innovative approaches and targeted research in priority sites. The document provides background information on Myanmar natural features, environmental, government and non-government frameworks (Chapter 1). The core section makes available the information retrieved in the period 2009-2010 on the status of Myanmar PAs (Chapter 2) and the results of the research conducted in Lampi Island Marine National Park (Chapter 3) and Rakhine Yoma Elephant Range Wildlife Reserve (Chapter 4). Data collection, analysis and organisation were part of the larger Myanmar Environmental Project (MEP) managed by Istituto Oikos in partnership with BANCA. Conclusion and recommendations for the management of Myanmar PAs (Chapter 5) were jointly formulated by stakeholders during the MEP closing workshop held on March 17th 2011 in Yangon. The information presented in this publication is also organised in a database available to stakeholders that will be updated with new data provided by PA managers, academic institutions, environmental organisations and community-based groups working in Myanmar PAs to fill the existing gaps..."
Author/creator: Lara Beffasti, Valeria Galanti, Tint Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: Istituto Oikos, Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA)
Format/size: pdf (6.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 April 2016


Title: National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan - Myanmar (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
Date of publication: 2011
Description/subject: "Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Myanmar, as well as objectives and methodology of the NBSAP. In Chapter 2, a detailed description about the diversity in ecosystems, habitats and species in Myanmar is presented, including the indication on species’ status as being endemic, threatened or invasive. Chapter 3 discusses the background of national policies, institutions and legal frameworks applicable to biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. Chapter 4 analyses and highlights conservation priorities, major threats to the conservation of biodiversity as well as the important matter of sustainable and equitable use of biological resources in Myanmar. Chapter 5 presents the comprehensive national strategy and action plans for implementing biodiversity conservation in Myanmar within a 5-year framework that includes strengthening and expanding on priority sites for conservation, mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation in other sectors and policies, implementing of priority species conservation, supporting for more active participation of NGOs and other institutions in society towards biodiversity conservation, implementing actions towards biosafety and invasive species issues, strengthening legislative process for environmental conservation and enhancing awareness on biodiversity conservation. In this chapter, sustainable management of natural resources and development of ecotourism are also mentioned. Chapter 6 presents the required institutional mechanism for improving biodiversity conservation, the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation, as well as sustainability, of the NBSAP. It is trusted that the NBSAP provides a comprehensive framework for planning biodiversity conservation, management and utilization in a sustainable manner, as well as to ensure the long term survival of Myanmar’s rich biodiversity..."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB-reduced version; 11.5MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nbsap-01-my.pdf
Date of entry/update: 01 June 2014


Title: Hoolock Gibbon and Biodiversity Survey on Khe Shor Ter Mountain, Nattaung Range, Luthaw Township, Mudraw District, Karen State, Myanmar
Date of publication: October 2010
Description/subject: "... The survey on the Hoolock Gibbon and biodiversity was conducted by the Karen Environmental Social Action Network (KESAN), with technical support from the People Resources and Conservation Foundation (PRCF). Funding was provided to the PRCF by the Gibbon Conservation Alliance. The survey is a contribution to the project Myanmar Hoolock Gibbon Conservation Status Review project, which is jointly implemented by the PRCF, Fauna & Flora International (FFI), and the Myanmar Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA). Methods and approach are generally speaking those being adopted for the Status Review, to allow comparison between all survey sites throughout Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Saw Blaw Htoo, Mark E Grindley
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Environmental Social Action Network (KESAN)
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016


Title: Development of Environmental Management Mechanism in Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 June 2008
Description/subject: "... Officials of Myanmar recognize that with a certain development in the country, deforestation, water pollution and other adverse environmental conditions may have occurred, though off the record, from various economic and industrial sectors. Like elsewhere in the world, the demands of a growing population and a market-oriented economy have altered consumption patterns and infringed on natural resources. In the effort to keep a balance between development and environment, Myanmar has made efforts and will have to sustain them to protect the environment. Whatever the awareness and commitment, the efforts may not be perfect in achieving this comprehensive task; there is strength and so are the weaknesses. This paper is to track down the success in this aspect and identify the challenges that may be awaiting..."
Author/creator: Myo Nyunt
Language: English
Source/publisher: Yangon Technical University
Format/size: pdf (160K)
Date of entry/update: 21 April 2016