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Inter-Communal violence and discrimination - global

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Ethnic Cleansing
Description/subject: "Ethnic cleansing is the systematic deliberate removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. The forces applied may be various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as mass murder and genocidal rape. Ethnic cleansing is usually accompanied with the efforts to remove physical and cultural evidence of the targeted group in the territory through the destruction of homes, social centers, farms, and infrastructure, and by the desecration of monuments, cemeteries, and places of worship. Initially used by the perpetrators during the Yugoslav Wars and cited in this context as a euphemism akin to that of Nazi Germany's "Final Solution", by the 1990s the term gained widespread acceptance due to journalism and the media's heightened use of the term in its generic meaning..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 17 September 2017


Individual Documents

Title: Muslim Minorities in Transitional Societies: Different Myanmar Muslim Groups’ Different Experiences In Transition
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: " Political and social liberalizations in Myanmar since 2011 have received wide acclaim especially from the international community. However, the experience on the part of Myanmar has not been a bed of roses. With the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and occurrence of violent sectarian conflicts in 2012 and 2013, the ‘Myanmar Muslim minority’ has caught the headlines and attention of both academic and policy circles in the international domain. It generally hholds true that Myanmar Muslims have experienced social suffering and an identity crisis as a community over the last three years. The issue of the Rohingya, who have suffered most, has understandably become the dominant topic in all the talks and writings on Myanmar Muslims in general. However, there are a few other Muslim minorities whose experiences in the transition have been different depending on their identity and dwelling place. This paper will highlight the experiences of two Muslim groups in Myanmar–ethnic Kamans and Mandalay an Muslims–who have also been affected by the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and violent/non-­violent conflicts and argue that their sufferings different from the Rohingya’s imply that there are Muslim minorities, not a Muslim minority, in Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nyi Nyi Kyaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (421K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Keeping the Faith: A Study of Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion in ASEAN, (Myanmar section)
Date of publication: May 2015
Description/subject: CONCLUSION: "To conclude, the right to freedom of religion is still a very novel concept in Myanmar’s newly emerging political and social milieu. Against the backdrop of Myanmar’s so-called political liberalisation in 2011 and sectarian conflicts that ensued in 2012- 13, the nationwide Buddhist nationalist movement led by Ma-Ba-Tha and the 969 movement’s leaders has emerged and grown. An increasingly populist stance by the ruling Thein Sein administration has emerged, amidst calls by popular democratic leader Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other activists to amend the constitution and to reduce the military’s involvement in politics. Moreover, due to political and moral sensitivities posed by Ma- Ba-Tha and led by senior Buddhist monks, the opposition, except women’s rights groups and human rights networks, have been largely silent about the race protection bills. Due to dominance of the military representatives (25%) and the ruling Union Solidarity and Development Party in the parliament, when the four bills are debated and voted by lawmakers, the liberal opposition may not have a final say in their passage. In an environment of increasingly intense political competition over various issues between the ruling USDP and the NLD (led by Aung San Suu Kyi), both of whom are eyeing the 2015 elections, Ma-Ba-Tha and its influence is expected to grow. If passed, the four race protection bills to restrict religious conversion, polygamy, interfaith marriage and population growth demanded by Ma-Ba-Tha are expected to affect interfaith relationships and freedom of religion especially of minorities. This is because the bills ultimately aim to ensure Buddhist dominance in Myanmar on the pretext of promoting religious harmony. That said, hate speech which has been widespread across Myanmar since sectarian Rakhine riots in June 2012, has been accepted as a serious impediment to Myanmar’s democratization by many activists, commentators and to some extent, by the government itself. The Panzagar movement led by former political prisoner and blogger Nay Phone Latt with the slogan of “End Hate Speech with Flower Speech” has provided a warning to the larger Myanmar society. However, whether those civilian activists including Nay Phone Latt are able to counter the enormous influence that Buddhist Sangha has in Myanmar society is yet to be seen. The fact that a section of people accept that hate speech is dangerous137 does not mean that the “flower speech” campaign will result in the elimination of these messages, nor will it tackle deeper issues for which only the state, and Myanmar people as a whole, can be deemed responsible.".....In addition to the Myanmar section, we include a link to the full report
Language: English
Source/publisher: Human Rights Resource Centre
Format/size: pdf (731K-Myanmar section; 5MB-full report)
Alternate URLs: http://hrrca.org/system/files/Book%20of%20Keeping%20the%20Faith_web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2015


Title: Causes of intolerance and prejudice in Buddhism
Date of publication: 21 July 2014
Description/subject: "A sense of bewilderment is often apparent when news of violence appears with regard to Sri Lanka and Burma. The incredulity could be summarized in two ways. For the Asian Buddhist the idea is dismissed that the teachings of the Buddha could ever lead to hostility. ‘Buddhism’ is airbrushed from the scenes of violence and in its place the only thing seen is the threat to the nation, a threat to the culture and a threat to the religion. For the Western observer there is the idea that those committing these acts are not ‘real’ Buddhists. The original teachings have mingled with culture to such an extent as to become unrecognizable – dig beneath the culture, to the text, and there the ‘real’ message of the Buddha will be found. For the West (and I use the term ‘West’ not in a geographic sense but to imply those societies irrevocably influenced by modernity), Buddhism has to be separated from its cultural environment. This is out of necessity – for it is assumed that Buddhism is not a ‘religion’ at all. It is a pristine ‘other’, standing alone and somewhat aloof from the messiness of the masses. The notion that Buddhism is not a ‘religion is often a shared idea of the modern West and modern Asia..."
Author/creator: Paul Fuller
Language: English
Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 December 2014