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Myanmar Documents submitted to CEDAW by civil society organisations

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Title: Long Way to Go - Continuing Violations of Human Rights and Discrimination Against Ethnic Women in Burma: CEDAW Shadow Report (English)
Date of publication: July 2016
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "From 1962 to 2011 in Burma, the combination of repressive rule by a male-dominated military and a traditional cultural patriarchy had insidious and pervasive long-term negative effects on women’s equality. Decades of repression adversely impacted women’s health, well-being and welfare, ability to participate in politics and political decision-making, and educational, economic and employment opportunities. Moreover, during those six decades the military also waged war in several regions of Burma against various Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAOs), and conflict continues to this day. These long-running conflicts h ave been characterized by human rights abuses against ethnic communities, including se xual violence against ethnic women, and have had a devastating negative impact on the rights and opportunities available to ethnic women. In 2011, the military instituted a process of reform as part of a carefully-orchestrated plan to continue military rule under the guise of democracy. Since this nominally- civilian government (the Government) took power in 2011, women in Burma have experienced limited improvements with respect to fundamental human rights and freedoms but are far from enjoying the rights required by the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), to which Burma is a party. After years of “reform,” significant economic, political and social problems for women remain: widespread poverty and underdevelopment; a lack of legal, administrative and institutional capacity; a governing system that continues to lack true accountability and transparency; ongoing ethnic conflict, including continued human rights abuses and sexual violence by military forces; and pervasive gender inequality. The failure, after five years in office, of the Government to improve women’s rights to substantive equality and non-discrimination demonstrates a disregard for CEDAW’s mandates and compares unfavorably with troubling actions such as continuing sexual violence by the military, the swift passage of the discriminatory Laws on Race & Religion, and the failure to enact a comprehensive violence against women law. This Report focuses the women's human rights situation in Burma's ethnic areas, in particular in remote and conflict affected areas where most of WLB’s member organisations are operating. We highlight the ways in which rural and ethnic women in Burma are denied the equality and non-discrimination guarantees provided by CEDAW. While all women in Burma face the same struggle to enjoy their rights under CEDAW, rural and ethnic women face additional hurdles and specific harms such as trafficking, unequal access to education and healthcare, land insecurity and the devastating impact of drug production and trade. Moreover, rural and ethnic women are directly implicated by armed conflict and the quest for peace. This gap between the experiences of women in cities and urban settings versus those of ethic women in rural areas must be understood and taken account when analyzing the status of women’s rights in Burma. This Report seeks to highlight certain significant factors impeding women’s rights throughout the country. First, the military continues to play a powerful role in society and politics. This deeply-entrenched power is provided, in part, by the 2008 Constitution which grants the military complete legal autonomy over its own affairs, placing it outside of any civilian oversight by the executive or legislative branches. Further, the Constitution provides immunity to the military and Government officials for any misdeeds, including conflict-related sexual violence, in office and ensures that all military matters are to be decided solely by the military. Other provisions, such as Parliamentary quotas, ensure that the Military will retain a significant role in the legislative and executive branches. Therefore, the power and domination of the military at all levels of government is guaranteed in the Constitution, and, because the Military enjoys a veto over all Constitutional amendments, this power is unlikely to be reduced in the near future. Second, continued conflict has caused additional suffering for ethnic and rural women. The military has committed human rights abuses, including sexual violence against ethnic women, as part of its offensives in ethnic areas. Part of the conflict stems from a desire to control the vast natural resources in ethnic areas, and the military and its cronies have long-standing and extensive business interests in ethnic regions. Continuing conflict, and the web of military presence and business interests in ethnic areas, has had a devastating effect on women and women’s rights, especially in rural and ethnic areas. Third, part of the lack of progress on women’s equality is due to the woefully inadequate legal system in Burma. First and foremost, the Constitution itself establishes structural barriers to equality, and discriminates outright against women through failing to provide a CEDAW-compliant definition of discrimination and limiting job opportunities for women. It also discriminates against women indirectly by establishing the Parliamentary quotas for the military. Most of the laws that relate specifically to women are outdated, such as the Penal Code of 1861, and many laws, regulations, and policies (including customary law) are disadvantageous and discriminatory towards women. Laws passed since 2011 often did not take women’s concerns into account and some, such as the Laws on Race & Religion, are discriminatory outright. Women also do not enjoy protection from anti-discrimination legislation or a comprehensive violence against women law, which is of particular concern for women victims of conflict-related sexual violence. Moreover, even legal and other rights that are available on paper are often not enforced due to corruption in the legal system, the police force and other governmental authorities. These failures are compounded by a judiciary that is unreliable, susceptible to military influence and corruption, and often unwilling to enforce the rule of law. Outside of the formal legal system, the application of customary laws which are prevalent in rural and ethnic areas can also impede women’s access to justice. These factors present serious obstacles to women’s ability to know or enforce their rights. It is hoped that ensuring women’s equality will be a greater focus of the new NLD-led Government that came to power in April 2016. Given the structural barriers established by the military, including those in the Constitution, reducing the power and influence of the military will be a challenge. To encourage the new Government on the path to ensuring human rights, and women’s rights, it is crucial to provide it with guidelines and signposts for action. Forums such as this CEDAW review are essential to establishing benchmarks for women’s rights and equality, as promised by CEDAW. Rights under CEDAW should be made available, without restriction or further delay, to every woman and girl in Burma, regardless of her region, religion, or ethnicity."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 July 2016


Title: Long Way to Go - Continuing Violations of Human Rights and Discrimination Against Ethnic Women in Burma: CEDAW Shadow Report - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: July 2016
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "From 1962 to 2011 in Burma, the combination of repressive rule by a male-dominated military and a traditional cultural patriarchy had insidious and pervasive long-term negative effects on women’s equality. Decades of repression adversely impacted women’s health, well-being and welfare, ability to participate in politics and political decision-making, and educational, economic and employment opportunities. Moreover, during those six decades the military also waged war in several regions of Burma against various Ethnic Armed Organisations (EAOs), and conflict continues to this day. These long-running conflicts h ave been characterized by human rights abuses against ethnic communities, including se xual violence against ethnic women, and have had a devastating negative impact on the rights and opportunities available to ethnic women. In 2011, the military instituted a process of reform as part of a carefully-orchestrated plan to continue military rule under the guise of democracy. Since this nominally- civilian government (the Government) took power in 2011, women in Burma have experienced limited improvements with respect to fundamental human rights and freedoms but are far from enjoying the rights required by the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), to which Burma is a party. After years of “reform,” significant economic, political and social problems for women remain: widespread poverty and underdevelopment; a lack of legal, administrative and institutional capacity; a governing system that continues to lack true accountability and transparency; ongoing ethnic conflict, including continued human rights abuses and sexual violence by military forces; and pervasive gender inequality. The failure, after five years in office, of the Government to improve women’s rights to substantive equality and non-discrimination demonstrates a disregard for CEDAW’s mandates and compares unfavorably with troubling actions such as continuing sexual violence by the military, the swift passage of the discriminatory Laws on Race & Religion, and the failure to enact a comprehensive violence against women law. This Report focuses the women's human rights situation in Burma's ethnic areas, in particular in remote and conflict affected areas where most of WLB’s member organisations are operating. We highlight the ways in which rural and ethnic women in Burma are denied the equality and non-discrimination guarantees provided by CEDAW. While all women in Burma face the same struggle to enjoy their rights under CEDAW, rural and ethnic women face additional hurdles and specific harms such as trafficking, unequal access to education and healthcare, land insecurity and the devastating impact of drug production and trade. Moreover, rural and ethnic women are directly implicated by armed conflict and the quest for peace. This gap between the experiences of women in cities and urban settings versus those of ethic women in rural areas must be understood and taken account when analyzing the status of women’s rights in Burma. This Report seeks to highlight certain significant factors impeding women’s rights throughout the country. First, the military continues to play a powerful role in society and politics. This deeply-entrenched power is provided, in part, by the 2008 Constitution which grants the military complete legal autonomy over its own affairs, placing it outside of any civilian oversight by the executive or legislative branches. Further, the Constitution provides immunity to the military and Government officials for any misdeeds, including conflict-related sexual violence, in office and ensures that all military matters are to be decided solely by the military. Other provisions, such as Parliamentary quotas, ensure that the Military will retain a significant role in the legislative and executive branches. Therefore, the power and domination of the military at all levels of government is guaranteed in the Constitution, and, because the Military enjoys a veto over all Constitutional amendments, this power is unlikely to be reduced in the near future. Second, continued conflict has caused additional suffering for ethnic and rural women. The military has committed human rights abuses, including sexual violence against ethnic women, as part of its offensives in ethnic areas. Part of the conflict stems from a desire to control the vast natural resources in ethnic areas, and the military and its cronies have long-standing and extensive business interests in ethnic regions. Continuing conflict, and the web of military presence and business interests in ethnic areas, has had a devastating effect on women and women’s rights, especially in rural and ethnic areas. Third, part of the lack of progress on women’s equality is due to the woefully inadequate legal system in Burma. First and foremost, the Constitution itself establishes structural barriers to equality, and discriminates outright against women through failing to provide a CEDAW-compliant definition of discrimination and limiting job opportunities for women. It also discriminates against women indirectly by establishing the Parliamentary quotas for the military. Most of the laws that relate specifically to women are outdated, such as the Penal Code of 1861, and many laws, regulations, and policies (including customary law) are disadvantageous and discriminatory towards women. Laws passed since 2011 often did not take women’s concerns into account and some, such as the Laws on Race & Religion, are discriminatory outright. Women also do not enjoy protection from anti-discrimination legislation or a comprehensive violence against women law, which is of particular concern for women victims of conflict-related sexual violence. Moreover, even legal and other rights that are available on paper are often not enforced due to corruption in the legal system, the police force and other governmental authorities. These failures are compounded by a judiciary that is unreliable, susceptible to military influence and corruption, and often unwilling to enforce the rule of law. Outside of the formal legal system, the application of customary laws which are prevalent in rural and ethnic areas can also impede women’s access to justice. These factors present serious obstacles to women’s ability to know or enforce their rights. It is hoped that ensuring women’s equality will be a greater focus of the new NLD-led Government that came to power in April 2016. Given the structural barriers established by the military, including those in the Constitution, reducing the power and influence of the military will be a challenge. To encourage the new Government on the path to ensuring human rights, and women’s rights, it is crucial to provide it with guidelines and signposts for action. Forums such as this CEDAW review are essential to establishing benchmarks for women’s rights and equality, as promised by CEDAW. Rights under CEDAW should be made available, without restriction or further delay, to every woman and girl in Burma, regardless of her region, religion, or ethnicity."
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
Format/size: pdf (2.7MB)
Date of entry/update: 18 July 2016


Title: SHADOW REPORT on Myanmar for the 64th Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
Date of publication: July 2016
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar is a party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and, as such, must fulfill its obligations to ensure both de jure and de facto equality for women. Yet, despite these obligations, women and girls across Myanmar face serious obstacles to realizing their rights to substantive equality and non-discrimination. In this Report, the Gender Equality Network (GEN) and Global Justice Center (GJC) highlight multiple barriers facing women and girls in Myanmar and offer key areas where reforms are necessary in order to promote women’s rights and the equal enjoyment of freedoms. This report can be read as a baseline of the situation on key indicators that affect the situation of women and girls in Myanmar, and therefore offers a starting point for dialogue with the newly elected government. The goal of such dialogue is to jointly tackle the systemic hurdles that impede the achievement of women’s equality and reverse some of the repressions under previous regimes. This report highlights general inequalities and discrimination faced by all women in Myanmar, but it must be noted that certain marginalized groups, such as ethnic women, rural women and older women, are not specifically discussed herein, but nonetheless experience additional and intersecting forms of discrimination. While it is encouraging that Myanmar’s transition to a quasi-civilian government in 2011 has led to limited democratic reforms, increasing engagement with the international community and a sharp increase in foreign direct investment, women have in large part not been the beneficiaries of these reforms. Advances to ensure women’s rights and improve the situation of women in Myanmar have, in general, been noticeably absent from reform efforts, in part due to the absence of women from decision-making positions and in politics. Even the Government’s reporting to this Committee identifies efforts to improve women’s rights as prospective rather than on-going, demonstrating the Government’s lack of political will to prioritize women’s issues. Gender equality continues to be viewed as a marginal area in ongoing democratization and development processes, as well as the peace process resolving decades of ethnic conflict. The Government must make actual progress, and not just present promises, to promote women’s rights and fulfill its obligations under CEDAW. A number of factors contribute to the current, and historical, lack of focus on women’s rights. Decades of military rule since a military coup in 1962 have marginalized women and deeply-embedded gender stereotypes see women as nurturers rather than leaders in society. As a result, women have historically been excluded from politics and positions of power. Achieving advances to ensure women’s equality in Myanmar is difficult because of an unchanged landscape shaped by a deep history of patriarchy, decades of oppressive military dictatorship and the continued power and influence of the military throughout society. Today, these legacies remain very much alive in the form of fundamental structural barriers that impede genuine legal reform, demonstrated through the presence of legal structures that discriminate against women (including in the Constitution), the lack of legal provisions that guarantee gender equality and the absence of adequate funding to promote policies and programmes that could contribute to women’s empowerment. The newly-formed government of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s Nationa l League for Democracy (NLD), which took office at the end of March 2016, offers an opportunity to refocus attention on the achievement of equal rights for women in Myanmar. Encouragingly, the NLD Election Platform on Women committed to, among other things, effectively implement existing laws to promote women’s rights, take action to end violence against women and ensure access to justice for women victims. While there are expectations that the situation of women in Myanmar will improve, it is crucial to be clear now about the significant work that needs to be done and to detail the steps necessary to ensure compliance with CEDAW. To achieve full compliance with CEDAW, the Government must formulate, in consultation with a broad array of civil society actors and women’s groups, and implement concrete, immediately-effective and well-funded policies, regulations, laws and other measures to ensure women’s de jure and de facto equality. Such a comprehensive effort will require coordination, commitment and significant political will, the dismantling of legal and other structures that discriminate against women and a significant reduction in the power and influence of the military"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN) and Global Justice Center (GJC)
Format/size: pdf (874K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: KEY ISSUES CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF STATELESS ROHINGYA WOMEN AND GIRLS IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR [CEDAW-64th Session]
Date of publication: 30 June 2016
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN (CEDAW) For the Examination of the combined 4th and 5th periodic State Party Reports (CEDAW/C/MMR/4-5) - MYANMAR - June 2016.....RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE CEDAW COMMITTEE: "The Committee should urge the Government of Myanmar: * To take immediate steps to eradicate all discriminatory policies and practices against the Rohingya population; * To combat all acts of incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence against religious and ethnic minorities, in particular against the Rohingya, condemn such acts publicly and take swift legal action against perpetrators; * To take all necessary measures to establish the rule of law in Rakhine State, end impunity, and provide security and equal protection of the law to all, including Rohingya women; * To engage in a confidence-building process with all communities in Rakhine State, inclusive of women, and to promote interfaith and intercommunal dialogue; * To ensure that any Action Plan for Peace and Reconciliation in Rakhine State is in line with international human rights principles, especially those relating specifically to women... On Citizenship and birth registration: * To review the 1982 Citizenship Law in accordance with international standards in order to prevent and eradicate statelessness in Myanmar, to bring Myanmar law into compliance with the universally respected prohibition of racial discrimination and with Myanmar’s obligations under Article 7 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) with the intention of granting citizenship and associated rights to the Rohingyas; * To urgently resolve the legal status of Rohingyas through a transparent process that will provide incentives to all stakeholders to participate in the process in order to grant citizenship and associated rights to the Rohingyas; * To issue birth certificates to all Rohingya children born in Myanmar in compliance with domestic law and Myanmar’s obligations under the CRC (Article 7.1); * To immediately register all Rohingya children by removing burdensome requirements which make it difficult to insert their names in their parents’ family list. * To abolish without delay all local orders restricting movement and marriage, and which seek to limit the number of children a family can have, orders which are exclusively applied on the Rohingya in Rakhine State... On freedom of movement: * To revise and repeal all orders and regulations that restrict the freedom of movement of the Rohingya; * To lift the curfew still in place in Maungdaw and Buthidaung Townships; * To establish conditions conducive to the voluntary return of the displaced Rohingyas to their place of origin or to other places of voluntary resettlement in safety and dignity, and to ensure adequate reintegration and security... On access to livelihood and basic services: * To substantially improve access to quality health care and education services to Rohingya children, in IDP camps as well as in all other locations; * To guarantee unhindered humanitarian access to all Rohingya communities in Rakhine State; * To withdraw the Population Control Healthcare Bill in particular, as this law could result in new restrictions targeting Rohingya women as it allows authorities to impose 3-year birth spacing in any region of the country, in particular as it could further increase discrimination against Rohingya women; * To conduct extensive teacher training among Rohingyas, including for women, and to restore access to higher education, including university education, to Rohingya students; * To ensure access to food and eradicate malnutrition so that women and children can meet their physical and mental needs and responsibilities... On violence against women and access to justice: * To establish support mechanisms for women victims of all forms of violence, including sexual and gender-based abuses; * To increase training, capacity-building and awareness-raising for all actors involved in assisting women subject to violence, including police forces, health practitioners and teachers, community volunteers and other service providers; * To provide legal aid and effective access to justice to encourage women victims of violence to seek redress; * To take legal action against perpetrators of sexual violence against women, and, in particular, investigate and prosecute members of State authorities committing rape and sexual harassment against Rohingya women... On ratifying other international human rights treaties: * To accede to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness; * To become a State Party to the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women; and, * To accede to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), the International Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and other relevant human rights instruments."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Arakan Project
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 07 July 2016


Title: Summary of Myanmar CSO Shadow Report on Thematic Issues: Violence against Women
Date of publication: 17 June 2016
Description/subject: To 64th Session of UN CEDAW Committee In relation to Myanmar Combined Fourth and Fifth Periodic Report of State Party, 23rd February 2015 (CEDA W/C/MMR/4 - 5).....Key Issues on Violence Against Women: "This CEDAW Shadow Report is written by CEDAW Action Myanmar (CAM). This working group is established in 2012 and consists of 15 local organizations, network and individuals. The report consists of perceptions of 309 (with 226 women and 83 men) respondents who participated in a survey; along with news from print and social media. Myanmar has undergone revolutionary changes in its democratization process in 2010. The new people-led government came to power recently in April 2016, aims to push for fundamental transformation. Myanmar is also considered one of the world’s worst human rights abusers, and in particular rape and other sexual and gender based violence are widespread across the country. During this reporting period (2015-2016), there are still many issues on socio-economic status and political situation which has also continued to contribute to form of institutional violence across the country. During the reporting period (2015-2016), the number of cases reported has increased. With the new Government taking charge, people of Myanmar rightly expect restoration of Human Rights in the country. Though the State acceded CEDAW on 22nd July, 1997 and submitted initial report and periodic reports to CEDAW Committee, the government so far has failed in its obligation to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. There are three key issues regarding Violence against Women. 1. Sexual Violence, particularly rape and sexual harassment--- 2. Domestic Violence--- 3. Institutional Violence, particularly rape, other forms of sexual assault perpetrated by military personnel and armed groups, uprising of current communal conflict and poverty issues..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: CEDAW Action, Myanmar (CAM)
Format/size: pdf (271K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Submission for the 64th session (4–22 July 2016) of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
Date of publication: 10 June 2016
Description/subject: Executive summary: In this submission, Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG) provides information concerning human rights issues affecting women in southeast Myanmar. The time period covered in this submission is from January 2012 to March 2016, which is a period characterised by dramatic and substantial changes in Myanmar, including the political reform process; the 2012 preliminary ceasefire agreement between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the government of Myanmar; the 2015 Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement; and the November 2015 general election, in which the National League for Democracy won a landslide victory, marking a change of course from the previous reign of consecutive military-backed governments. 2. Organisational information will be addressed first in a brief summary of KHRG and its operations and then KHRG’s research and data collection methodology will be detailed. After these initial sections, KHRG’s key findings related to human rights and discrimination of women in southeast Myanmar will be presented. The key findings will address the issues of gender inequality of (rural) women in political and public life; gender-based violence (GBV); rural women and girls’ access to education and healthcare, in particular maternal healthcare; and land confiscation and livelihood issues affecting rural women. Each of the key findings will start with a relevant quote from a local woman which is in line with KHRG’s mission to project the voices of villagers. The sections will conclude with concrete recommendations to the government..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG)
Format/size: pdf (252K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: CEDAW SHADOW REPORT Submitted By: Women’s Organization Network (WON) June 2016
Date of publication: June 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report reflects the results of WON’s research and interviews of women from ten of Myanmar’s states, who shared their experiences and struggles to vindicate their rights. As a party to CEDAW, Myanmar’s government has an obligation to protect and guarantee the rights of its female citizens in a variety of realms. Of particular concern to WON are Myanmar’s shortcomings in regard to its obligations under Articles 7, 12, and 14. In 2012, women comprised only 4.42% of Myanmar’s National Parliament. The 2015 election, however, raised that percentage to 14.5%. This shift demonstrates the potential for women to play a decisive role in governing the country. Nevertheless, women still face multiple barriers to political participation at the national, regional and local levels, including gender stereotypes, safety concerns, lack of education, and legal and economic barriers. To comply with the obligations of Article 7, the government must implement legal reforms and promote social change to allow women to exercise their rights to political participation. Access to health remains illusory for many — if not most — women in Myanmar. Clinics and hospitals are few and far between, particularly in rural areas. Women report that hospital care is unaffordable and of poor quality. Women concerned by issues of cost or travel often depend on midwives and traditional birth attendants for childbirth, and while there has been a decrease in Myanmar’s maternal mortality rate, it is still high compared to neighboring countries. Abortion also continues to be illegal in Myanmar, forcing many women to seek dangerous abortions that risk their health and lives. Women lack education on sex, birth control, STIs, and HIV/AIDS. All names used in this report and the annexed research report are pseudonyms. 6 Rural women suffer disproportionately from poverty, lack of access to healthcare and education, and unemployment . Poverty is a primary concern for most rural women, who lack employment opportunities and education . Addiction to drugs or alcohol is prevalent in many households, as is domestic violence. Poverty has also led to mass migration as individuals often leave to find work in other states or countries. In other instances, poverty has forced families to take on high - interest debt . Some women, in times of economic need, turn to sex work, an illegal profession in which they are often taken harassed or abused by police. Land grabbing, often perpetrated by the Government, has also become an increasing problem for rural women. The government must provide increased services and economic opportunities to rural populations, and foster an atmosphere in which women are protected from abuse."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women’s Organization Network (WON)
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Protection of Race and Religion laws and discrimination against women from religious minorities
Date of publication: June 2016
Description/subject: CEDAW Committee 64th session CSW–Stakeholder Submission, Myanmar June 2016..... "Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW) is a human rights advocacy organisation promoting freedom of religion or belief for people of all faiths and none. In this submission, CSW would like to bring to the committee’s attention the situation of human rights, particularly freedom of religion or belief, for women in Myanmar with a specific focus on the package of “Race and Religion” laws and violence against women. Whilst there has been some significant progress in recent years towards democracy and human rights protection in Myanmar, there remain grave concerns both in areas of freedom of religion or belief and women’s rights. In 2015, a set of four laws focusing on the ‘protection of race and religion’ were implemented. This legislation aims to restrict religious conversion, inter-­‐faith marriage, polygamy and population control, effectively embedding gender bias into the legal system. Under the new “Buddhist Women’s Special Marriage Law” interfaith marriage between Buddhist women and Muslim men is restricted and the law requires interfaith couples to obtain a permit from local authorities to marry. In addition, anyone wishing to change their religion will be required to apply for permission to an 11-­member committee, consisting of officials responsible for religious affairs, immigration, women’s affairs and education. The new law violates Article 2 (non-­‐discrimination), Article 15 (equality before the law) and Article 16 (non-­‐discrimination in matters relating to marriage and family) of CEDAW. It also discriminates against religious minorities and undermines women’s right to freedom of religion or belief in Myanmar. The ‘protection of race and religion’ laws have been opposed by civil society in Burma and the international community. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Myanmar (Burma), Yanghee Lee, has highlighted “significant human rights concerns” relating to the legislation on religious conversions and inter-­‐faith marriage, saying it would “legalise discrimination, in particular against religious and ethnic minorities and against women”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW)
Format/size: pdf (115K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Submission to the 64th Session CEDAW Committee for Consideration of Myanmar’s Combined Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports
Date of publication: June 2016
Description/subject: "In its 2008 Concluding Observations on the Second and Third Periodic Report of Myanmar, the CEDAW Committee expressed concerns regarding multiple forms of discrimination against women in Myanmar in general and Rohingya women in particular. The Government of Myanmar (“the Government”) has not taken significant steps to address these concerns in the eight years since, and instead has exacerbated discrimination against Rohingya women by restricting their most basic rights and failing to prevent and address violence against them. Women throughout Myanmar face discrimination. Targeted for their religion and ethnicity in addition to their gender, Rohingya women confront multidimensional discrimination, as each form of discrimination compounds the other. Since the Concluding Observations in 2008, the conditions for Rohingya and other Muslim women have deteriorated precipitously, making the already oppressive situation desperate for many. The Government has continued, expanded, and entrenched policies limiting Rohingya freedom of movement, marriage, childbirth, and access to education, healthcare, and livelihoods — policies that often have a heightened impact on women. The Government has continued to deny Rohingya citizenship and gone further to revoke their right to vote and participate in elections for the first time. It has also failed to adequately protect victims or address large scale violence against Rohingya. The largest waves of violence occurred in 2012, resulting in hundreds of deaths and the displacement of over 100,000. The conditions in the internally displaced person (IDP) camps and the highly militarized villages in northern Rakhine State have led hundreds of thousands to flee the country, despite the risk of death and sexual abuse at the hands of trafficking gangs during the dangerous journey. The perilous situation prompted the Human Rights Council to adopt a resolution on July 3, 2015 condemning “gross violations of human rights and abuses ... in Rakhine State, in particular against Rohingya Muslims,” and called upon the Government to address, prevent, and ensure accountability for widespread discrimination and its related impact. The new Government led by the National League for Democracy (“NLD”), which took power on April 1 of this year, should immediately work to ensure compliance with CEDAW and end violations of Rohingya and other women’s basic human rights, including:.."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women Peace Network – Arakan
Format/size: pdf (190K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: The Voices of Myanmar Women
Date of publication: June 2016
Description/subject: Research Report in support of CEDAW - Alternative Report (2016).....Myanmar ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1997, and its government submitted its last state report to the CEDAW Committee in 2008. In the past, women’s groups working in Myanmar had little opportunity to submit alternative reports to CEDAW; only the Women’s League of Burma (WLB), which is based on border areas, was able to submit such reports. In 2010, the political situation in Myanmar changed, allowing women’s organizations both along the border and inside the country to work together more closely. In 2012, WON (representing 38 member organizations) and WLB (representing 13 member organizations) began to work together, conducting strategic planning workshops and identifying joint strategic activities based on challenges faced and lessons learned. One of those joint projects involves CEDAW monitoring and reporting. As a follow-up of a Strategic Planning Workshop held in March 2014. WON organised a workshop on the CEDAW shadow reporting process for its members, as well as members of the WLB. After this workshop, WON and WLB agreed to work collaboratively on CEDAW NGO reporting with technical assistance from other organizations. WON chose to focus on CEDAW Articles 7, 12 and 14, as most WON members are working to promote women’s participation in politics, access to health care and the rights of rural women. The objective of this research was to explore key issues for women in the above-identified areas for inclusion in WON’s CEDAW Shadow Report. Additionally, WON hoped the research would provide support for concrete recommendations for the government in the CEDAW reporting process..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women’s Organization Network (WON)
Format/size: pdf (901K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: MYANMAR: BRIEFING TO THE UN COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN 64TH SESSION , 4-22 JULY 2016
Date of publication: 2016
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "In July 2016, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (the Committee) will examine Myanmar’s combined fourth and fifth periodic report at its 64th session. This examination provides an opportunity to review Myanmar’s progress since its last review in 2008 towards implementing in law and practice the provisions of the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (the Convention). Since a quasi-civilian government came to power in 2011, Myanmar has embarked on a number of political, economic and social reforms. However, despite these reforms, Amnesty International is concerned that women and girls continue to face barriers to the full exercise of their human rights in law, policy and practice. In this briefing Amnesty International highlights four areas of concern: 1) restrictions on the rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly, which includes the situation of women human rights defenders (WHRDs); 2) the enactment of four discriminatory laws aimed at “protecting race and religion”; 3) the situation of Rohingya women and girls in Rakhine State; and 4) the lack of access to justice, truth and reparation for human rights abuses against women and girls in areas of armed conflict. Please note, however, that the concerns listed here are not exhaustive. In this submission, Amnesty International also assess progress made by Myanmar on implementing the Convention and sets out ways in which the government could better comply with its obligations under the Convention. The following documentation draws on Amnesty International’s ongoing research, which involves regular contact with local and international non-governmental organizations; and interviews with victims of human rights violations and abuses and their families, lawyers, and government officials. It also relies on daily media monitoring and extensive reading of academic and other credible publications..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: pdf (966K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Supplementary Information Concerning Women’s Land Rights in Myanmar Submitted to the 64 Pre-Sessional Working Group (November 2015)
Date of publication: November 2015
Description/subject: "This submission seeks to supplement the government report by providing field-based research on women’s land rights in Myanmar to highlight a persistent gap between law and practice. It is based on a joint report by Landesa, an NGO dedicated to securing land rights for the rural poor with experience in over 50 countries, and Namati, a global organization dedicated to legal empowerment, titled, Recommendations for Implementation of Pro-Poor Land Policy and Land Law in Myanmar: National Data and Regional Pract ices (October 2015)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Landsea, Namati
Format/size: pdf (422K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Observations and Topics to be Included in the List of Issues [related to Myanmar’s Combined Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports to CEDAW]
Date of publication: 15 October 2015
Description/subject: Submitted to the Pre-sessional Working Group of CEDAW..... "On the occasion of Myanmar’s Combined Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on the Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Submitted by: Women Peace Network – Arakan (WPNA)....."Observations Regarding Violations of CEDAW with Regard to Rohingya Women in Myanmar. The Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic minority group that has been residing in Arakan State in western Myanmar for generations, has been described as one of the most persecuted groups in the world. As has been highlighted by many local and international NGOs, women throughout Myanmar face discrimination, violence, and other forms of abuse. Thus, Rohingya women face multiple, overlapping, and reinforcing forms of discrimination based on their ethnicity, religion, and gender. Additionally, given the segregated, squalid, and insecure conditions in Arakan State, Rohingya women are particularly vulnerable to abuse..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Women Peace Network – Arakan (WPNA)
Format/size: pdf (135K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Observations and Topics to be Included in the List of Issues On the occasion of Myanmar’s Combined Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports on the Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: Submitted to the Pre-sessional Working Group of CEDAW..... Introduction: "1. With this submission, the Global Justice Center (GJC) aims to provide guidance to the pre-session Working Group in its preparation of the list of issues to be examined during the Committee to Eliminate Discrimination against Women’s (“Committee”) review of Myanmar’s combined fourth and fifth periodic reports. It highlights several violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) by Myanmar and is based on a report by GJC and the Leitner Center for International Law and Justice (Fordham School of Law) comparing Myanmar’s national plan for the advancement of women against its CEDAW obligations (“Promises Not Progress: Burma’s National Plan for Women Falls Short of Gender Equality and CEDAW (attached hereto). II. Analytic Framework: 2. Since 2011, limited democratic reforms in Myanmar have not improved women’s rights or made any strides towards ensuring gender equality in general. This can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that the focus of the reforms has been on readying Myanmar’s economy for an influx of capital and encouraging foreign investment, rather than on ensuring human rights. Additionally, the way the Government characterizes reforms needs to be carefully considered. For example, in its 2015 periodic report to the CEDAW Committee (“Periodic Report”), the Government asserts that eight laws related to women’s rights have been amended or enacted. However, consideration of these laws reveals that they are laws which provide labor and economic protections generally, not laws seeking to ameliorate the situation of women in Myanmar. In fact, only one of the laws discussed, the Social Security Law, includes specific provisions related to women (maternity leave). 3. Threats to women’s equality in Myanmar exist against an unchanged landscape shaped by a deep history of patriarchy and decades of oppressive military dictatorship. Today, these legacies remain very much alive in the form of fundamental defects that impede genuine legal reform, including legal structures guaranteeing gender equality. 4. In particular, three underlying themes are critical to understanding the complexity of injustice against women in Myanmar and the need for structural reforms in order to effect genuine positive change: (1) ongoing supremacy of military power; (2) entrenchment of military power and gender inequality in the Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (“2008 Constitution”); and (3) lack of an independent judiciary. 5. In this submission, the GJC presents a condensed summary of the facts relating to the violations of the following articles of CEDAW: Articles 1 & 2 (definition and prohibition of discrimination, access to justice, violence against women); Article 3 (guarantee of basic human rights and fundamental freedoms); Article 7 (political participation); Article 10 (education); Article 11 (employment); Article 12 (health); Article 14 (rural women); Article 18 (precise and disaggregated data); General Recommendations 28 and 30 (conflict, post-conflict and conflict prevention). 6. At the end of each section, we suggest a list of issues, questions and clarifications for the Working Group’s consideration..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Justice Center
Format/size: pdf (697K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Recommendations for Implementation of Pro-Poor Land Policy and Land Law in Myanmar: National Data and Regional Practices October 2015
Date of publication: October 2015
Description/subject: Submitted to the Pre-sessional Working Group of CEDAW.....Executive Summary: "Myanmar is undergoing a major transition, opening space for significant change for the first time in decades. Secure land tenure for smallhold er farmers and rural communities is essential in a heavily agrarian nation like Myanmar, where millions in the rural population – nearly 70% of the country – depend on agriculture for their livelihood s. Despite some updates to the legal framework, such as the 2012 Farmland Law and Vacant, Fallow, and Virgin Land Law, millions of Myanmar farmers remain vulnerable with insecure land tenure due to a complex and opaque set of land laws, unresolved historical land grievances, and widespread landlessness. The common aim of Namati and Landesa is to support the development of a protective, pro-poor legal framework, that will empower farmers to use the law, make informed decisions about their land, and maintain secure land tenure – ultimately leading to poverty alleviation for poor, rural women and men:..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Landsea, Namati
Format/size: pdf (672K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: 64th PRE-SESSIONAL WORKING GROUP : THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR - INFORM ATION ON ‘RACE AND RELIGION PROTECTION’ LAWS AND WHRDS.
Date of publication: 29 September 2015
Description/subject: In advance of the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women’s adoption of the list of issues for the Republic of the Union of Myanmar’s fourth and fifth combined periodic reports in November 2015, Amnesty International would like to submit information concerning the adoption in Myanmar of four laws known as the “Protecting race and religion laws” recently approved by Myanmar’s Parliament an d signed into law by the President, and to the situation of Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs). The four laws – the Religious Conversion Law, the Myanmar Buddhist Women’s Special Marriage Law, the Population Control Healthcare Law and the Monogamy Law – contain many provisions which discriminate on multiple grounds, including gender, religion and marital status. Amnesty International and the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) have undertaken a detailed analysis of the four draft laws and concluded that they do not accord with international human rights law and standards, including Myanmar’s legal obligations as a state party to the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). ..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Amnesty International
Format/size: pdf (164K)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: PROMISES NOT PROGRESS: Burma’s National Plan for Women Falls Short of Gender Equality and CEDAW
Date of publication: August 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "In late 2013, the Government of Burma/Myanmar (“the Government”) issued a National Strategic Action Plan for the Advancement of Women 2013-2022 (NSPAW) based in part on its obligations under the Convention to End All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Heralded as a “historic and essential step towards substantive equality between women and men,” NSPAW was released amidst a flurry of other governmental plans, strategies, promises, and actions ostensibly aimed at transforming the country into a democracy. However, conspicuously missing from these reforms, including NSPAW, were deeper systemic overhauls of the many legal, political, cultural and socio-economic barriers to the full enjoyment of human rights in Burma which must underpin any true democracy. The issuance of NSPAW invites assessment of the state of gender equality in Burma, the prospects for NSPAW’s success in meeting its goals, and a comparison between NSPAW and Burma’s international legal obligations under CEDAW. Taking note of the need for such an assessment, as well as the opportunities presented by the forthcoming review of Burma by the CEDAW Committee in July 2016, this report by the Global Justice Center (GJC) and Leitner Center for International Law and Justice (Leitner Center) evaluates NSPAW against the reality for women on the ground in Burma and the Government’s legal obligations under CEDAW. In short, the critical analysis in this report reveals that NSPAW’s provisions are aspirational and ambiguous, without clear guidance on implementation or benchmarks for meaningful evaluation. This report further demonstrates how NSPAW fails to meaningfully grapple with the structural barriers precluding gender equality—including the 2008 Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, decades of armed conflict and the continuing power of the military, antiquated laws and legal frameworks, and the difference between discrimination “in law” and discrimination “in effect”—all of which must be addressed in order to achieve substantive gender equality in Burma..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Global Justice Center, Leitner Center for International Law and Justice
Format/size: pdf (5.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016


Title: Developing Anti-Violence Against Women Laws - Discussion Paper Part 1: Background information
Date of publication: January 2013
Description/subject: "In early 2011, the Department of Social Welfare indicated that it wanted to commence the process of drafting new laws to prevent violence against women (VAW) in Myanmar. Current laws, including descriptions in the Penal Code (1861), indicate that offences involving sexual and gender-based violence do not adequately address women’s experiences of violence, or reflect the contemporary values of Myanmar society. Additionally, legislative reform is needed to bring the body of Myanmar’s laws into greater compliance with CEDAW 1 . In line with international commitments made under CEDAW, the initiative to develop laws on VAW in Myanmar is part of a broader initiative to effect law reform in other areas related to and impacting on gender equality, including laws on property, employment, social security, health, family, and trafficking. The creation of new Violence Against Women laws could effectively fill the gaps in existing legislation, particularly with respect to sexual violence, and clarify issues of conflict between laws by superseding inadequate, inappropriate or discriminatory measures. It could provide specific provisions addressing domestic violence and victim support, where no legislation currently exists. A new law could also strengthen existing provisions in the Constitution and provide a definition of discrimination that harmonizes with CEDAW. Drafting new VAW laws could present an opportunity to mandate training for law enforcement officers and the judiciary in gender and women’s human rights issues, and specific measures could be included to contribute to the development of mechanisms for monitoring enforcement of the laws..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN)
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Developing Anti-Violence Against Women Laws: Discussion Paper Part 2 - Content Options, Myanmar
Date of publication: January 2013
Description/subject: Content: 1 Preamble... 2 Application of the Act and General Provisions... General Equality Provisions... Violence Against Women... Domestic Violence ... Sexual Violence...Violence Against Women in Emergencies... Incest... Stalking... Protections for Victims of Sexual and Gender-based Violence... Compensation...Protection Orders... Duties of Police Officers...Sexual Harassment...Tribunals - Sexual Violence/Gender Discrimination... Training of Government Personnel... Public Education and Awareness Raising...Programs...Monitoring ...Miscellaneous Provisions Registration of Organizations Protecting Women’s Human Rights Implementation... Consequential Amendments to Other Legislation
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN)
Format/size: pdf (2.1MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Myanmar Laws And CEDAW - The Case for Anti‐Violence Against Women Laws (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: January 2013
Description/subject: "Gender equality recognizes that while women and men are physically different, they are entitled to the same opportunities for self realization and the same human dignity. Enhancing women’s security, establishing institutional practices and laws that do not reinforce power imbalances, and providing appropriate mechanisms for redress ‐‐ are essential elements to ensure equality. Whilst laws and policies may state formally that men and women are equal, they must also take into account the prevailing conditions that prevent women from actually experiencing equality. Myanmar acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1997. As part of its treaty obligations, Myanmar has committed to ensuring that its laws uphold women’s rights and advance women’s equality. This Briefing Paper aims to provide background information relevant to women's rights and protection in Myanmar, analysis of existing laws and their compliance with CEDAW norms, and comparative experience from three ASEAN neighbours. The Paper supports the creation of Anti‐Violence Against Women Laws as part of larger law reform strategies..."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English)
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN)
Format/size: pdf (4MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: Myanmar Laws And CEDAW - The Case for Anti‐Violence Against Women Laws (English)
Date of publication: January 2013
Description/subject: "Gender equality recognizes that while women and men are physically different, they are entitled to the same opportunities for self realization and the same human dignity. Enhancing women’s security, establishing institutional practices and laws that do not reinforce power imbalances, and providing appropriate mechanisms for redress ‐‐ are essential elements to ensure equality. Whilst laws and policies may state formally that men and women are equal, they must also take into account the prevailing conditions that prevent women from actually experiencing equality. Myanmar acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1997. As part of its treaty obligations, Myanmar has committed to ensuring that its laws uphold women’s rights and advance women’s equality. This Briefing Paper aims to provide background information relevant to women's rights and protection in Myanmar, analysis of existing laws and their compliance with CEDAW norms, and comparative experience from three ASEAN neighbours. The Paper supports the creation of Anti‐Violence Against Women Laws as part of larger law reform strategies..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Gender Equality Network (GEN)
Format/size: pdf (2.5MB)
Date of entry/update: 04 December 2014


Title: In the Shadow of the Junta - CEDAW Shadow Report by women of Burma (English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 27 October 2008
Description/subject: (Press Release, 27 October 2008): CEDAW shadow report reveals systemic gender discrimination in Burma... "Women’s organizations are today launching a shadow report revealing systemic gender discrimination in Burma, which will be used to review Burma at the 42nd Session of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Committee in Geneva on November 3, 2008. The Women’s League of Burma, together with other community-based organizations around Burma’s borders, has compiled extensive data in the report on how the regime’s failed policies have impacted women and girls, particularly in the areas of education, health, rural development, and violence against women. The findings strongly contradict the claims in the country report by the ruling military regime, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), that women in Burma “enjoy their rights even before they are born.” The report exposes how the regime is profiting from the sale of the country’s natural resources to build up the military and its GONGOs, and how systematic militarization and prioritization of military expenditure has reinforced the existing patriarchal system. It analyzes how the regime’s new constitution not only fails to effectively promote gender equality, but guarantees that the armed forces, an almost exclusively male institution, will control a quarter of seats in the government. The report states: “The face of public life in Burma is male, because the culture of Burma today is profoundly militarized. The military presence pervades every village, town and city, every branch and level of its administration, and every situation involving power and status.” The report exposes how national women’s organizations are merely for show. They are led by wives of SPDC commanders, who promote the regime’s policies and abuse their power at every level. The report reiterates that there can be no advancement of the lives of women and girls in Burma, and no protection and promotion of their rights while the military and its proxy organizations remain in power. “The regime’s road map to disciplined democracy is simply a road-map to further patriarchy,” said Nang Yain (General Secretary of the Women’s League of Burma) “We need genuine political reform to work for gender equality in Burma.”"
Language: English, Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
Source/publisher: Women's League of Burma
Format/size: html, pdf (4.1MB-reduced version; 2.7MB-Burmese)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/WLB-2008-In_the_shadow_of_the_Junta-bu-red.pdf
http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs5/IntheShadow-Junta-CEDAW2008.pdf
http://www.womenofburma.org
Date of entry/update: 05 November 2008


Title: ISSUES TO BE RAISED CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF ROHINGYA CHILDREN IN MYANMAR (BURMA)
Date of publication: November 2003
Description/subject: SUBMISSION TO THE COMMITTEE ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD For the Examination of the 2nd periodic State Party Report of Myanmar... Conclusion: "Rohingya children bear the full brunt of the military regime’s policies of exclusion and discrimination towards the Muslim population of Rakhine State. The combination of the factors listed above, which deny them fundamental human rights, gravely damage their childhood development and will affect the future of the Rohingya community. With regard to Rohingya children, the State Peace and Development Council has failed to implement most of the rights enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which Myanmar ratified in 1991. The Government has also ignored the suggestions and recommendations provided by the Committee in 1997, in particular, paragraph 28 in which “The Committee recommends that the Citizenship Act be repealed” and paragraph 34 which stated: “In the field of the right to citizenship, the Committee is of the view that the State Party should, in light of articles 2 (non-discrimination) and 3 (best interests of the child), abolish the categorization of citizens …” and that “all possibility of stigmatisation and denial of rights recognized by the Convention should be avoided”"
Author/creator: Chris Lewa
Language: English
Source/publisher: Forum Asia
Format/size: pdf (151.35 KB) html (280K) , Word (224K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Lewa-CRC2004.doc
Date of entry/update: 17 July 2010


Title: Gathering Strength - Women from Burma on their Rights
Date of publication: January 2002
Description/subject: Link to the URLs of the individual chapters (pdf): IMAGES ASIA'S CEDAW PROJECT METHODOLOGY: THE AIM OF THIS REPORT 11; THE INTERVIEW PROCESS 11; OBSTACLES ENCOUNTERED DURING RESEARCH 13; DATA ANALYSIS 14; OTHER PROJECT AIMS 17. THE CEDAW & THE GOVERNMENT'S OBLIGATIONS: THE CEDAW & THE INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S RIGHTS MOVEMENT; STRUCTURE OF THE CEDAW; GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS; CEDAW MONITORING MECHANISMS; THE SPDC AT THE 22ND SESSION OF THE CEDAW... MEETINGS & MACHINERY: THE GOVERNMENT'S COMMITMENT TO THE CEDAW: OVERVIEW; THE BURMESE WAY TO EQUALITY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... SOCIAL ROLES & GENDER STEREOTYPES: OVERVIEW; RELIGION & GENDER DISCRIMINATION; PRESERVERS OF CULTURE; FAMILY ROLES; SOCIAL RELATIONS & BEHAVIOURAL NORMS; RESTRICTIONS; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: OVERVIEW; WOMEN IN WAR; RELOCATION & DISPLACEMENT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE & ARMED CONFLICT; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN AREAS OF MILITARY OCCUPATION; SEXUAL VIOLENCE ACROSS BORDERS: REFUGEES & MIGRANTS; SEXUAL VIOLENCE IN THE COMMUNITY; REPORTING & PUNISHMENT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE; FORCED MARRIAGE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN RELOCATION & REFUGE; GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S HEALTH: OVERVIEW; GOVERNMENT HEALTH SPENDING; POLICY, LAW & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATING TO WOMEN'S HEALTH; EDUCATION ABOUT WOMEN'S HEALTH ISSUES; ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE; REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH; MATERNAL HEALTH; WOMEN & HIV/AIDS 120 FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... EDUCATION FOR WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; WOMEN & ILLITERACY; CURRENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE & DROP OUT; BARRIERS TO EDUCATION; DISCRIMINATION IN GIRLS' SCHOOLING; INCENTIVES & OPPORTUNITIES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION; VOCATIONAL TRAINING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... THE ECONOMY & WOMEN'S LABOUR: OVERVIEW; THE ECONOMY; DECISION-MAKING & THE FAMILY INCOME; CULTURAL STEREOTYPES REGARDING WORK; RURAL WOMEN; FORCED LABOUR; EDUCATION & WORK OPPORTUNITIES; WOMEN IN THE PAID LABOUR FORCE; THE CIVIL SERVICE; THE INFORMAL SECTOR; THE PRIVATE SECTOR; LACK OF INFORMAL & PRIVATE SECTOR REGULATION; THE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... MIGRATION & TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN & GIRLS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTION ON WOMEN'S FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT; REGIONAL MIGRATION; TRAFFICKING; SEX WORK; DEPORTATION; ACTIONS TO COMBAT TRAFFICKING; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN & THE LAW: OVERVIEW; FOUNDATIONS OF THE LAW IN BURMA; LAWS RELATING SPECIFICALLY TO WOMEN; THE PRACTICE OF THE LAW; WOMEN & FAMILY LAW; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS: OVERVIEW; RESTRICTIONS ON POLITICAL FREEDOM; INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION; NATIONAL PARTICIPATION; LOCAL PARTICIPATION; WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN OPPOSITION MOVEMENTS; CONSEQUENCES OF POLITICAL ACTIVITY; WOMEN'S POLITICAL ACTIVITIES IN EXILE; WOMEN IN BURMA'S POLITICAL FUTURE; FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS... CONCLUSION... BIBLIOGRAPHY... ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE.
Author/creator: Brenda Belak
Language: English
Source/publisher: Images Asia
Format/size: html (38K)
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003