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Title: Ethnic Armed Actors and Justice Provision in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: October 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic armed actors (EAAs). These included ethnic armed organizations (EAOs), with ceasefires or in conflict with the state, as well as state-backed ethnic paramilitary organizations, such as the Border Guard Forces (BGFs) and People’s Militia Forces (PMFs). Despite this seeming recipe for chaos, there is a startling level of order in most of these areas. This order has been created in large part through customary justice mechanisms at the community level, and as a result of justice systems administered by EAAs, and in some cases by ethnic paramilitary organizations. In EAO-controlled areas, their justice systems are often the only formal structures present, while in mixed-control areas, government and EAA justice systems exist separately, but side by side. The village, and village-based justice mechanisms, are the glue that provides stability and order for most civilians in these areas. Often reliant on a long tradition of customary law and practices, village heads and village justice committees handle civil disputes and petty crimes – the bulk of justice issues in these areas. EAAs have built their justice systems on top of the village structures, relying on them to handle most justice issues, while requiring more serious crimes to be handled in EAO courts, which are also available for appeals from the village level. On paper, at least, EAA justice systems are hierarchical, allowing for referral up the chain from village tract to township to district to the center. These structures, often backed by official procedures, also provide for the assignment of progressively more serious cases and progressively more severe punishments at each level. Judicial procedures differ between organizations, with some following a more formal model while other systems are more rudimentary. In practice, there may be variation from established procedures due to the ebb and flow of conflict, the capacity of an organization in a given area, or the personal connections of an individual to members of an EAA. Internal security for most EAOs is provided by their regular soldiers and militia they establish at the local level. These formations commonly function as arresting agencies as well as jailers. A few EAOs have established police forces dedicated to preserving public order among the populace. Criminal investigations are usually conducted by EAO administrative authorities, except in the case of the Karen National Union (KNU), which has a police force authorized for this. Village customary justice and EAA justice structures have continued to maintain order in EAA areas through periods of conflict and ceasefire. Without the EAA justice systems and the stabilizing effect of village customary justice structures, this order and stability would have been far less likely. 1 In many areas of Myanmar where EAAs operate, the central government has only ever had tenuous control, if any control at all. The ability of EAOs to maintain order and a degree of justice in turn contributes to their legitimacy among the population they claim to represent in areas they control, in mixed-control areas, and often to some degree in government-control areas adjacent to conflict zones where members of the group’s ethnic base also reside. The rule of law and the workings of Myanmar’s justice system are receiving increasing attention, while the role and structure of EAO justice systems and village justice remain relatively little studied or understood. The continuity and stability of village justice systems provide the bedrock on which official justice systems – the government’s and the EAOs’ – are built, and thus are important to maintaining order and stability across the country. The fact that EAO justice systems operate in parallel with that of the government in large areas of the country, and provide the only means of justice for large portions of the population, should indicate their importance for the peace process as well as for the future governance of Myanmar"
Author/creator: Brian McCartan and Kim Jolliffe
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB-reduced version; 3.4MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Ethnic-Armed-Actors-and-Justice-Provision-in-M...
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2016


Title: Ethnic Armed Actors and Justice Provision in Myanmar - တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္အုပ္စုမ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္ေရးစနစ္မ်ား ဘ႐ိုင္ယန္ မ
Date of publication: October 2016
Description/subject: အဓိကအခ်က္မ်ားေကာက္ႏႈတ္ခ်က္ ႏွစ္ေပါင္းမ်ားစြာ ျဖစ္ပြါးေနေသာ ျပည္တြင္းစစ္၏ အက်ဳိးဆက္ေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာေတာင္တန္းနယ္ေျမအမ်ားစုသည္ အစိုးရထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈ ေဘာင္အျပင္ဖက္ သို႔မဟုတ္ အစိုးရ ႏွင့္ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္ အဓိကဇာတ္ေကာင္မ်ား (EAAs) ၏ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈ၊ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈ ေရာေထြးေနေသာ အေနအထားအတြင္းတြင္ ရွိေနၾကဆဲ ျဖစ္သည္။ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္ အဓိက ဖာတ္ေကာင္းမ်ား (EAAs) ] ဟုဆိုရာတြင္ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား (EAOs) (အပစ္ရပ္ထားေသာ (သို႔မဟုတ္) ပ႗ိပကၡဆက္လက္ျဖစ္ပြားလွ်က္ရွိေသာ) အျပင္ နယ္ျခားေစာင့္တပ္မ်ား (BGF) ႏွင့္ ျပည္သူ႔စစ္အဖြဲ႔(PMF) တို႔ ကဲ့သို႔ေသာ အစိုးရေနာက္ခံျပဳ တပ္မေတာ္ကြပ္ကဲမႈေအာက္ရွိ လက္နက္ကိုင္ထားေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသားအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား (State-backed ethnic paramilitary organization) ပါ၀င္ပါသည္။ ထို႔ေၾကာင္႔ ဖ႐ိုဖရဲျဖစ္ေနသည္ဟုထင္ရေသာ္လည္း ၎နယ္ေျမအမ်ားစုတြင္ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးေရး စတင္မႈအဆင့္တြင္ ရွိေနၾကၿပီျဖစ္သည္။ ယင္းဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမႈ သည္ ရပ္ရြာအဆင့္တြင္ ဓေလ့ထံုးတမ္းအရ တရားစီရင္ျခင္းစနစ္ႏွင့္ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္ အဓိက ဇာတ္ေကာင္မ်ား (EAAs)၊ တခါတရံ တပ္မေတာ္ကြပ္ကဲမႈေအာက္ရွိ လက္နက္ကိုင္ထားေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသားအဖြဲ႕အစည္းမ်ား (ethnic paramilitary organization) စီမံခန္႔ခြဲေသာ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္တို႔ေၾကာင့္ ေနရာအေတာ္မ်ားမ်ားတြင္ အဓိကျဖစ္ေပၚလာခဲ့သည္။ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔မ်ား ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ေသာ နယ္ေျမမ်ားတြင္ ၎တို႔၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားသည္ တရားဝင္ပံုစံ တစ္ခုတည္းသာရွိေသာ္လည္း ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈေရာယွက္ေနေသာ နယ္ေျမမ်ား တြင္မူ အစိုးရႏွင့္ လက္နက္ကိုင္ထားေသာ တိုင္းရင္းသားအဖြဲ႔မ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားသည္ သီးျခားစီတည္ရွိေနေသာ္လည္း ရပ္တည္ခ်က္ မွာ အတူတူပင္ျဖစ္သည္။ ၎နယ္ေျမမ်ားရွိ အရပ္သားအမ်ားစုအတြက္ တည္ၿငိမ္မႈႏွင့္ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမႈတို႔ကို ျဖည့္ဆည္းေပးေသာအရာမွာ ေက်းရြာႏွင့္ ေက်းရြာအေျချပဳ တရားစီရင္မႈ စနစ္မ်ားျဖစ္သည္။ အဆိုပါနယ္ေျမမ်ားတြင္ အျဖစ္မ်ားေသာ တရားမေၾကာင္းႏွင့္ အေသးစားရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားကို ေက်းရြာသူႀကီးႏွင့္ ေက်းရြာတရားစီရင္ေရးေကာ္မတီမ်ားက အစဥ္အလာဓေလ့ထံုးတမ္းဥပေဒမ်ားကို အမွီျပဳ၍ ကိုင္တြယ္ေျဖရွင္းေလ့ရွိၾကသည္။ တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ကိုင္အဓိကဇာတ္ေကာင္မ်ား(EAAs)သည္ ၎တို႔၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားကို ေက်းရြာဖြဲ႔စည္းပံု၏ ထိပ္တြင္ထည့္သြင္းထားၿပီး ယင္းတို႔ကို အမွီျပဳ၍ အမႈကိစၥမ်ားကို ကိုင္တြယ္ၾကသည္။ ျပင္းထန္ေသာရာဇဝတ္မႈမ်ားကိုမူ တိုင္းရင္းသားလက္နက္ကိုင္အဖြဲ႔အစည္းမ်ား (EAOs) ၏ တရား႐ံုးမ်ားတြင္ ေျဖရွင္းရန္လိုအပ္ၿပီး ၎တရား႐ံုးမ်ားသို႔ ေက်းရြာအဆင့္မွ အယူခံလႊာတင္သြင္းႏိုင္သည္။ စာရြက္ေပၚမွ ဖြဲ႔စည္းပံုအရ EAO မ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားသည္ အထက္မွေအာက္သို႔ အဆင့္ဆင့္ဖြဲ႕စည္းထားၿပီး ရပ္ေက်း၊ ၿမိဳ႕နယ္၊ ခ႐ိုင္၊ ဗဟိုအဆင့္ဆင့္တင္ျပရန္ ခြင့္ျပဳထားသည္။ တရားဝင္ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမ်ား ျဖင့္ ပံ့ပိုးထားေသာ ၎တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားသည္ အဆင့္တိုင္းတြင္ ပိုမိုျပင္းထန္ေသာ အမႈအခင္းမ်ားကို စစ္ေဆးရန္ႏွင့္ ပိုမိုျပင္းထန္ေသာ ျပစ္ဒဏ္မ်ား ခ်မွတ္ရန္ ခြင့္ေပးထားသည္။ EAO မ်ားအၾကား တရားစီရင္မႈ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမ်ား ကြာျခားမႈရွိၿပီး အခ်ဳိ႕က ပံုစံတက်ရိွမႈကို လိုက္ပါက်င့္သံုးၾကၿပီး အခ်ဳိ႕က အေျခခံက်လြန္းေသာပံုစံကို ဆုပ္ကိုင္ထားၾက သည္။ လက္ေတြ႔တြင္မူ ပဋိပကၡ သံသရာ၊ နယ္ေျမအတြင္း အဖြဲ႔အစည္း၏ စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္၊ EAA အဖြဲ႔ဝင္မ်ားႏွင့္ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေရးဆက္ႏြယ္မႈ စသည္တို႔ေၾကာင့္ ေရးဆြဲထားေသာ လုပ္ထံုးလုပ္နည္းမ်ားႏွင့္ ကြဲျပားမႈမ်ားရွိႏိုင္သည္။ EAO အမ်ားစုအတြက္ အဖြဲ႕တြင္းလံုၿခံဳမႈကို ၎တို႔၏ အၿမဲတမ္းတပ္ဖြဲ႔ဝင္မ်ားႏွင့္ ေဒသတြင္းအဆင့္တြင္ ၎တို႔ဖြဲ႕စည္းထားေသာ ျပည္သူ႕စစ္အဖြဲ႕မ်ားက တာဝန္ယူၾကသည္။ ၎တပ္ဖြဲ႕ဝင္မ်ားကပင္ တရားခံဖမ္းျခင္း၊ အခ်ဳပ္ခန္းေစာင့္ၾကပ္ျခင္းတို႔ကို ေဆာင္ရြက္ၾကသည္။ ရပ္ရြာအတြင္း လူထုလံုၿခံဳေရးေဆာင္ရြက္ရန္ရည္ရြယ္၍ ရဲဌာန ဖြဲ႔စည္းထားေသာ EAO အနည္းစု ရွိသည္။ ရာဇဝတ္မႈစံုစမ္းစစ္ေဆးရာတြင္ ရဲဌာနကို အခြင့္အာဏာေပးထားေသာ ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသားအစည္းအ႐ံုး (KNU) အဖြဲ႔မွလြဲလွ်င္ မ်ားေသာ အားျဖင့္ EAO အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေရးအာဏာပိုင္မ်ားက လုပ္ေဆာင္ေလ့ရွိသည္။ ေက်းရြာဓေလ့ထံုးတမ္းတရားစီရင္မႈႏွင့္ EAAမ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားသည္ ပ႗ိပကၡကာလႏွင့္ အပစ္ရပ္ကာလမ်ားတစ္ေလွ်ာက္ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမႈကို ထိန္းသိမ္းရန္ ဆက္လက္ တည္ရွိခဲ့ၿပီးျဖစ္သည္။ EAA မ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ား ႏွင့္ တည္ၿငိမ္ေစသည့္ သက္ေရာက္မႈရွိေသာ ေက်းရြာဓေလ့တရားစီရင္မႈ မရွိပါက ဤသို႔တည္ၿငိမ္ၿပီး တရားဥပေဒစိုးမိုးႏိုင္စရာအေၾကာင္းမရွိေပ။1 ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံရွိ EAA မ်ားလႈပ္ရွားေသာ နယ္ေျမအမ်ားစုတြင္ ဗဟိုအစိုးရအေနႏွင့္ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ႏိုင္မႈရွိခဲ့လွ်င္လည္း အနည္းငယ္ေသာ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈသာလွ်င္ ရွိသည္။ EAO မ်ား၏ ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမႈႏွင့္ တရားစီရင္မႈ ထိန္းသိမ္း ႏိုင္စြမ္းသည္ ၎တို႔ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္ေသာ နယ္ေျမမ်ား၊ ထိန္းခ်ဳပ္မႈေရာေႏွာေနေသာနယ္ေျမမ်ား၊ ႏွင့္ ရံဖန္ရံ ခါသက္ဆိုင္ရာတိုင္းရင္းသားလူမ်ိဳးစုမ်ား ေနထိုင္ၿပီး ပဋိပကၡဇုန္မ်ား ႏွင့္ ကပ္ေနေသာ အစိုးရထိန္းခ်ဳပ္နယ္ေျမမ်ားအခ်ိဳ႕ရွိ ၎တို႔ကိုယ္စားျပဳသည့္ လူထုအသိုင္းအဝိုင္းမ်ားအၾကားတြင္ တရားဝင္မႈ ရရွိႏိုင္စြမ္းအေပၚတြင္ အျပန္အလွန္အားျဖင့္ သက္ေရာက္မႈရွိသည္။ EAO မ်ား၏ တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ား ဖြဲ႔စည္းပံုႏွင့္ ေက်းလက္တရားစီရင္မႈပံုစံမ်ားကို အနည္းအက်ဥ္းမွ်သာ သိရွိနားလည္ေသးေသာ္လည္း ဥပေဒစိုးမိုးမႈႏွင့္ ျမန္မာ့တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ား အလုပ္လုပ္ပံုတို႔အေပၚ ေက်းလက္တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ား၏ စဥ္ဆက္မျမတ္မႈႏွင့္ တည္ၿငိမ္မႈတို႔ သည္ အစိုးရႏွင့္ EAO မ်ား၏ တရားဝင္တရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ား တည္ေဆာက္ရန္ အမာခံအုတ္ျမစ္သဖြယ္ ျဖည့္ဆည္းေပးၿပီး ႏိုင္ငံတစ္ဝွမ္း တည္ၿငိမ္မႈႏွင့္ ေအးခ်မ္းမႈထိမ္းသိမ္းေရး၏ အေရးႀကီးေသာ အစိတ္အပိုင္းျဖစ္ၾကသည္။ EAO တရားစီရင္မႈ စနစ္မ်ားက ႏိုင္ငံ၏နယ္ေျမ အမ်ားစုတြင္ အစိုးရတရားစီရင္မႈစနစ္မ်ားႏွင့္ အၿပိဳင္လည္ပတ္လုပ္ေဆာင္ေနၿပီး လူထုအသိုင္းအဝိုင္းအမ်ားစုအတြက္ တရားစီရင္မႈဆိုင္ရာ နည္းလမ္းမ်ား ျဖစ္ေနေသာအခ်က္ေၾကာင့္ ယင္းစနစ္မ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ အနာဂါတ္စီမံအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈႏွင့္ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္အတြက္ အေရးပါေၾကာင္း ညႊန္ျပသင့္ရွိသည္။
Author/creator: Brian McCartan and Kim Jolliffe
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (6.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs23/AF-2016-10-Ethnic-Armed-Actors-and-Justice-Provision-in-Myanmar-...
Date of entry/update: 23 November 2016


Title: Our Customary Lands - Community-Based Sustainable Natural Resource Management in Burma
Date of publication: 05 July 2016
Description/subject: Executive summary: "In January 2016 the government adopted a National Land Use Policy, which included the recognition of customary land management practices. While this is a welcome first step in the necessary integration of Burma’s customary land management systems with the national-level system, there is an urgent need for constitutional reform and devolution of land management powers prior to any such integration. This report by the Ethnic Community Development Forum (ECDF) presents how Burma’s diverse customary land management systems in seven ethnic communities are structured, and provides ideas for how these systems could be supported and potentially integrated into a future devolved federal national land management system. Customary land management systems have co-existed with the national land management system in Burma for centuries. The national land management system is highly centralized and has facilitated widespread land grabbing for natural resource extraction and agribusiness projects, resulting in loss of livelihoods and environmental degradation throughout the country. Updated Land Laws adopted in 2012 were based on poorly defined land classification and despite some democratic reforms, the military maintains a central role in land management through the General Administration Department. Upland agricultural lands – mainly tilled by ethnic nationalities practicing shifting cultivation – are defined by law as either forest lands or as vacant, virgin and fallow lands. Lands defined as “vacant, virgin and fallow” are particularly problematic as these are designated for “State Economic Development” and contracted to extractive industries, agribusiness and infrastructure development projects. Customary land management systems have operated independently of the national government since colonial days and independence, due to lack of government access into remote ethnic areas and decades of civil war. In recent years, ethnic resistance governments in Karen and Mon States have developed their own land registration and management systems in order to protect the land rights and interests of ethnic farmers in areas governed by these ethnic governments. These systems, in contrast to the national land management systems, are decentralized and have evolved/adapted to local situations and needs, prioritizing sustainable livelihoods and environmental protection. The ECDF has conducted grassroots participatory research and issued publications on customary land systems in Burma’s ethnic states since 2014. This has included: conducting a household survey in 26 townships; commissioning a report on international experiences with customary land management systems; and facilitating participatory community research in order to document the land management systems in seven ethnic villages located in six states. Summary findings of this research include: a) Customary practices have been passed on for many generations and have sustained strong connections between villagers and their lands: Communities that are practicing customary land management have been living on their lands for many generations, passing their lands and traditions onto their children and grandchildren. Community members regard land as more than just a commodity which has no spiritual connection to the nature that has produced these resources. The administrative and cultural institutions that have arisen among ethnic groups over numerous generations of living on their lands are tied closely to the geographic features of their lands, as well as the experiences about how to best conserve surrounding natural resources in order to survive and prosper. Everyday customs and traditions, including the roles of those governing customary lands, are woven into the natural environment where communities are based and the corresponding worldview that community members have received from their ancestors. b) Customary practices provide sustainable environmental protection: Nearly all communities practicing customary land management reside in forests, and therefore are dependent upon the health of these forest lands for their survival and livelihoods. Customary communities have developed land use rules and regulations which have allowed sustainable use of the forest for food, shelter and medicine without endangering long-term ecological health. Villagers also preserve their natural resources by respecting the spirits of the trees, lakes, water resources, animals and lands on ‘auspicious’ days each year and through composing stories and poems in order to teach the new generations about protecting the community’s natural resources. Customary Land communities have established a number of land use zones (community forests, protected forests, reserved forests, use forests, watersheds, conservation areas and wildlife conservation zones) – each with explicit rules that regulate the use of the lands and natural resources. There is a wide range of classifi cations for these conservation areas. c) Customary practices provide self-reliant and ecologically sustainable livelihoods: A vast majority of community needs are produced or collected from local lands, forests and waters. Apart from organized production of foods – through lowland and hillside agriculture as well as livestock breeding – forest resources provide supplementary foods (wild fruits, vegetables and animals); materials for housing and clothes; and herbal medicines. These communities have regulations that prioritize ecologically sustainable, equitable and needs-based production rather than extraction for sales and profit. d) Customary practices provide local communities with eff ective decentralized and participatory governance and judiciary systems: Governance, judiciary and administrative systems exist in the communities that have evolved over generations and are both participatory and resilient. Community members view the rules and regulations as their own, and therefore adhere to them much more closely than a set of regulations imposed upon them by outsiders. Elected village committees (including specific committees for land, water and forest management) update, arbitrate and enforce village land regulations. Important decisions are made with the participation of a majority of the villagers. Customary land management systems are holistic and incorporate all lands, waterways and forests within specified village boundaries. Customary land management structures and policies have been integrated nationally in countries on every continent. International institutions – including the World Bank – have stated the effectiveness and effi ciency advantages of communal and customary tenure over formal individual titles. The World Bank has also urged caution about state-led intervention in land tenure systems, suggesting building on existing systems. Protection and recognition of ethnic customary land management systems is an important component in achieving sustainable peace and must be enshrined in a future federal constitution and decentralized legal framework – one example of this is outlined at the end of this report. In order to protect these lands and systems until peace accords, constitutional amendments and new land legislation formalizing these systems have been fi nalized, there should be a moratorium on land acquisition in areas where customary land management systems are being implemented or were implemented before displacement due to armed conflicts."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Ethnic Community Development Forum
Format/size: pdf (9.1MB-reduced version; 13.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ecdfburma.org
Date of entry/update: 05 July 2016


Title: Women’s Access to Justice in the Plural Legal System of Myanmar
Date of publication: 22 April 2016
Description/subject: "Justice Base, with support from UN Women, led a participatory action research project over eight months in 2014 to examine women’s access to justice in the plural legal system of Myanmar. Situated in the constellation of various justice studies being conducted in the country, this report places fundamental importance on documenting women’s experiences with and perceptions of the formal and informal legal systems. Researchers sought to identify the formal and informal processes, decision-makers, and institutions that play a role in resolving disputes involving women in Myanmar. In communities with little access to government legal institutions or where the formal system is not used or not functioning, the project emphasised recording customary legal processes and how they impacted women’s justice claims. The intent was not to determine which system was “better” or more favourable to women, but rather to illuminate the justice obstacles and enablers in each. This qualitative study was conducted in four geographic target areas that included urban and semi-rural areas of Chin State, Mon State, Kachin State and the city of Yangon. Local research teams used focus group discussions, key informant interviews and participatory mapping activities to collect information from over 400 community members, legal practitioners, local administrators and other key stakeholders. Consultations and data validation sessions were iteratively held with partner organisations to further ensure that women and peer groups could articulate their positions and preferred strategies for improving their access to justice. The project did not focus on specified thematic issues (for example, land rights or domestic violence), but rather provided a broad space for women and men from target communities to self-identify what they saw as women’s most pressing legal concerns. Research participants identified domestic violence, sexual assault and traditional inheritance practices as the most prevalent injustices women faced. Women also described these issues as the least likely to be submitted for adjudication by formal or informal legal mechanisms. The avoidance of justice systems in response to these events was explained in part by several women and men respondents who defined family matters – those between a husband and wife or parents and children – as situated outside the jurisdiction of law..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Justice Base, UN Women
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www2.unwomen.org/~/media/field%20office%20eseasia/docs/publications/2016/04/myanmar%20resear...
Date of entry/update: 05 July 2016


Title: Law and Economic Development: The Cautionary Tale of Colonial Burma
Date of publication: January 2014
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burmese colonial history suggests that a legal system cannot operate independently from the felt needs of the people who are supposed to obey the law. Despite a monopoly of force for many decades, the British failed to create a sustainable legal system in Burma. Colonial status shifted Burma’s economic role from subsistence agriculture to the generation of large-scale exports. By undermining the traditional Burmese legal system and substituting Western international standards of property rights, enforceability of contracts, and an independent judiciary — all attributes of what some consider to be the “Rule of Law”— the legal system amplified and channelled destructive economic and social forces rather than containing them. This paper examines traditional Burmese law, the administration of law in British Burma, and the consequences of the new legal system for the country and its own stability. The paper concludes by suggesting lessons for Myanmar today, and for the study of the “Rule of Law." ..... Keywords: Rule of Law, colonial law, law and custom, law and development, colonial administration, Burma, Myanmar
Author/creator: Thomas H. Stanton
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asian Journal of Law and Society / FirstView Article / January 2014, pp 1 - 1
Format/size: pdf (312K-original; 252K-reduced version)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/Stanton-2014-01-Law_and_Economic_Development-Burma-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 September 2015


Title: The governance palimpsest: order maintenance in Southeast Burma
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Focus on Karen refugees....."The force of habit, the awe of traditional command and a sentimental attachment to it, the desire to satisfy public opinion - all combine to make custom be obeyed for its own sake. In this the ‘savages’ do not differ from the members of any self-contained community with a limited horizon, whether this be an Eastern European ghetto, an Oxford college, or a Fundamentalist Middle West community. But love of tradition, conformism and the sway of custom account but to a very partial extent for obedience to rules among dons, savages, peasants, or Junkers. [. . .] in the main these rules are followed because their practical utility is recognized by reason and testified by experience." (Malinowski 1926).....Re the attached sales flyer for the book, the publishers say that a paperback version will be out in July or August.
Author/creator: Kirsten McConnachie
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Governing Refugees - Justice, Order and Legal Pluralism" (Chapter 4)
Format/size: pdf (619K)
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2015


Title: The struggle for ownership of justice
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "We lawyers just cannot help being Darwinian. We simply cannot shake off our assumption that some legal cultures are more developed than others. We prefer written law to oral law; we are happier with professional judges than with people’s rough justice; and — need I say? — we just love cultures that have their own lawyers.".....Re the attached sales flyer for the book, the publishers say that a paperback version will be out in July or August. (Andrew Huxley 2011)
Author/creator: Kirsten McConnachie
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Governing Refugees - Justice, Order and Legal Pluralism" (Chapter 6)
Format/size: pdf (599K)
Date of entry/update: 24 February 2015