VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Drugs > Drugs and Burma > Drugs and Burma: US Government reports

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Drugs and Burma: US Government reports

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Official information and services from the U.S. government
Description/subject: A search for "Burma Drugs" got 96 hits (March 2009)
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Govt.
Format/size: html, pdf
Alternate URLs: http://search.usa.gov/search?query=Burma+Drugs&USA.gov+Search.x=49&USA.gov+Search.y=13
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2010


Title: US Department of State's International Narcotics Control Strategy Reports
Description/subject: Narcotics Control Reports: Reports back to 1996...The Department of State's International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) -- due to Congress March 1st annually -- is prepared in accordance with §489 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (the "FAA," 22 U.S.C. §2291). The INCSR is the United States Government's country-by-country two volume report that describes the efforts to attack all aspects of the international drug trade, chemical control, money laundering and financial crimes. [Note: The annual Narcotics Control Reports have been renamed starting with the March 2005 report to reflect the year they were released to the public. Therefore, there is no "2004 INCSR." The 2005 report covers 2004. The 2006 report covers 2005, etc.]
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: US State Department
Description/subject: A search of the US State Dept. website for Burma Drugs got more than 1000 hits (March 2009)
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Dept. of State
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Individual Documents

Title: 2010 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control
Date of publication: 01 March 2010
Description/subject: Summary: "The annual U.S. government estimate for Burma’s opium production showed that poppy cultivation increased 4 percent to 22,500 ha in 2008 from 21,700 ha in 2007. The U.S. survey found that potential opium production increased 26 percent to 340 metric tons, sufficient to produce 32 metric tons of pure heroin. Ninety-four percent of poppy was grown in Shan State, with limited cultivation observed in Kachin State. A significant downward trend in poppy cultivation observed in Burma since 1998 was reversed in 2007. Preliminary results from “off-season” UNODC surveys of poppy cultivation and production in Burma indicate growers are producing crops during periods not previously associated with poppy cultivation, perhaps to avoid government eradication efforts. The Government of Burma (GOB) made significant steps in poppy eradication efforts over the last decade, a period during which Burma sunk to a distant second after Afghanistan, in world poppy cultivation rankings, but it would seem the direction of cultivation and production have reversed in response to very high regional opium prices in Southeast Asia. Opium farmers are also reportedly taking advantage of efficiencies provided by improved inputs (fertilizer and irrigation systems) to increase yields. The GOB has not provided most opium farmers with access to alternative development opportunities, though UN and other international programs have had some impact. Production and export of synthetic drugs (amphetamine-type stimulants, crystal methamphetamine and Ketamine) from Burma continue unabated. Despite Burma’s overall decline in poppy cultivation since 1998 a dramatic surge has taken place in the production and export of synthetic drugs. The Golden Triangle, where the borders of Burma, Thailand and Laos converge on the Mekong River, is now dotted with drug labs producing synthetic drugs for the Asian market and beyond. Burma is a significant player in the manufacture and regional trafficking of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). Drug gangs based in the Burma-China and Burma-Thailand border areas, many of whose members are ethnic Chinese criminals, produce several hundred million methamphetamine tablets annually for markets in Thailand, China, and India, as well as for onward distribution beyond the region. There are also indications that groups in Burma have increased the production and trafficking of crystal methamphetamine, known as “Ice.”..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (115K - Burma section; 2.87MB - full report)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/137411.pdf
Date of entry/update: 27 April 2010


Title: 2009 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) - Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control: Burma
Date of publication: 27 February 2009
Description/subject: Extracts on Burma: "Both UNODC and U.S. surveys of opium poppy cultivation indicated a significant increase in cultivation and potential production in 2007, and production and export of synthetic drugs (amphetamine-type stimulants, crystal methamphetamine and Ketamine) from Burma continued unabated. (Note: 2008 UNODC Cultivation Report statistics were not available by our printing deadline.) The significant downward trend in poppy cultivation observed in Burma since 1998 was reversed in 2007, with increased cultivation reported in Eastern, Northern and Southern Shan State and Kachin State. Whether this represents a sustained change in poppy cultivation in Burma, which remains far below levels of 10 years earlier, remains to be seen. It does indicate, however, that increases in the value of opium are driving poppy cultivation into new regions. An increased number of households in Burma were involved in opium cultivation in 2007. While Burma remains the second largest opium poppy grower in the world after Afghanistan, its share of world opium poppy cultivation fell from 55 percent in 1998 to 5 percent in 2006, and rose slightly in 2007. This large proportional decrease is due to both decreased opium poppy cultivation in Burma and increased cultivation in Afghanistan, which is now by far the world’s largest opium poppy cultivating region. Burma has not provided most opium farmers with access to alternative development opportunities. Recent trends indicate that some opium farmers were tempted to increase production to take advantage of higher prices generated by opium’s relative scarcity and continuing strong demand. Increased yields in new and remaining poppy fields (particularly in Southern Shan State), spurred by favorable weather conditions in 2007 and improved cultivation practices, partially offset the effects of decreased cultivation in 2006. Burma’s overall decline in poppy cultivation since 1998 has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the production and export of synthetic drugs, turning the Golden Triangle into a new “Ice Triangle.” Burma is a significant player in the manufacture and regional trafficking of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). Drug gangs based in the Burma-China and Burma-Thailand border areas, many of whose members are ethnic Chinese, produce several hundred million methamphetamine tablets annually for markets in Thailand, China, and India, as well as for onward distribution beyond the region. There are also indications that groups in Burma have increased the production and trafficking of crystal methamphetamine or “Ice”."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (119K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2009/vol1/116520.htm (full report0
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: 2009 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) Volume II: Money Laundering and Financial Crimes: Burma
Date of publication: 27 February 2009
Description/subject: "...The Government of Burma has in place a framework to allow mutual legal assistance and cooperation with overseas jurisdictions in the investigation and prosecution of serious crimes. To fully implement a strong anti-money laundering/counterterrorist financing regime, Burma must provide the necessary resources to administrative and judicial authorities who supervise the financial sector so they can apply and enforce the government’s regulations to fight money laundering successfully. Burma must also continue to improve its enforcement of the new regulations and oversight of its financial sector, including its banks, its DNFBPs as well as its NPOs. The GOB should end all government policies that facilitate the investment of drug money and proceeds from other crimes into the legitimate economy. The reporting threshold for cash transactions should be lowered to a realistic threshold that fits the Burmese context and the FIU should become a fully funded independent agency that is allowed to function without interference. Customs should be strengthened and authorities should monitor more carefully the misuse of trade and its role in informal remittance or hawala/hundi networks. Burma should become a party to the UN Convention against Corruption. The GOB should take serious steps to combat smuggling of contraband and its link to the pervasive corruption that permeates all levels of business and government. The GOB should criminalize the financing of terrorism. Finally, the GOB should adhere to all laws and regulations that govern anti-money laundering and terrorist financing to which it is committed by virtue of its membership in the UN and the APG."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (92K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2009/vol2/index.htm (full - global - report)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report Volume I - Drug and Chemical Control : Burma
Date of publication: 29 February 2008
Description/subject: "Burma failed demonstrably to make sufficient efforts during the last 12 months to meet its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements and the counternarcotics requirements set forth in section 489 (a) (1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. Burma still is the largest source of methamphetamine pills in Asia, and pill production continues to grow. Burma’s military government has taken no consistent action against the largest methamphetamine pill manufacturing and trafficking group in Asia, the United Wa State Army, an armed semi-autonomous ethnic minority organization, which has caused considerable hardship for Burma’s neighbors in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. On occasion, Burmese authorities have accepted casualties, in the enforcement of Burma’s anti-narcotics laws, but overall Burma has not mounted a serious, direct, and effective confrontation of the known narcotics manufactures and traffickers operating from its territory. The military regime appears to deal inconsistently with suspected drug traffickers, in some cases moving sharply against them to enforce anti-narcotics laws and, in other cases, seeming to tolerate their criminality, if not encourage it. Declining poppy cultivation has been matched by a sharp increase in the production and export of synthetic drugs..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (129K)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report Volume I Drug and Chemical Control
Date of publication: 29 February 2008
Description/subject: Search for Burma... "Burma failed demonstrably to make sufficient efforts during the last 12 months to meet its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements and the counternarcotics requirements set forth in section 489 (a) (1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. Burma still is the largest source of methamphetamine pills in Asia, and pill production continues to grow. Burma’s military government has taken no consistent action against the largest methamphetamine pill manufacturing and trafficking group in Asia, the United Wa State Army, an armed semi-autonomous ethnic minority organization, which has caused considerable hardship for Burma’s neighbors in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. On occasion, Burmese authorities have accepted casualties, in the enforcement of Burma’s anti-narcotics laws, but overall Burma has not mounted a serious, direct, and effective confrontation of the known narcotics manufactures and traffickers operating from its territory..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (92K - Extracts; 6.43MB - full report))
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/102583.pdf (full - global - report)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: 2008 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report Volume II Money Laundering and Financial Crimes: Burma
Date of publication: 29 February 2008
Description/subject: Extracts on Burma: "Burma, a major drug-producing country, has taken steps to strengthen its anti-money laundering regulatory regime in 2007. The country’s economy remains dominated by state-owned entities, including the military. Agriculture and extractive industries, including natural gas, mining, logging and fishing provide the major portion of national income, with heavy industry and manufacturing playing minor roles. The steps Burma has taken over the past several years have reduced vulnerability to drug money laundering in the banking sector. However, with an underdeveloped financial sector and large volume of informal trade, Burma remains a country where there is significant risk of drug money being funneled into commercial enterprises and infrastructure investment. Traffic in narcotics, people, wildlife, gems, timber, and other contraband flow through Burma. Regionally, value transfer via trade is of concern and hawala/hundi networks frequently use trade goods to provide counter-valuation. Burma’s border regions are difficult to control and poorly patrolled. In some remote regions active in smuggling, there are continuing ethnic tensions with armed rebel groups that hamper government control. Collusion between traffickers and Burma’s ruling military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), allows organized crime groups to function with virtual impunity. Although progress was made in 2007, the criminal underground faces little risk of enforcement and prosecution. Corruption in business and government is a major problem. Burma is ranked 179 out of 179 countries in Transparency International’s 2007 Corruption Perception Index..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: pdf (92K)
Date of entry/update: 06 March 2009


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report-2001
Date of publication: 01 March 2002
Description/subject: (Section on Southeast Asia and the Pacific). Scroll down for Burma. 'The "International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR)" for 2001 is the Department of State's annual report on illicit drug-control and money laundering activities in more than 140 countries. It is the only comprehensive United States Government publication that addresses global illicit drug-control activities outside the United States. The report covers countries that range from major drug producing and drug-transit countries, where drug control is a critical element of national policy, to small countries or entities where drug issues or the capacity to deal with them are minimal. The reports vary in the extent of their coverage, depending on the information available from host country authorities...'
Language: English
Source/publisher: (US) Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Format/size: HTML and PDF (737K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/8699.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 2000
Date of publication: March 2001
Description/subject: Scroll down for Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Format/size: HTML (317K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/nrcrpt/2000/891.htm
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35910.htm
Date of entry/update: 11 June 2010


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1999
Date of publication: March 2000
Description/subject: Scroll down for Burma
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, SE Asia and the Pacific
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1998
Date of publication: February 1999
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1997
Date of publication: March 1998
Language: English
Source/publisher: US Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Format/size: Scroll down for Burma
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


Title: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996
Date of publication: March 1997
Language: English
Source/publisher: Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Format/size: Scroll down for Burma
Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003