Natural Resource Use, Burma/Myanmar - policy and law
|Title:|| ||Environmental laws, decrees, regulations etc. (link to OBL sub-section
|Description/subject:|| ||Link to the OBL sub-section on Environmental laws, decrees, regulations etc.(legal texts and commentary) under Law and Constitution|
|Language:|| ||English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Online Burma/Myanmar Library|
|Format/size:|| ||html, pdf|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||04 December 2014|
|Title:|| ||Myanmar profile - natural resources
|Description/subject:|| ||"Myanmar's natural resources include gems, industrial minerals, oil, and offshore natural gas reserves estimated at 10 trillion cubic feet. The extractive sector accounted for 39 percent of exports in 2010, yet despite its mineral wealth, Myanmar is one of the least developed nations in the world. Its extractive industries are infamously opaque. In the April 2012 elections, the main opposition party won seats in the parliament, a development that could lead to improved transparency..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Natural Resource Goverance Institute (NRGI)|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||03 December 2014|
|Title:|| ||Sharing the Wealth: A Roadmap for Distributing Myanmar’s Natural Resource Revenues
|Date of publication:|| ||15 February 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||"Myanmar's Union government collects much of the trillions of kyat generated by oil, gas, gemstones and other minerals each year, primarily through its state-owned economic enterprises (SEEs).
In the face of such centralized control over revenue, many ethnic groups have long asserted their right to make decisions over resource management in their states. Combatants in areas of active conflict and leaders from several ethnic minority parties—particularly those associated with Kachin, Rakhine and Shan states—have openly called for greater resource revenue sharing. (See map below for more on Myanmar’s extractive geography.)
In response, the newly elected National League for Democracy (NLD) has committed to "work to ensure a fair distribution across the country of the profits from natural resource extraction, in accordance with the principles of a federal union." As such, a resource revenue sharing system will undoubtedly be on the table in the upcoming discussion on federalism.
However, as we have seen in other countries, these systems come with considerable risks. In the most extreme cases, such as Peru, they can actually exacerbate conflict, encouraging local leaders to use violence to compel greater transfers from the central government or gain control over mine sites. While these experiences are atypical, natural resource revenue sharing often leads to financial waste, local inflation, boom-bust cycles and poor public investment decisions.
However, if well designed, resource revenue sharing can: improve development outcomes and the quality of public investment; attract high quality private investors to the sector; and help secure a lasting peace. Sharing the Wealth: A Roadmap for Distributing Myanmar's Natural Resource Revenues outlines options available under the current legal structure to help the new leadership fulfill its commitment to decentralize natural resource revenues. It is also meant to inform Myanmar's broader discourse on how best to distribute these revenues.
First, it outlines the current state of fiscal decentralization in Myanmar. Second, it describes the size and location of extractive activities given the limited information currently available. Third, it aims to share good practices for revenue distribution and international experiences. Fourth, it outlines policy options and considerations for policymakers on intergovernmental transfers and addresses the debate on tax assignments..."|
|Author/creator:|| ||Andrew Bauer, Paul Shortell and Lorenzo Delesgues|
|Source/publisher:|| ||Natural Resource Governance Institute|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (2.4MB-reduced version; 12MB-original)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/documents/nrgi_sharing_myanmar_revenue-sharin...
|Date of entry/update:|| ||06 April 2016|