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Education Financing

Individual Documents

Title: Making Public Finance Work for Children in Myanmar (Burmese)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) 1, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) outlined the need to increase public expenditure in the social sector and for infrastructure to support economic growth and fight poverty. FESR also stated that government expenditure on health and education will increase, whilst defence expenditure will decline. Therefore, the United Nations Children Fund Myanmar, (UNICEF) in collaboration with the Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) have developed this report examining current social sector expenditure and the fiscal space available to increase this spending. In order to understand how public finance could be better oriented towards children, the objectives of this paper were: • To identify and highlight trends in terms of public sector expenditures, their allocation and growth rates, especially those related to the “social sector”; • To assess the overall impact of State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs) on the budget; • To examine the fiscal flow to the states/regions; and • To analyse trends in revenue and expenditure. Key Findings from this report include: • The Government has made commitments to reduce Myanmar’s fiscal deficit, with projections currently suggesting it will decline to 5 per cent of GDP by 2014-15, from 9 per cent in 2012- 13. However, it is still uncertain to what extent the supplementary budget might impact the final figure. • SOE’s make significant contributions to government revenue and expenditure. Although their net contribution to the fiscal balance varies between SOEs, many are increasingly being exposed to market forces, which is expected to improve their overall impact on the fiscal balance and potentially increase fiscal space for children • Social sector spending (health, education and social welfare) has increased since 2011-12, averaging between 5-9 per cent of total expenditure, compared to defence which still absorbed 13-15 per cent of total expenditure over the same period. Despite this, the proportion of expenditure allocated to defence has declined since 2011-12. • Budget allocations for education rose from just under 4 per cent of the budget in 2011-12 and is projected to reach nearly 6 per cent in 2014-15. • Expenditure on health tripled, from 1 per cent in 2011-12 to 3 per cent of the budget in 2012-13. • Allocations for social welfare have declined from under 0.2 per cent of expenditure in 2011- 12 to 0.1 per cent in 2014-15. Despite this, social welfare expenditure in absolute terms is at approximately the same level in 2014-15 as it was in 2011-12..."
Author/creator: Dr Zaw Oo, Dr. Aniruddha Bonnerjee, Phoo Pwint Phyu, Giles Dickenson-Jones and Paul Minoletti
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: UNICEF via Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB-reduced version; 3.7MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/2012-Making_Public_Finance_Work_for_Children_in_Myanmar-bu.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016


Title: Making Public Finance Work for Children in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: 2012
Description/subject: Summary: "In the Framework for Economic and Social Reform (FESR) 1, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) outlined the need to increase public expenditure in the social sector and for infrastructure to support economic growth and fight poverty. FESR also stated that government expenditure on health and education will increase, whilst defence expenditure will decline. Therefore, the United Nations Children Fund Myanmar, (UNICEF) in collaboration with the Myanmar Development Resource Institute - Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) have developed this report examining current social sector expenditure and the fiscal space available to increase this spending. In order to understand how public finance could be better oriented towards children, the objectives of this paper were: • To identify and highlight trends in terms of public sector expenditures, their allocation and growth rates, especially those related to the “social sector”; • To assess the overall impact of State-Owned-Enterprises (SOEs) on the budget; • To examine the fiscal flow to the states/regions; and • To analyse trends in revenue and expenditure. Key Findings from this report include: • The Government has made commitments to reduce Myanmar’s fiscal deficit, with projections currently suggesting it will decline to 5 per cent of GDP by 2014-15, from 9 per cent in 2012- 13. However, it is still uncertain to what extent the supplementary budget might impact the final figure. • SOE’s make significant contributions to government revenue and expenditure. Although their net contribution to the fiscal balance varies between SOEs, many are increasingly being exposed to market forces, which is expected to improve their overall impact on the fiscal balance and potentially increase fiscal space for children • Social sector spending (health, education and social welfare) has increased since 2011-12, averaging between 5-9 per cent of total expenditure, compared to defence which still absorbed 13-15 per cent of total expenditure over the same period. Despite this, the proportion of expenditure allocated to defence has declined since 2011-12. • Budget allocations for education rose from just under 4 per cent of the budget in 2011-12 and is projected to reach nearly 6 per cent in 2014-15. • Expenditure on health tripled, from 1 per cent in 2011-12 to 3 per cent of the budget in 2012-13. • Allocations for social welfare have declined from under 0.2 per cent of expenditure in 2011- 12 to 0.1 per cent in 2014-15. Despite this, social welfare expenditure in absolute terms is at approximately the same level in 2014-15 as it was in 2011-12..."
Author/creator: Dr Zaw Oo, Dr. Aniruddha Bonnerjee, Phoo Pwint Phyu, Giles Dickenson-Jones and Paul Minoletti
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNICEF via Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://mdricesd.files.wordpress.com/2015/04/public-finance-en.pdf
Date of entry/update: 30 January 2016


Title: Counting the full cost : parental and community financing of education in East Asia
Date of publication: 30 November 1996
Description/subject: Publication. "This study highlights the need for much more detailed attention to the cost of schooling incurred by parents and communities. In some societies these costs are greater than even the costs to governments. Quite apart from overt forms of privatization, the growth of household resourcing of public education has been a hidden form of privatization of enormous influence. This study presents empirical findings, and primarily focuses on nine East Asian countries -Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People ' s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam -although clear parallels can be drawn with experiences in some other parts of the world. While patterns are far from uniform, one striking feature from this study is that costs to households have increased in long-standing capitalist countries as well as in former socialist countries. The scale of the increase varies widely, but it is significant that in these countries there is an increase at all. The study concludes that governments seeking to achieve universal primary education and expanded enrollments in secondary education must consider the costs and benefits at the household level. Their resulting policies must focus not only on supply but also on demand for education. Included in demand will be complex considerations of the quality and the price of education. When assessing the cost side of the equation, policy analysts must count the full cost -not only to governments, but also to parents and communities- and not only the monetary costs of donated labor, materials, and land." Keywords: Educational financing; Human capital; Cost of education; Resources mobilization; Resources utilization; Parent-child relationships; School-community relationships; Public education; Denationalization; Human rights; Private schools; Private education; Household budgets; Enrolment ratio
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Bank
Format/size: Page, Text (223K), PDF (5289K)
Alternate URLs: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1996/11/01/000009265_3970311115031/Re...
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003