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International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies (ICBMS) 23-26 July, 2015

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies (ICBMS) 23-26 July, 2015
Date of publication: 23 July 2015
Description/subject: "Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges".....About 100 papers and more abstracts on the site - see "papers & abstracts" in the right-hand column.
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chiangmai University
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 July 2015


Individual Documents

Title: Micro Level Study on Socio-­economic Situation of Sinlan Village, Pyin Oo Lwin Township: A Geographic Perspectives
Date of publication: 04 September 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Socio­‐economic situation means an individual's or a group's position within a hierarchical social structure. Socio-­economic status depends on a combination of variables, including occupation, education, income, wealth, and place of residence. While sociologists often use socio-­economic status as a means of predicting behavior, geographers used to focus on that position with the relations to or reference of a place or space or a region. Therefore, in this paper, the variables of the social and economic status of a small village will be examined at an individual level with the respects of location, physical phenomena, human resource, land use pattern and the environmental perception of the rural dwellers from Sinlan Village. This village is located about 1km northwest of Pyin Oo Lwin town. It lies at an elevation of about 1,160 meters above sea level so that it receives temperate climate. As consequence, the main economy and living style of the village is quite different to that of the others. Random sampling method was used to define the number of households to be visited and interviewing and field observation methods are also applied to collect the necessary data by the teachers and PhD preliminary students from Geography Department, Mandalay University. The field survey was made in February,2015.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nyo Nyo and Soe Sandar San
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015


Title: Migration as a Challenge for Myanmar’s Socio-economic Development: Case Studies of Hpa-­an and Mrauk-­U townships in Myanmar
Date of publication: 04 September 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Migration is the act or process of moving from one place to another with the intent of staying at the destination permanently or for a relatively long period of time (1992, Longman). It can also be assumed that people move from one place to another, usually their home place, to work or to settle in another place. As basic factors, migration take place an area where the migrants believe that their opportunity and life circumstances will be better at their destinations than the present location. Nevertheless, if an area where takes place a movement of in-­migration because of positive conditions (pull factors), this will be generally increased the population or human resources. Similarly, if an area where takes place a movement of out-­migration due to negative conditions (push factors), this area will lose their population or human resources. Some time it affects the negative impacts and potential challenges for sustainable socio-­economic development of this area. Therefore, this study is based on some specific areas of Myanmar: Hpa-­an Township, Kayin State and Mrauk-­U Township, Rakhine State where migration process takes place by focusing the question of how and why the people are migrating in these areas. This paper is intended to explore the migration patterns of these are as and to point out the main reasons of push and pull factors for these migrations. To obtain the relevant data, it is analyzed with field observation and in semi-­structured in-­depth interview survey method to the local authorities, experts and local people. Some of the facts from the interview data are assessed by SWOT Analysis to know the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats due to migration. As a result from this study, economic condition is the key factor of the migration for the study areas and that effect on the socioeconomic condition of these areas.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Saw Yu May
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (725K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 04 September 2015


Title: Environmental Damage and Poverty Migration among Myanmar and its Neighbors
Date of publication: 28 August 2015
Description/subject: "In recent years migration studies have theorized that 21st-century migration is following patterns that both incorporate and diverge from academic and policymaking explanations of late 20th-century migration. The case of Myanmar, whose out-migration is well-known and well-enumerated, nevertheless shows both a less-known pattern of in-migration in rural areas as well as environmental (and not only economic) factors in both in- and out- migration. James Clifford’s earlier, Asia-Pacific-focused work Routes, published in 1997, was influential in modifying the conventional academic foci on migration. Addressing the “subjectivity” of the ethnographers of peoples and migrations and their subjects as more an issue of shared, though differing, ideas of movement and space, he brought a new awareness of the interplay between semantic webs purportedly possessed by fieldwork subjects and their would-be interpreters among scholars. He followed this work with a particular narrative of Native American migration in Returns, published in 2013. Both of these works open the door for new attempts to study and interview migrants in their own situations and to grasp the diversity of migration beyond push-pull factors. One burgeoning methodology within this new research initiative was that of ethnographic interviews with migrants. Clifford had revealed an extremely human, molecularly detailed side of interviewees and respondents. Newer works began to concentrate almost exclusively on the migrants’ own narratives and to pull slighter, more localized explanations from them in the same mode as Charmaz’s grounded theory. Here were the roots of ‘new migration’ ideas. With the wealth of published data becoming available from migrants worldwide, small and large differences between their experiences and general migration theory became more apparent...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Lynn Thiesmeyer
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (69K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: Breastfeeding Promotion and Protection for Maternal, Infant and Childhood Health and Nutrition in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 August 2015
Description/subject: "The Government of Myanmar has demonstrated their interest and commitment to promoting and protecting breast feeding and to improve Maternal, Infant and Child Health and Nutrition with the launching of Scaling Up Nutrition(SUN) Movement in 2013 and the adoption of a new Food Law “The Order of Marketing of Formulated Food for infant and Young Child” (OMFFIYC) in 2014. The SUN Movement is a global movement founded on the principle that all people have a right to food and good nutrition and it unites people from government, civil society, United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers in a collective effort to improve nutrition and eradicate malnutrition. In February, 2014, the SUN Movement partnered with the Civil Society Alliance (CSA), a sectorial network of NGO’s and CBO’s, for addressing food security and nutrition and to confirm active engagement of executive level political leadership. With of the adoption of the new National Food Law (OMFFIYC), the Government of Myanmar is striving: (1) to support and protect breastfeeding for infants and young children (2) to ensure appropriate use of breast-­‐milk substitutes, if necessary and to introduce proper complementary foods at the right time to infants and (3) to publish correct and adequate information and to monitor the marketing of formulated breast milk substitutes and complementary foods.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thelma Tun Thein
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (128K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: When Stories Wander: Ideas on the Co-Production of Social Movements’ Narratives in Transnational Space
Date of publication: 26 August 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burma/Myanmar has faced change in recent years. Since the elections of 2010, sanctions have been lifted and foreign direct investment has risen significantly. These developments, however, have not always been welcome. Local people from Dawei, for example, have expressed their dissatisfaction over land seizure, lack of compensation and participation in the decision-making processes over the development of a large Special Economic Zone (SEZ). The local grassroot movements can rely in their struggles on a network that is not restricted to Myanmar, but reaches out to exile groups, INGOs and academia in Thailand and beyond. To successfully communicate their stories, these groups rely on transculturally competent individuals re-presenting their stories within and across various (transnational) spaces. The conceptions of space I apply in this context rely heavily on Harvey and Lefebvre. But while these scholars focus more on the production of space(s), I intend to undertake an examination of the utilization of space(s). Hence, the main questions of this ongoing research project are: 1. How do transnational spaces affect the production and re-presentation of social movement narratives? 2. What narratives are re-presented when, where, how and why by transculturally competent individuals from Dawei’s social movement network? 3. What difficulties do these transculturally competent individuals face in translating/re-presenting these narratives? 4. Ultimately, how empowering are these narratives for Dawei’s activist network?The paper itself will not elaborate on any findings (as it is too early in the research process, yet), but on the theoretical framework and its implication for fieldwork offering a hopefully exciting new perspective on the re-production of narratives in transnational spaces like the borderland of Myanmar and Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Anselm Feldmann
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (428K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Ceasefires and health: challenges and opportunities for health equity in eastern Burma/Myanmar - Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: 19 August 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "From 2011 to 2015, eight separate ceasefires were signed between the Myanmar government and armed groups across eastern Myanmar. Although sporadic fighting continues, this region of the country is receiving both humanitarian and development interventions. In other contexts, the transition from conflict to post conflict has been accompanied by a transition in donor funds from humanitarian to development programs. This funding transition can impact people’s health: analyses of these situations suggest that the nature of aid instruments, donor behavior and politics, and the government’s capacity and legitimacy are all determinants of health in transition periods. The transition in eastern Myanmar is made more complex by the existence of two parallel health systems—one run by the Ministry of Health and one run by a network of ethnic health authorities and community-based providers. Although both sides have indicated their willingnessto coordinate and collaborate on health interventions in a process called "convergence," the changing donor environment and gaps in funding could create additional barriers to equitable and universal health service delivery in Myanmar. This paper describes how the transition from humanitarian aid to development can impact health service delivery in Eastern Myanmar. The paper outlines how the transition creates challenges and opportunities for delivering healthcare, and it makes recommendations on how donors and implementing agencies can best navigate these challenges.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tara Russell
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (132K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: The Bride Price Negotiation Among Chin Women in Myanmar
Date of publication: 29 July 2015
Description/subject: "In 2012, amidst the communal violence between Royingha and Rakhine, a Chin bride father at Paletwa in southern part of Chin state in Myanmar asked twenty lakhs in kyat (approximately equivalent to 200 US$) to the groom for the bride price which made the public shocking record that a normal price range around 5-­6 lakhs (approximately equivalent to 500-­‐600US$). On the other hand, the other bride’s father asked five thousands kyats for the bride price to the groom in May 2013. These two cases have shocked near and far Chin members in Paletwa. Some Chin young women are even competing for their bride price. Many Chin nationalists have then attained concern for this circumstance as an additional ethnic politics issue from the state’s hegemony nation state building process. Yet, not only the geographical location of Paletwa but its socio-economic setting also much interwoven with Rakhine since in the historical time (see also in Kyin Lam Mang 2014; CHKC 2012; Brown 1960). Many shop owners in Paletwa municipal market have informed me in 2013 (May-­‐July) how much they are affected from the communal violence happening in Rakhine where the flow of major basic goods and medicines are imported from Rakhine is limited. In Paletwa, half of the residence belongs to Rakhine ethnic nationalities with a hundred Muslim populations. The trading disadvantage categorized as; the Muslim on the top, the Chin in middle and the Rakhine on t he bottom due to their socio-­‐economic networks in Sittwe and Kyautdaw in Rakhine state. That is, for example, a trading associated in Rakhine state have much facilitating for Rakhine in Paletwa while many Muslim and the Chin do not much deserve to have such network. The Chin missionary or nationalists have claims that Paletwa is in need of “taking care” otherwise their fellows are under the economic “trapping” of the Rakhine.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Flora Bawi Nei Mawi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Dynamics Of The Myanmar Drum Ensemble
Date of publication: 28 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In every society, concerning the history of arts, musical instruments are almost universal components of human culture. The Myanmar Drum Ensemble (saing wain in Myanmar language) is one of Myanmar’s traditional musical instruments. In Myanmar society, the drum ensemble is used as part of the annual-­‐cycle rituals, life-­‐cycle rituals and crisis rituals. This research describes the dynamics of the Myanmar Drum Ensemble, saing wain. Field ethnography, focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII), in-­‐depth interviews (IDI), informal conversations (IC) and direct observation (DO) were used for data collection. Study sites are Bo Tun Zan ward in Daw Pon Township, No.2 ward in North Okkalapa Township, No.5 ward in Mayangone Township, Ye Mon village, Kyungalay village, Kyauk Ain village in Hlegu Township. The Myanmar drum ensemble emerged from a merger of the Royal Music and the Folk Music from the Kone-­‐baung period (AD 1752-­‐1856). It has three special characteristics: its Melodic Character, its Harmonic Character and its Rhythmic Character. Furthermore, the members of the drum ensembles are known to have had close relationships with the public throughout the colonial and the post-­‐independence periods. Today drum ensembles have closer contact with people from the rural areas, whereas city dwellers rely more on modern musical instruments for entertainment.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Cathy Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: The Development of Vocational Education in Myanmar (1988 –1997)
Date of publication: 27 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Vocational Education as an integral aspect of human resources development is one of the principal means of improving the ability of the individuals to contribute effectively to society. As it provides access to skills and entry routes into the labour market, it can be an important route towards a better life. Since investing in a strong, public vocational education sector must be crucial in knowledge - based societies as well as in developing countries, the Government of Myanmar has been implementing to promote the vocational education as a vital aspect of educational process in the country. At present time, the study of vocational education focuses on discussion of vocational factors in education. This study is an attempt to reveal how the Government of Myanmar establishing the Department of Technical, Agricultural and Vocational Education endeavours to promote societal and economic development introducing vocational education. It analyses the vocational programs, training, curriculum, and syllabus introduced in Myanmar. Based on the statistics of vocational education from 1988 to 1997, this paper makes an effort to assess the development of vocational education in Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Su Su Naing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (554K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: "Architectural Aspects Of Stupas During The Reign Of King Narapatisithu In Bagan, Myanmar"
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The research paper is studied about architectural aspects of stupas that were built during the reign of King Narapatisithu along Bagan dynasties. The author would like to study these stupas depending on four factors such as (i) Reflection in the form (ii) Spatial compositions (iii) Structural aspects and (iv) Decorative aspects. The stupas are classified according to their development of Form such as Stupas with bulbous shape, Stupas with octagonal basement, Stupas with rectangular basement, Stupas with circular basement, Stupas with pentagonal basement and Sinhalese type Stupas. Most of the stupas with circular basement, bulbous shape, rectangular basement, pentagonal basement and octagonal basement in the Bagan period were apparently evolved from the hemispherical stupa like Sanchi and Amaravali of India. Among them, Dhammayazika Stupa is surpassing example of the Bagan stupas. It was more required in skill for management, estimating, drawing and construction. According to cosmic metaphor and symbol of the five Buddhas, the geometrically guided layout is the finest expression of the Bagan. There were altogether the stupas that built in Bagan and the Dhammayazika Stupa is the zenith of Myanmar Religious Architecture. The contribution of this study is the architectural and technological achievements of Myanmar Religious Architecture that reached its peak during the reign of King Narapatisithu (1174-1211 A.D). Myanmar had impressed on special features and their own style from the Indian style. They showed entirely the different appearance of the whole structures from the Indian monuments. They may be traced to the Indian origin by signifying the philosophy of the fine arts. This research paper is studied that the architectural typology of Bagan monuments a dopted to conform Myanmar style. Furthermore, the research paper is expressed those stupas during the reign of King Narapatisithu were the most outstanding and famous levels compared with other stupas along Bagan periods.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thet Oo and Maung Hlaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: "The Encased Buddhist Monuments and Buddha Statues found in Myanmar"
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar is the richest Buddhist monuments with the Buddha Statues in the world. There are a large number of Buddhist monuments inventoried by the Department of Archaeology and National Museum in Myanmar. All these monuments for the restoration and conservation works have been undertaken by the Department of Archaeology and National Museum, the Pagoda Trustees, and the Associations of Local Heritage Trust. A number of Buddhist Monuments have been conserved and preserved while a few of them need to be conserved and preserved in Myanmar. Among the Buddhist monuments found in Myanmar, some of them are the encased Buddhist monuments. Most encased Buddhist monuments were recovered at Bagan, located in the central part of Myanmar. Bagan is the richest Buddhist monuments and the richest archaeological sites in Myanmar. There are over three thousand Buddhist monuments still standing at Bagan.1 Among those monuments, there are around sixty encased Buddhist monuments at Bagan2. Some of them were found at Tamote Region and the Ancient City of Myin Saing in Kyaukse District, Aebya Region in Sint Kaing Township, Tagaung Region in Thabeik Kyin Township, Shwe Intein Pagoda to the west of Inle Lake, Ahlotaw Pauk Pagoda in the Inle Lake, Mwedaw Kakku Region in Shan State, Pakhangyi and Ma Oo Region in Yesagyo Township, Anaint Region in Monywa District, the Ancient City of Mrauk Oo in Rakhine State, and Yangon in Myanmar. Sometimes not only the encased Buddhist monument s have been found in Myanmar but also the encased Buddha Statues that were recovered at Ba gan and in the vicinity of Tamote Region. Most of them were the double encased monuments but a few of them were the third encased monuments recovered in the various p arts of Myanmar. Basically the encased Buddhist monuments may be classified into four types. They are the encased Buddhist Stupas, the encased Buddhist Temples, the Moathtaw Zedis (Stupas) with a circumambulatory corridor, and two or three small Stupas encased by a bigger Stupa on the same plinth 3. According to the architectural typologies of the encased monuments found in Myanmar, some of the inner Stupas were built in Pyu period 4 (1st to 9thCentury AD) while the outer Stupas were built in Bagan period and post Bagan periods such as Pinya, Inwa, Nyaung Yan, and Konbaung period. In Myanmar, the earliest encased Buddhist monuments were found in Pyu period while some of the encased Buddhist monumen ts in Myanmar have been found till to 17th and 18th centuries AD. In Myanmar, most encased Buddhist monuments can not be found easily. When the outer stupas were collapsed by the natural disasters such as earthquake, rain water, flood, wind, and vandalism, the inner stupas can be seen from the outside. Norm ally we can not say exactly that is an encased monument or not. Traditionally it was noted that it was an encased stupa and it was an encased temple for some encased monuments in Myanmar but some monuments had the strong inscriptional evidences although the inner stupa can not be viewed from the outside.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ko Myo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (811K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: A Geographical Perspective On Myanmar’s Transition: Towards Inclusive, People ‐ Centered And Sustainable Economic Growth
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar has a land area of 676,581 km2 with an estimated population of 51.49 million, consisting of diverse ethnic groups speaking over 100 languages and dialects. Myanmar’s transition from military regime to civilian rule started under a new Constitution that came into effect in May, 2008. During its transition, Myanmar needs more effective national and regional development and governmental reforms and restructuring. People‐centred development reforms need to be implemented in order to reach international standards&meet the people’s needs. A people‐centered development strategy incorporates the values of justice, sustainability, and inclusiveness. A number of reforms have already been undertaken in the financial sector, in relaxing media censorship, release of detainees and reaching ceasefire agreements in a number of conflict areas. Although the government has enacted the new Environmental Law and related regulations to use natural resources in a sustainable manner, there are many environmental problems caused by development projects of various sectors. Between one‐third and one‐fourth of the population is estimated to be living under the poverty line but almost 80 percent of inhabitants are living either in poverty or very close to it. Despite significant efforts during the transition period in Myanmar, there is still a long way to go in developing a comprehensive social protection scheme. Myanmar attempts to manage a “triple transition”: nation building, state‐building and economic liberalization. Rule of law is crucial for peaceful and sustainable development. Transitions are never smooth, and it is likely that the situation on the ground in Myanmar will get messier before it gets better. Myanmar should work to ensure that current positive trends continue to 2015 and beyond. In order to sustain its growth momentum in the long run, Myanmar should aim for a growth trajectory that is inclusive, equitable, and environmentally sustainable."...Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Maung Maung Aye
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (445K)
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: A Glance At The Dynamics Of The Traditional Social Networks Of Simihtun Village, Amarapura Township, Mandalay Region
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar is trying to upgrade all the sectors of society such as the economy, health, the environment and welfare in this transition period. Most of the researchers concerned with community development take into consideration material resources. It is necessary to take the social network into consideration in order to carry out the development of the society. This research aims to examine the dynamics of the Traditional Social Network of a village in Myanmar and to point out the various possibilities of traditional social networks in the context of community development. The study site is Simihtun village, Amarapura Township, Mandalay Region. It is situated in the suburban area of Mandalay. In this study, interviewing methods (KII, FGI) and observation methods were used. Research subjects are the leaders and members of the society. In the research area, there are social groups based on gender, tasks and age such as social groups of bachelors, an unmarried women’s group, a pagoda-­‐trusteeship group, an administration group, cooking groups and so on. The relationships among individuals or groups are shown through their social activities, and this study focuses on the traditional social networks based on these activities. What are the changes in traditional social networks? How does the social networks provide for the development of society? What are the hindrances encountered by social networks? The foregoing questions are examined in this research.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thidar Htwe Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2015


Title: A Religious Study on the Construction of Oo-­Pwar Pagoda and Its Sculptures
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper is written with the purpose of knowing why Buddhist people worship pagoda and Buddhism is not symbolism. Myanmar culture is an integral part of Buddhism. While there is an abundance of artistic material throughout Myanmar, many people do not know that these artistic pagodas and their sculptures are related with the meaningful background. Therefore, this paper is presented based on Oo-­‐Pwar pagoda in Mandalay. Initially, it is presented which one is worthy to be a pagoda and how many kinds of pagoda are there. And then, the history of Oo-­‐Pwar pagoda and the standard of Myanmar art and architecture of that period are presented. And the construction of pagoda and its sculptures are also expressed. In which, each part of pagoda related with the teaching of Buddha is discussed. This topic is divided into three main parts, namely: meaning of pagoda, the construction of Oo-­‐Pwar pagoda and sculptures in the surrounding of the pagoda. This paper shows the background history, religious and traditional customs of the sculptures. And the fact can be seen that although Myanmar people are Theravāda Buddhists, they also do some of the practice of Mahāyana Buddhism and Hinduism as their own tradition. By doing this research, in the compound of pagoda, the tradition of ancient Myanmar are found evidently. The pagodas can be assumed as the religious things and the invaluable cultural heritages. Therefore, conservation of pagoda is beneficial to develop Buddhist religion and to conserve Myanmar cultural heritage.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Hnin Moe Hlaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (811K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: A Study of Contemporary Trends and Challenges of English Language Teaching in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This article details a mixed methods study conducted during the 2015 academic year at Mandalay University, Department of English in Mandalay Myanmar. It con tributes to discourse examining contemporary patterns and challenges of English language education. Methodology from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was systematically combined. A survey questionnaire was distributed to 70 participants and ten focus group interviews were conducted with 33 participants. A second set of participants included university students from institutions in the Mandalay region. Results suggest that English language teaching in Myanmar mirrors other Asian contexts in terms of the rising influence of globalization for English teaching, a concern for teachers' English proficiency, and the disconnect between policy and practice. Teacher confidence, disconnect between curriculum and preparation of students; low salary, overreliance on the transmission model, and large class size were also reported as challenges. Recommendations call for steps toward a foundation of reflective practice using action research as a starting point and secondly to encourage English language educators representative of the creative class, defined by Florida (2002) to align as a public group of professionals. Future research should examine the elements that make English an important language in the Myanmar context and based on this, consider what concept of English, what variety of English, and what methodologies of English language teaching are most productive for Myanmar as a nation in transition.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thandar Soe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (344K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: A Study of Saddhamma Saṅgaha Treatise
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "The Saddhamma Sangaha is a work of 14 century AD on the history of Buddhist religion and Pali Literature. The author of Saddhamma Saṅ gaha is Venerable dhammakitti. He was a Thai native who, being desirous of coming to Ceylon traveled to that country and after performing meritorious deeds he received ordination under the chief monk. While he was staying in Ceylon he composed this work by Pāḷi and then returns to his native land and lived in Thailand. This work is mentioned as Thai Pāḷi Text by H. Saddhātissa’s Pāḷi Literature of Thailand (1979). His work is a History of Buddhism in Ceylon. It has eleven chapters and contains the five Buddhist Council, how Buddha Sāsanā arrived in Ceylon, the life and literary works of distinguished commentator Mahā Buddhaghosa, the accounts of Tīkās and Ganthantara treatises and the advantage of writing Piṭaka Scriptures and advantage of listing to the discourses. It was published in Roman Characters edited by N. Saddhānanda of 1961. In Myanmar no manuscript of it is found and the text has not yet been studied. It is assumed that once, the text was well acknowledged by the Myanmar Buddhist of Kongbound period for the stanza beginning with “Akkharā ekamekaňca.....” was quoted in the writings on the cords of palm leaf manuscripts belonging to that period. This stanza of the Saddhamma Saṅgaha is found nowhere in the treatise of Pāli Literature. This research paper will be described in the five sub titles as follows.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: San San Wai
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (164K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: A Study of the Buddha Image Made of Bamboo-strips at the Myathabeik Foothill in Thaton, Mon State
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "After the lord Buddha Parinibbāna (pass away), the Buddhists have worshipped with devotion (1) Sarīrika Cetiya (Relics) (2) Dhamma Cetiya (Teachings) (3) Uddissa Cetiya (Images) (4) Paribhoga Cetiya (Bodhi tree and utensils) (5) Pāda Cetiya (foot-­‐prints of the Buddha) in memory of the Lord Buddha. Among these five different kinds of Cetiyas where there are images of the Lord Buddha on it, are called as Uddissa Cetiya. In traditions, the Lord Buddha Images are made of gold, silver, copper, iron, stone, wood and bamboo-­strips. Just as there are many differences with the materials used in carving sacred images there are also differences in shape, size and style. One image different from another in gesture (mudrā), sitting posture (āsana) and sacred throne (pallaṅka). A wonderful Hneephayargyi made of bamboo-­strips exists at the Myathabeit foothill in Thaton, Mon state. A group of six young craftsmen who made the image was led by Sayar Myint Naing Oo. Unlike other images, there are interesting and wonderful features in the creating of this particular Hneephayargyi. Therefore, this monograph on the brief history of statues and images and the creating of Hneephayargyi are compiled and presented so that Buddhists may not only revere and strengthen their faith, but it may also, be of partial help to those who want to find out and study Buddhists arts. Key words: the impressive capability of the Myanmar’s handicraft."......Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Myint Myint Than
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (233K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: A Study of the usage ‘Ger Aye who is beaten by her mother' in Myanmar Language
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar language is derived from Tibeto-Chinese family of languages. Myanmar language is tone language because high and low tones determine different meanings of words. Besides Myanmar Language has sayings, proverbs and metaphors like other languages. The usage of ‘Ger A ye who is beaten by her mother’ is the metaphor of Myanmar Language.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mon Mon Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (355K)
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: An Analytical Study of Ancient Temples in Myingun, Magway Region, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myingun stands about twenty three miles from Magway, Central Myanmar and is located at 20°1'0" north of the equator and 95°1'59" east of the Prime Meridian. Its area is 800 square miles (GUBSS 1901: 536). It was called Malekun in ancient time. When the cavalry of King Sawlu of Bagan (1077‐1084) stationed at there, it was named as Myinnkun. In Burmese language, Myinn means horse and kun means a stationed place. Thus Myinnkun means a place where cavalrymen stationed. But some say that Myin means see and gun means stupa with square tower. Therefore this place was called Myingun where can see the temple with sikhara. According to some inscriptions found in Myingun area, this region is located at there since the time of Bagan Period. Oral history says that King Sawlu of Bagan built this city for staying temporarily when he defended the rebel Ngayamakan.1 (Magway Township Record 1969: 139) The remnants of City wall, moat and temples can be seen still today. Myingun was an important place in the reign of Myanmar Kings. In successive era, the people of Myingun constructed to donate many religious edifices where the Buddha images were kept. Numerous temples were built and many images were carved. There are about sixty temples and stupās in Myingun. The art and architecture of these religious edifices show that some temples constructed since 12th Century. It is found that there have twenty seven temples with Bagan style of art and architecture in Myingun.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Thidar
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: An Overview of Higher Education Reform In Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The Education Reform especially in Higher Education has been started since 2011 when the shift of power from the military regime to the democratic one. Higher Education Institutes are governed mainly by the Minister of Education and other various Ministries. However, there is no much collaboration and coordination among Ministries. Moreover, the published policy or development plan which presents an overall strategy on higher education sector development is not formulated. There are some critical issues that the university sector that is serving only for elite students, in a country where the diversity of ethnicity, religion, language, and disabilities is challenging the state provision of education,moreover, in particular, language remains a dynamite issue in Myanmar. In Myanmar, there is also other financial challenge in Higher Education like the salaries of teachers and academics which leads to the negative consequence. Curriculum development is one of the considerable issues to be taken action. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of Higher Education Reform in Myanmar. This involved a detailed analysis of Higher Education Law, the system of administration, finance, and an example of recent change. A key question that emerged from the paper was what are the drawbacks and whether the recent change could lead to the development of Higher Education. This paper provides an initial attempt to analyze Higher Education Law and National Education Law and then leads to examining the extent to how much effective roles can the different actors take in educational changes and fits different complex educational changes by testing it out in the light of research studies of educational reform found largely, but not exclusively, within Myanmar. Moreover, this paper will compare the standard of curriculum and testing system with international Higher Education system. This paper will, first, presents the overview of Higher Education in Myanmar and combined with the model of complex educational change derived from the earlier study. Finally, conclusions will be drawn providing recommendations regarding the question of effectiveness and the development of Myanmar".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Po Po Thaung Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (459K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Analysis of Customary Communal Tenure in the Myanmar Uplands (Powerpoint presentation)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Customary communal tenure is characteristic of many local shifting cultivation upland communities in S.E. Asia. These communities have strong ancestral relationships to their land, which has never been held under individual rights, but considered common property of the village. Communal tenure has been the norm and land has never been a commodity..."
Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen
Language: English
Source/publisher: Chiangmai University Conference: "Burma/Myanmar in Transition"
Format/size: pptx
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2015


Title: Analysis of Customary Communal Tenure of Upland Ethnic Groups, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Customary Tenure and Land Alienation in Myanmar: "Customary communal tenure is characteristic of many local upland communities in S.E. Asia. These communities have strong ancestral relationships to their land, which has never been held under individual rights, but considered common property of the village. Communal tenure has been the norm and land has never been a commodity. This is an age-old characteristic of many societies globally. Prior to the publication in 1861 of Ancient Law by the English jurist Henry Sumner Maine, the accepted view among Western jurists in the nineteenth century had been that the origin of the concept of property was the occupation of land by a single proprietor and his family. However, Maine insisted that for India, for example, “it is more than likely that joint ownership, and not separate ownership, is the really archaic institution, and that the forms of property that will afford us instruction will be those that are associated with the rights of families and of groups of kindred.”1 The international recognition of this had earlier emerged in developed countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada and it became manifest in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2007. The Declaration specifies individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, land and natural resources, employment, health, education and other issues. It was voted for in the UN by 144 countries, including Myanmar. In Myanmar customary tenure arrangements date back centuries. They are linked to the characteristics of the landscape and its resources, to the kinship systems, to population density and to the actual history of the area and settlement. In general the ethnic upland villagers’ identity is clearly linked to the land constituting a dense network of particular places, each having different cultural and material value and containing a mosaic of resources. There is an inner connection between history, identity and land..."
Author/creator: Kirsten Ewers Andersen (Member of the Land Core Group, Myanmar)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges. 24-26th July 2015. Center for ASEAN Studies (CAS), Chiang Mai University, the Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development (RCSD)
Format/size: pdf (687K)
Date of entry/update: 25 June 2016


Title: Between HIV And “Male Sex Workers” I dentity: Young Shan Men And The Presentation Of Enviable Life In Chiang Mai
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Integrated in the global economy of HIV intervention, young and mobile Shan men in Chiang Mai who work as hosts, dancers and masseurs in gay establishments are now plugged into discrete health categories (i.e. men who have sex with men MSM), male sex workers (MSW), “Burmese” migrants, “hidden population”, etc.). Current HIV intervention has employed information communication technology (ICT), which produces standardized HIV information dissemination, testing and treatment. This paper examines Shan men’s use of their mobile phones. Using Miller and Slater’s (2000) concept of dynamics of objectification, I analyze the creative use of mobile phones as realizing aspired and ascribed identities, characterized as presentation of enviable life in Chiang Mai. On Facebook, they engage in political discussion, conduct religious activities, and manage their social networks. I argue that the presentation of enviable identities reflects notions of masculinity and health, which determine Shan men’s access to, awareness of and management of health information. HIV testing is crucial in HIV prevention, but Shan men value their role as economic providers more than spending for personal health and undergoing an HIV test. They perform Buddhist rituals as supplication for a healthy body. The paper illustrates the failure of dissemination models and the importance in knowing the situated knowledge of Shan men’s sex work in order to provide effective HIV intervention."
Author/creator: Nikos Dacanay
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (217K)
Date of entry/update: 19 August 2015


Title: Burma as ‘Corridor’: A case of South Asian descendants’ community in northern Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "This paper highlights the location of Burma (Myanmar) and reconsiders its geographical territory andits historical position. There were and are a lot of studies of Burma/Myanmar. Most of the studies were on the Burma itself or on those people living in Buma. On the other hand, Burma situated at the meeting point of South Asia and Southeast Asia. In other words, Burma holds a position of the node or corridor which connecting these two regions. This paper tries to focus on Burma as ‘corridor’, by considering a case of South Asian migrant groups in Thailand, a Bangladeshi (or Eastern Bengal) Muslim descendants’ community in northern Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Takada Mineo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (60K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Comparative Study on the Myanmar Cloth Painting Fine Art during 11th -­‐ 18 th Century CE : Documentary References and Survey Findings
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "The main purpose for this study on the Myanmar cloth painting fine art as comparative work during 11th–18th century is to attain perceptive knowledge and exchange of expertise among the neighbouring counties in Southeast Asia. In Myanmar, knowledge and practice of Theravada Buddhism has been related to the literature, architecture, fine arts and daily life style of the people residing in the ancient city of Bagan (11th-­‐13th century CE). At that time, the tr aditional fine arts of Myanmar in Bagan was unique and perpetually augmented. Thus varieties of arts like architecture, stucco carvings, inscriptions, sculpture of wood/stone and other materials turnery and tapestry and glazed plaques and reliefs and smith –works were decorated at the stupas and temples. Moreover, mural paintings were also depicted those mainly consisted of Buddha’s life stories including Nativity scenes, ascending the throne, great renunciation, Enlightenment 45 years preaching Dhamma, 550 Jatakas stories and Demised Buddha in the Parinicana scene. Nearly at the same period of the 11th century, fine arts on cloth painting emerged in Myanmar. According to the documentary references and survey findings of archaeologists and researchers, it was stated that Myanmar cloth painting fine arts appeared in the ancient city of Bagan (Abeyatana Temple No. 1202). Since then, the tradition of cloth painting spread out by the fine artists to the other people within Bagan and also to different places in later periods. Abeyatana Ceti, situated over the vault of the main temple No. 1202 (1084-­‐1113 CE), was the only temple being built in 11th century CE. Even after 800 years, some remains of cloth painting were seen on the lowest terrace of the Ceti of that temple. Regarding the cloth painting terraces at Abeyatana Ceti, it can be assumed to be one of the oldest extent images in Myanmar. In this paper I will also argue that it could be one of the oldest extent cloth painting idols in Southeast Asia. At the present, there are traces of cloth paintings in twenty temples in Myanmar from the 11th-­‐18th century. (See map. 1) Out of 20, sixteen temples are situated in Bagan (See map. 2), one is in Salay, one in Sarle, one in Mandalay and the final one is in Pakhan Gyi.".....International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Author/creator: Aye Aye Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Conservation of Cultural Heritage Buildings in Bagan Area
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This research paper would be conducted to integrate with cultural heritage buildings and new public buildings within the whole area of Bagan harmoniously. New public buildings such as hotels, motels, guest houses, inns, museum and viewing tower are constructed within old Bagan area, new Bagan area, area of inside city wall and Nyaung Oo area. The authority demarcated laws an d regulations, and building control plans within archaeological zone, monumental zone and preservation zone for constructing of new public buildings and then new public buildings must not construct within their demarcated areas. In present, new public buildings are influencing within the area of Bagan according to their site and setting, form and height. Bagan archaeological museum is influencing not only the environment of Gawdawpalin temple but also the whole Bagan area according to its massive form. And, viewing tower is also influencing with the height of building. Construction of new public buildings such as Bagan archaeological museum and viewing tower which can be compared in relation to their height and massiveness such as the height and form of Bagan monuments can lose the essence of Bagan from visual aspects. While taking every respect of old cultural heritage buildings, it is very important to consider ( i ) not to lose the value of cultural heritage buildings ( ii ) not to influence with site and setting ( iii ) not to influence with the form of building and ( iv ) not to obstruct with the height of building. Therefore, in depth research work should be conducted for the emergence of new public buildings in Bagan environment.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: San Nan Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: Creative Tribute or Cheap Copy? The Ubiquitous, Controversial Copy Thachin In Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The genre copy thachin or “copy song” pervades the popular mu sic scene in Myanmar. These songs are akin to cover versions of existing international hits, but with new lyrics in the Burmese language, and performed by Burmese musicians. These songs can have incredible genre-­‐crossing capabilities, from blues to rap, heavy metal to salsa. The current situation for popular music production in Myanmar, as elsewhere, is connected with the country’s history of military rule and years of censorship and economic difficulties. Advocates for the genre of copy thachin argue that borrowing international songs allowed local artists to learn about global popular music, and the numerous popular musicians and songwriters in Myanmar are testament to this. On the other hand, with the removal of the stringent censorship regime and the increasing contact with international consumer culture, groups of Myanmar music fans are increasingly critical of copy thachin, seeing the practice as derivative and an embarrassment. This article will explore the history of the genre, notions of authenticity, and dis cuss Myanmar’s changing relationship with the symbolic capital of its own culture industry and its relationship with international popular culture.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Jane M Ferguson
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (788K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Cross-border Migration and Revitalization of Shan Buddhist Practices in Myanmar-Thai Border Area
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This presentation aims to examine how the new Shan migrants help revitalize Shan Buddhist practices in Myanmar-Thai border area in Northern Thailand. This area has a long history of the ceaseless migrations of the Shan and other ethnic groups; the flow of people has continued even after the border demarcation in the early 20th century. Recently, we could find two contradictory processes- a rigid border control by the state administration and a fluid border crossing of people, goods and information. The border crossing of people may be characterized by a one-way flow from Myanmar to Thailand and its steady increase in quantity. By focusing on the flow of Shan lay Buddhist readers/reciters in Mae Hong Son, the northern Thai-Myanmar border area, this presentation analyzes the important role of the border crossing migrations for revitalizing Shan Buddhist practices in Northern Thailand."...Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tadayoshi Murakami
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (88K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Cultural Heritage Buildings in Mandalay City (Myanmar): A Geographic Approach to the Urban Landscape
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: The cultural heritage buildings give a sense of past and of cultural identity. Those buildings encompassed the historical evidence, artifacts and beliefs. As being a last capital of Myanmar Konbaung Dynasty, there were various kinds of building which are still left out in Mandalay City. Since the City was founded in 1857, the King Mindon intended to be very spacious capital by laying down the systematic town planning. The urbanization is taken placed since that time. Moreover, the study area was experienced by the diverse political systems and is ruled by the different governance. Therefore, the buildings were constructed according to the rulers. In this study the buildings are categorized into 4 groups: religious buildings, institutional buildings, and residential buildings, industrial and commercial buildings. Although the buildings regarding religions and institutions are already recorded by the Government Offices and Archaeology Department, there is lack of record on the commercial or industrial or residential buildings. Nowadays, the urbanization system has been taken place very quickly in the city. The range of pressures facing urban heritage include: population gains propelling rapid, uncontrolled growth and socio-­economic transformations generating functional changes in the city. It caused to renovate or reconstruct the new buildings in the places of previous ones, especially for residential, commercial and industrial buildings. It will affect to lose the ancient architectural style of the buildings and their significance. Therefore, the major aim of this research work is put on to define, to record and to locate as the cultural heritage buildings.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Khin Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Democratization and Containing Ethnic Conflicts in Transitional Myanmar: A Study through Federalism Typologies and Model
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "This paper aims to conceptualize Myanmar's current political system in federalism context by viewing relevant typologies, and models. It also intends to produce a new federalism typology/model that can be applicable to analyzing and predicting Myanmar's political architecture. The paper argues that transitional Myanmar is considered as a presidential-devolutionary federation with hybrid characteristics, combining various unitary and federal elements. More specifically and in dimensions relating to democratization and ethnic conflict management, which are significant in viewing the country's current politics, Myanmar is an oscillating state, pivoting on two different extreme poles (strong unity and strong autonomy or highly centralized unitarianism and highly decentralized federalism); thus making the state dependent much on uncertain-unstable circumstances and the country's federalization tends to be closely related to the fluctuation of power negotiations/competitions between two dominant stakeholders, composing of central government and ethnic opposition groups...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Dulyapak Preecharush
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (198K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Dhamma Predication and Political Transition
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "For those who have observed Burmese religious life long enough, one striking evolution of the last decades has been the growing place of Buddhist preaching in the practice of many monks and in the public space . While until the late eighties dhamma predication was hardly to be seen on the public scene, from the beginning of the nineties onward, it started to become more and more visible. Traditional ly monks were requested to preach on private or communal ritual occasions such as funerals, noviciation or offerings made at the monastery at the end of the rain retreat season (kahteinbwe). The large public performance of «dhamma talks» by monks invited by laypeople independently of any ritual occasion contrasts sharply with these previous practices. They are c alled in Burmese taya bwe, the “feast of Law”, they are held at night and usually last around an hour, or more. As stated by Mahinda Deegalle in his study on Sri Lanka (2006), the development of public predication, known as the bana tradition in that context, particularly from the beginning of the eighteen th century onward, corresponds to the will of consolidating Buddhist communities through popularization of Buddhist teachings. In Burma, resorting to mass preaching to educate the public at large has its own genealogy starting in the early nineteenth century with the famous addresses of Thingaza Hsayadaw and those not less famous of Ledi Hsayadaw towards the end of the nineteenth century. Mass preaching had its heyday in the 1920s, when it was used as a tool to initiate reform among the public and contest the colonial rule by young activist monks such as Ottama and Wisara. It had continued until the 1960 s when it drastically decreased, after Ne Win’s military coup, because expressions of religious life then tended to be relegated to the p rivate sphere. The large public dhamma talks were to re-emerge only in the 1990s, at the joint initiative of local communities and the authorities, to become the highly popular events prevailing today...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Brac de la Perrière Bénédicte
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (711K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Dr. Than Tun and Myanmar Language & Literature
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "History, language, and literature are inseparable. Undoubtedly, historian represents the past via language and employs literature as historical evidence. The late Dr.Than Tun, the highly respected and prominent Myanmar historian, was trained in a positivist fashion under the supervision of D.G.E. Hall and G.H. Luce, the leading colonial scholars. Hence, his treatment of literature fundamentally confined to and empirical historical framework, attaching great importance to its factual data and historicity. Nonetheless, some of his writings reveal that he did not neglect discussing how to trace back and interpret Myanmar history from fictional genres of the past, for example, myth, legend and folklore. He suggests that pre-­‐Buddhist elements of pre-­‐literate societies are preserved in those traditional songs, fables, proverbs, riddles and customs. Moreover, to study the history of Myanmar literature is supposed to begin with the earliest form of literature, the oral tradition. While his copious historical research was primarily based on very formal literary evidence, for instance, inscriptions, royal orders, first-­‐hand accounts, contemporary historical documents on tax, revenue, demography and even tombstones, when he wrote his works he preferred to write in the colloquial Myanmar form. He advocated Ludu U Hla’s campaign for simple and accessible writings for people. He also urged his pupils to write theses in the colloquial language. This paper attempts to analyze Dr.Than Tun’s perception of Myanmar language and literature in a light of the historical context of Myanmar society.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Pamaree Surakiat
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (195K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Educational Development In A Changing Burma: The Future Of Children Of Migrant Labourers Returning From Thailand To Burma
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper presents the findings of a research study that investigated the level of education that the children of labor migrants from Burma now living in Chiang Mai, Thailand can access to as well as looking at the possibility and different channels for their further education should their parents decide to return to Burma. The focus of the study concentrates on four different ethnic groups, Karen, Karenni, Palaung and Shan by looking at children from the age between 4-13 years old to identify factors that are involved when these migrant children move back to Burma. At the same time, for many children who spent most of their lives in Thailand, it is interesting to see the possibilities and challenges for them in relating to accessing to education since Burma is a new home for many of them. Therefore, it is also interesting to see how the Burma government as well as the Thai education system will respond to this issue of educational development in the changing economic and democratic processes of these countries.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sutthida Keereepaibool
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (18K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Ethnic Chin People Today: Livelihood, Migration, Internal Displacement and Exile
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Last summer, I met a young Chin exile who came back from Australia to Yangon. He said he returns home once a year to do development in his village in Tedim Township in northern Chin State. According to this young man, although he experienced challenges in Malaysia as an exile before he reached the safe third country, he has now graduated in Australia and got a good job. So he wants to help his native villagers for their livelihood security. Thus, he set up a women group of weavers in five villages nearby his village to resume traditional textile weaving. He initiated financial support to buy them 10 wooden frame looms and all the required materials for weaving. He added “We Chin people exiles today are now escape from poverty and I am planning to do development program in my region to end the poverty.” He continued, “Currently, vision of many exile Chin people today is supporting any kind of development in their native villages individually or collectively.” In this paper, I will elaborate Chin people today should keep migrating out to escape from the multiple hardships in their native land so that not only for their better life but also they are able to support the remaining family by remittance and do development in their region as well.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Kyin Lam Man
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (186K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2015


Title: Expected but Permanent? : The Tatmadaw’s continued political involvement in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The Tatmadaw remains the most powerful political entity in Myanmar, motivated to preserve four core interests regardless of other changes to the state and society – maintenance of complete institutional autonomy and independence; exclusive control over security portfolios; veto powers over constitutional change; and inhibiting prosecution for actions conducted during the Junta era. These interests are embedded within and supported by a praetorian ethos pillared upon a national security narrative justifying the military’s ongoing political involvement while the democratic process continues to mature, including past the upcoming parliamentary elections this November. New institutions and practices, however, have opened the political realm in unprecedented ways. Within this increasingly shifting political landscape, it is uncertain the unity and coherence of the regime – the military and their retired brethren in charge of the executive and parliament- to maintain power, especially due to the large manipulations of the electoral and democratic processes which would be required to ensure their rule. Military intervention cannot be ruled out, but the Tatmadaw is reluctant to overtly and aggressively reintroduce themselves politically unless it feels its core interests will be irrevocably and immediately compromised by a new government. With their roles and responsibilities protected, the military may feel they can control, or at least marginalize, a parliament and/or government hostile to its interests. The 2015 elections will not, therefore, mark the end of the military’s preponderant political influence but continue to erode their control over the pathways of political power and may bring about the first truly civilian-military government in the country’s transition away from military rule; a significant milestone as those outside the old, yet still influential, military regime gain access to begrudgingly-ceded power.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Adam P. MacDonald
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (76K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Foreign Direct Investment In Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Foreign Direct Investment is one of the main factors to improve trade in each and every country to boost its economy. The Union of Myanmar government announced the Foreign Direct In vestment Law in 2011. Then the new law was enacted on 2nd November 2012. It includes a lot of business which are "restricted or prohibited" items such as timber, forests, oil and gas, jade, pearls and precious stones, post and telecom, air and railway transport, banks, insurance, mining, power generation, defense related manufacturing. Those items are allowed on a case by case in doing joint venture or production sharing contracts. In Myanmar, there are some barriers which have been found in most of the Least Development Countries. And there are many favourable conditions to invest in Myanmar such as intrinsic strength, favourable location and international support. To achieve a step change in FDI and get closer to meeting the economy's largest need for investment, as well as to contribute to diversely the sectors to which FDI goes, Myanmar needs to prioritise two main areas: developing a targeted FDI strategy led by a high performing agency and improving Myanmar's business environment.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thin Thin Kyi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (199K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2015


Title: Foreign influence in the Burmese language
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Burmese has a documented history of one thousand years, and from the very first texts shows influence from foreign languages, especially in its vocabulary. Much less evidence of foreign influence is found in the grammatical structure of Burmese, though a closer look reveals some phrase structures that look rather un-Burmese and seem to be pattern replications from a non-verb-final language, such as Mon. The regular use of postpositional grammatical markers especially in the written language, probably in indigenous feature of Burmese, may have been reinforced by literary contact with Pali. Foreign elements in Burmese are important indicators of the development of the language and contact with other cultures. They not only tell us something about which cultures Burmese was in contact with, but also about the period and kind of contact. Three main sources of foreign elements in Burmese can be identified, namely early Indian (Pali and Sanskrit), early Mon, English, together with various more recent sources, including new Indo- Aryan languages, Malay, Chinese varieties, and others. This study takes the linguistic evidence, together with what is known of the history of the involved languages and peoples, to draw a picture of contact scenarios into which the Burmese language and culture entered over the past one thousand years. The Myanmar-English Dictionary by the Myanmar Language Commission (1993) identifies a large number of loan words in Burmese and indicates the source language, together with a more or less accurate transcription of the original form of the respective words, either in Burmese script (for Sanskrit, Pali, Mon, and Shan) or in Romanized transcription (for all other languages, including Hindi).".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mathias Jenny
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (201K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Gender Dimensi on of HIV Health Care Services and Treatment of Myanmar Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Due to the long running civil war, poorly recorded human right abuse, lack of job opportunity, economic hardship and political instability tens of thousands of Myanmar citizens of people of diverse social backgrounds are fleeing their home land resorted to settle in neighboring country, Thailand. Most of them are ethnic minorities from rebel held areas such as Karan state, Shan state and Kachin state in search of better lifestyle , political freedom and higher income in economically better off its neighbor Thailand. There are also pull factors which contributed migrants to seek job opportunity in Thailand being the fact that some of them are persuaded by their relatives who have already existed in destination country. Moreover, relatively higher income also attracts migrants to settle down in Thailand.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Naing Aung and Lynn
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (546K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Gender Equality and Cultural Norms in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is giving increasing attention to gender inequality as an impediment to the development and attainment of human rights especially women’s rights. Realizing the close inter-­‐relationship between gender equality and cultural norms, a qualitative research study, “Raising the Curtain: Cultural Norms, Social Practices and Gender Equality in Myanmar" was undertaken with the objective of furthering the understanding of social and cultural norms in Myanmar and their impact for men and women in relation to family and community life, work, health and education. The study was implemented in May 2014 covering 543 women and men participants covering seven States and four Regions in Myanmar. This study illustrates that cultural norms and related social practices impact men and women throughout their lifespan, from the most deeply personal–the sense of self, body, confidence, love and marriage-­‐ to the practical organization and valuing of paid and unpaid work; education opportunities; health status and services; participation in community development and the affairs of the nation. Furthermore, it shows how social and cultural norms carry ideas of different functions and worth for men and women, impacting on their life opportunities. Women, regarded as ‘bearers and protectors of culture’, are often blamed for what are seen as disappearing cultural values and this can be a barrier to the realization of women’s rights and gender equality. Some salient recommendations from the study include i) using gendered lens on all developmental issues; ii) re-­‐framing gender equality from being seen as a ‘women’s issue’ to an issue of political advancement, human rights and democracy; iii) broaden the base in gender equality work from the circles of current activists, and engage people of different sexes, socioeconomic backgrounds, education levels, ethnicities, locations and abilities; iv) focus on gender inequality around concrete issues in peoples’ lives that have impact at both individual, collective levels.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Pansy Tun Thein
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (177K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: Gender Gap and Women’s Political Participation in Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Women's political participation and representation vary dramatically within and between countries. This paper selectively reviews the literature on gender gap and women's participation in politics, focusing on women's formal political participation particularly from 2010 general election in Burma/Myanmar. The paper discusses, however, various barriers and challenges including traditional, religion, lack of education, experience in public discussion, participation and more importantly the military drafted 2008 constitution for women's political participation and representation in Burma/Myanmar. It also explains significance of women's political participation as well as the role of international mechanisms and gender quotas particularly the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Electoral Quotas System for empowering women’s participation in politics. Then, it explores the gap between the 2008 Constitution and the CEDAW standards. Throughout the review, the paper demonstrates a very low level of women's political participation from secondary data as well as in-­‐depth interviewed with women parliamentarians explained the challenges and difficulties for women participation in politics of decision-­‐making. It also reveals the most common mechanism for increasing women’s political participation-­‐quotas and in order to have an effective the gender electoral quotas system it is explicitly important both men and women attend training and skills development. Importantly, the paper also asks what degree and under what conditions elected women actually do represent women and contribute to gender equality, democracy and whether women are distinctive—does having more women in office make a difference to public policy?".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sang Hnin Lian
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (181K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Heritage Conservation of Historic Built Environment in Pyin-­Oo-­Lwin Town, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin has the high quality built environment of the area, with its wealth of historic buildings, conservation areas and historic monuments, represents an important social, cultural, recreational and educational resource as well as helping to make it an appealing place to live, work and visit. This research is focus on conserving of the historic buildings and its surrounding environments in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. As there is physical degradation because of the impact of urban development, the conservation of these areas will include their development and harmonious adaption to contemporary life‟ (UNESCO 1987). During 19th Century, British made well plan with impeccable signs of urban planning and local architecture and built the many famous buildings in Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town. These colonial buildings are standing now as heritage buildings and structures so that targeting conservation resources towards particularly vulnerable group of sites and environments. Because of elevation, situation, climate and verdant environment, it be comes prominent as a famous highland town. In urban areas, increased attention must be paid by the institutions for its conservation; new issues have to be addressed, due to the dramatic changes occurring. It suffers from physical and functional decay and seems to have been seriously affected by inconsistent development. The historic architectural and urban features of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin deserve a careful survey and assessment, in order to be protected as a substantial part of Myanmar heritage. It involves actively caring for the heritage, maintaining it in good physical condition, making it readily accessible for study, enjoyment, recreation, and tourism. In this research, it is thoroughly documented the existing conditions of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin town and identified the possible heritage areas to be conserved with the development of this town. Then, the study on the principles and methods of conservation and criteria for conservation are presented as literature study to support this research. Finally, this research intends to give general guidelines for existing historic buildings and new buildings built harmoniously in the environment and to create encouragement and promote heritage awareness on historic built form of Pyin-­‐Oo-­‐Lwin Town.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Than Htay Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Historical Perspective on Mon Settlements in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The Mon who belong to the Mon-­Khmer stock of Austro-­‐Asiatic sub-­family were the old inhabitants of both Myanmar and Thailand. In Myanmar, they migrated from the north along the rivers of Mekong, Thanlwin and Ayeyarwaddy. When the M on came to Myanmar, they were known as Raman which name was later simplified as Raman and shortened to Mon. The usage of ‘Ramañña’ is also found in Bago Kalyani inscription of 1476 AD. Thus the name ‘Ramaññ’ did not emerge only in 15th century AD but existed from the early centuries. It was also found that the all-­inclusive term ‘Rama ññadesa’ has its roots in the three Mon regions of Pathein, Muttama and Hanthawaddy. Since the terms Ramaññadesa and Suvaññabhumi were alternately used in the old Indian literature and oldest chronicles of Srilanka, Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa, composed in 4th and 6th century. Traditionally, Suvaññabhumi (Thaton) was the centre from which the Buddhism spread up to the whole country. Different concepts of the old city site of the Mon settlements were reviewed and the finding of the artifacts and the tradition revealed that the coastal area of Lower Myanmar happened to be of the settlements of Mon inhabitant.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin May Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (145K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: Identity
 Politics 
and
 Ethnicity : Chin
 Christia
n Churches 
and
 Cross 
Planting
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Author/creator: Marja‐Leena
 Heikkil ä‐Horn
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (155K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Inequality and way of life of Burmese migrants in Thailand: A case study in Chiang Mai
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper draws on case studies of Burmese migrants in the city of Chiang Mai, Thailand, to explore concepts and theories of migration, uneven development and acculturation in which migrants engages in the new environment of urban societies. It examines the new emergence of push-­pull factors of migration, mainly economic reason and urban attractions, which bring Burmese migrants into the city. Further, the paper pays more attention on the concept of uneven development, which comes along with the process of development in urban areas. It discusses about the cities like Chiang Mai as a place where provides residents to access not only greater opportunities for work, activity and key good as well as services, but the places also emerge alongside rising urban inequality for a certain group of people, particularly Burmese migrant workers are recognized as a local symbol of inequality in Chiang Mai, as well as in Asia region. Lastly, the paper focuses analytical attention on ‘way of life’ of Burmese migrants of varying cultural, social, political and economic backgrounds, which it responds to the narratives a bout urban diversity and development of the city of Chiang Mai where they encounter. Based on acculturation framework, cultural way of life of Burmese migrants living in Chiang Mai is classified into three main areas; assimilation, separation and integration, and each area of way of life would be adapted by different generations of the migrants. Therefore, one can see the social phenomenon of Burmese migrants, especially Shan ethnic group, would emerge through Thai society in the city at different levels of lifestyles.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tithirat Pripotjanart
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (375K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


Title: Japan’s Official Development Assistance Diplomacy towards Burma in Post 2012
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: " Over the past decade, there has been a substantial change in Japan’s foreign policy position on democracy support. Its 1992 Official Development Assistance (ODA) Charter committed the country to provide foreign aid in a manner that promotes democracy abroad (MOFA, 10992). The second Abe administration, which came to power in December 2012, has taken Japan’s policy of democracy support a step further. The 2012 ODA white paper, which was released in March 2013, not only expressed Japan’s intention to strengthen democracy abroad but also prioritized it above traditional focuses of Japanese foreign aid such as human security and hard infrastructure assistance. In Burma, Japan has a vital interest in nurturing friendly relations to increase its political and economic clout in the country. This is principally true because Burma, which is undergoing a process of democratic reform, is currently attempting to restrain Chinese influence, long a dominant force in the country. Furthermore, Japan is investing a significant amount of ODA in rebuilding Burma’s economic infrastructure. After the liberalization process began in 2011, Japan started assisting Burma on the rule of law and economic reform through a series of seminars, and in November 2013 it initiated a legal capacity building project..."...Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khen Suan Khai
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (185K)
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Japan’s Role for the Human Resource Development for Manufacturing Industry in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar has been receiving international business attentions since 201 1. Strong growth potential and expectation for the transformation of the Myanmar’s political situation and foreign relations are attracting large foreign direct investment (FDI) from Japan as well as many developed countries. Industrialization is an import ant issue for developing countries for economic development. Myanmar urgently requires industrial competitiveness by catching up with technological capability. Human resource development plays a crucial role in building skills and technological capability, and for realizing a nation’s industrial competitiveness. Myanmar as the latest comer in ASEAN for industrialization, investing in broad human capital development is fundamental to develop into a modern industrial economy. Developing countries can maximum utilize the late comers’ advantages during the process of industrialization. This paper aims to analyse the current human resource development in manufacturing industry and strategies of Japanese government and industries in investments for it. This paper tries to analyse the case of Japanese technology transfer in manufacturing industry. Especially, it focuses on the implementation process of the effective production system from Japan to Myanmar. Each country has each development process. When Japan started initial phase of industrialization, Japan tried several strategies to catch up developed countries. The Japanese development path and the Japanese human resource development strategies over yeas are studied for leaning evolutionary process over years. For this, this paper focuses on the innovative aspect of Japanese human resource development practices and its transfer to Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Yuri Sadio, Than Than Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (461K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2015


Title: Kyaing Tong in Transition (c.1850 -­‐1950)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Kyaing Tong is the largest and oldest state of Trans -­‐ Than Lwin Region. It is known in history with such variety of names as Gon (Khun) (Than Tun, 2004), Kom, Kyaing Tong (Hman-­‐nan, 2008), Khema Vara and Khema Rahta Jayajotitonkarapur (Scott and Hardiman, 1901). The first people who migrated into Kyaing Tong were Wa or La-­‐wa. They also settled in the other areas of eastern Shan States and Lan Na in northern Thailand (Conway, 2006). There were followed by Gon (Khun) and Lu people. The date of the migration of these people is attributed to the early first millennium AD even though local chronicles mentions the date of early settlements to twelfth century AD (Mangrai, 1981). Later the ethnic group from the neighbouring states of Thailand and Laos comprising Tai Hkun; Tai Lu, Tai Lem, Tai Neu, Tai Yuan, Tai Lao and Tai Htai came to settle in the Trans-­‐Thanlwin Region including Kyaing Tong area (Sai Aung Tun, 2009). They established communities which later developed chiefs known as saophas or sawbwas (in Myanmar) which means lord of the sky. A legend says that Kyaing Tong was firstly founded by a hermit named Tong. The state therefore was named after its founder Keng Tong or Kyaing Tong. However Kyaing Tong chronicle mentions that the first two sawbwas of Kyaing Tong; Mang Kom and Mang Yè belonged to Wa Tribe. They were replaced by Khun sawbwas who ruled the region from the mid-­‐thirteenth century A.D to 1959 when sawbwas relinquished their autonomous rule (Than Tun, 2004).".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Soe Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (180K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Language Vitality among the Akha in Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The spread of telecommunications networks and the growth in cross-border trade and travel bring minority language communities in Myanmar into ever greater contact with external influences presenting those communities with new choices and new challenges for their language, culture and group identity. In this context, it is important for a community to be able to assess the vitality of their language at the present moment as well as the likely direction of movement in coming years. This paper describes a sociolinguistic study of language vitality of the Akha communities in Eastern Shan State, Myanmar. Fieldwork involved data collection in 18 Akha villages during Apr-Jul 2014. Factors including Age, Gender and Religious Affiliation were used in the research design. The Extended Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) (Lewis & Simons 2015:104-117) was used to characterise language vitality and the FAMED conditions (Lewis &Simons 2015:159-189) to assess the extent to which the current level of vitality is sustainable. Overall, Akha language vitality was assessed at EGIDS level 5: “the language is used orally by all generations and is effectively used in written form in parts of the community (Lewis & Simons 2010:110)”. The study found considerable dissimilarities among different villages, with religious affiliation a major predictor of literacy proficiency and usage. The role of the non-formal literacy program operating in Christian villages in sustaining the current level of vitality will be discussed.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ah Suhn Ghoemeh
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (176K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Life in the Machine House of Rural Migrants: Case Study of the Lives Of Rural Migrant Industrial Workers and their Families in Haling Thayar Industrial Zones
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In the past four years, Myanmar’s economy and industrial sector have experienced significant development which has pushed rural work forces into urban industries. Livelihoods of rural migrant industrial workers in Myanmar, along with urbanization and industrial development, need to be researched if economic quality of life is to be improved and social needs to be addressed for migrant industrial workers. This research will test the hypothesis: “Rural migrants experience improved life after moving to work in factories in Hlaingtharyar Industrial Zone”. This research examined by answering three research questions Do migrants experience social rights to development, social standards and quality of life after moving to Yangon Industrial Zones, What relationship do rural migrants have with local industrial workers, authorities and labor unions, What are the needs of rural migrants to improve social standards and quality of life?. The purpose of this research proposal is to better understand the lives of rural to urban migrant workers in industrial zones, to assess how they adapt and survive in their new environment as well as their social relationship with local habitants, work, unions, and their families. This issue makes a direct impact on productivity of industries and human rights issues of labors. This research mainly applied ethnography approaches to rural migrant workers as a human agency.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tin Maung Htwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (203K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015


Title: MANDALAY ECONOMY IN TRANSITION (185 9-1877)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Ratanabon City is well known as Mandalay City. It was founded by King Mindon soon after he ascended to the Amarapura Throne in 1852. Many obstacles were ahead of him during his reign. Myanmar was defeated in the second war with the British the result of which was that lower Myanmar was ceded to the latter. It was indeed, a great loss to Myanmar King for rich food supply of rice, salted fish, fish paste and salt all of which were essential to Myanmar daily diet. The first and foremost reform to be carried out was to lessen its dependence for rice on lower Myanmar. The second was to introduce coinage system to become easier in economic transactions and taxations. And the third was the introduction of economic monopoly system and that of tax farming in inter-regional trade. People could see in this period change in agriculture, change in monetary system and change in trade all of which had never been practiced. For these changes in economic performances to be successfully implemented, King Mindon had an efficient, enthusiastic and zealous Heir Apparent popularly known as Prince Kanaung who was very much interested in all-round development of the kingdom to match with, or supersede the British imperialists so that they could be driven out and regain lost territories. For these reasons, reforms were introduced and carried out in the kingdom to become materialized. In brief this research paper is intended to treat the following three major points: on agriculture; on monetary system and on trade.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Yee Yee Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (211K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 06 September 2015


Title: Mapping Thagara Village: Intangible Heritage of an Ancient Site near Dawei
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "...We have selected an ancient site called Thagara located ten kilometers north of Dawei for two reasons. Firstly, as explained above, the habitation areas of ancient Thagara are little known. The site is a raised mound clearly demarcated with a series of up to four earthen and brick ramparts and moats. The area inside the walls is densely populated while the perimeter outside the walls is cultivated, primarily rice fields. Secondly, the Dawei houses are urban rather than the rural types found at Thagara. The traditional hearths and rice barns of the Thagara houses typify the agricultural way of life of southern Myanmar. While some houses have modernized, using income from family members who have returned from periods of work abroad, most of Thagara’s houses use traditional methods of construction.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Zin Maung Maung and Soe Thainkha
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (744K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2015


Title: Mon Diaspora and the Relationships with their Homeland
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This article aims to explain the relations of Mon diaspora at Baan Wang Ka, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand with their homeland. It argues that such relationships are diverse and reflect the complexity of notion of “Bifocality” explaining that homeland is the place of spiritual and cultural roots while host countries are more associated with economic and livelihoods. Mon diaspora has been living in Baan Wang Ka since AD. 1948. The ethnic suppression policies in Myanmar are the major cause of transnational mobility of these people, although, in the later periods, some of them left their homeland to go to Thailand for trading and eventually resettled at the village. Currently, Mon people in the village include four generations who were from Myanmar and heirs of those from Myanmar, however these people associate with their homeland differently. Some relate to their homeland as the place of spiritual and identity of Mon origin. For others, their connections to homeland have to do more with economic than cultural and spiritual dimensions. Such diverse relationships related to not solely generation differences and causes of migration, but also individual’s experience, economic opportunity, legal status, social status in Thailand as well as religious belief. On another score, the diversity of relationships has also associated with their homeland and host country contexts.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Patcharin Lapanu
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (232K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: Nat and Nat Kadaw : The Existence of the Local Cult in Myanmar Tradition
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar has had the prosperous religion, traditional, and other forms of culture in their ways of life. Regarding of the religion, the long-­‐standing and extensive belief in holy and tutelary spirits (Nat) among Myanmese could be generally cited as the Myanmar’s tradition prior the Theravada. Then Buddhism has become to the official faith since King Anawrahta of Bagan dynasty instituted Theravada– a school of Buddhism– to be the principal religion in 11th century. Like Myanmar, other societies in Southeast-­‐Asia and all where the ancient belief and religion is respected and followed by those local people. Among the several Myanmar primitive cults, this article would like to raise the topic of the existence of colorful ritual which fully contains of high respect; Nat and Nat Kadaw (spirit and spirit medium). Actually, this traditional belief has been gradually illustrated by the scholars in different aspects, the classic one was written by the American anthropologist; Melford E. Spiro (1967). Three decades later, the specifically ritual book about the well-­‐known Myanmar local festival was completed by Yves Rodrigue (1995) and other views such as the intensive of this ritual, spirit and spirit medium have been still described by Bénédicte Brac de la Perrière (2009) and the other authors. This attractive cult, however, has still remained interesting phenomenon because the existence of the local be lief and rite has closely been in Myanmese ways of life from Buddhism belief, strict Buddhists and non-­‐Buddhist alliances. In addition, some interesting aspects are that how the Myanmar’s socio-­‐economic changing into the modern society effects to their local belief and spirit worship, how their social transition would affect to the people appealing, and how the Nat Kadaws play their roles and have relations under this context.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Patchareepan Ravangban
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (184K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2015


Title: People Appeared in Thet-­kayit Manuscripts in the Last Dynasty of (1752-­1885)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "In present day people know the word thet-­kayit as a usage that refers to a date or year, but in the Kon-­baung Period, thet-­kayit was a word of dual meaning; it signified a dated contractual deed as well as the date or year. In Myanmar, the utilisation of the word thet-­kayit began during the Bagan Period (1044–1287) with the introduction of Buddhism to Myanmar society. (Toe Hla, 2014, 3-­5) Most Bagan inscriptions started with this word and it soon became customary to start almost all historical writings and chronicles with the word thet-­kayit. Eventually, the documents themselves became known as thet-­kayits and any sort of contract such as obligatory notes, loans, mortgages, disputes, court judgements, etc. were referred to as thet-­kayits. These documents are valuable sources that tell us about the social and economic life of ordinary people during the Konbaung period. The Konbaung rural people recorded the cases of money lending and other social affairs in these documents. From a deep analysis of these thet-­kayits, many aspects of every day life like social relations, administration, customs and traditions, and people’s economic life at that time can be described." .....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thu Nandar
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (208K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015


Title: Prehistory to Proto-­history of Myanmar: A Perspective of Historical Geography
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Myanmar is located between the east Himalayan syntaxis and the Andaman Sea to the south, washed by the Bay of Bengal on the on west, Myanmar links Alpine-­Himalayan rogenic belt to the west with its extension in the rest of Southeast Asia. Myanmar lies in the Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand. Myanmar is the biggest country in the mainland Southeast Asia. It has a total area of 678,500 sq. km. Of this, land covers 657,740 sq. km, and water covers 20,760 sq. km. The total length of national boundary is 5,876 km, bordering with five neighboring countries: Bangladesh at 193 km; China at 2,185 km; India at 1,463 km; Lao PDR at 235 km and Thailand with a shared boundary of 1,800 km. There is also 1,930km of coastline. Eocene age primates found in the Pondaung Formation are represented by Pondaungia cotteri Pilgrim, 1927, Amphipithecus mogcmngensis Colbert, 1937, Bahinia pondaungensis Jaeger et al., 1999, and Myanmarpithecus ytmhensis Takai et al., 2001. Homo erectus had lived in Myanmar 750,000 years ago, and the Homo sapiens about 11,000 BCE, in a Stone Age culture called the Anyathian named after the sites found in the Dry Zone of Central Myanmar. The Padah-­lin caves located in Ywa-­ngan Township, Southern Shan State uncovered more than 1,600 stone artifacts of the Neolithic Age which are dated between 11,000 to 6,000 BCE and also found wall paintings. The Bronze Age evidences which dated 1500 BCE were found in Nyaunggan, Budalin Township. The Iron Age arrived around 500 BCE when iron-­working settlements emerged in a lying to the south of present day Mandalay and near Bagan. The Pyu people, the earliest inhabitants of Myanmar moved into the upper Ayeyarwady valley from present day Yunnan, China around 200 BCE. The Pyu were followed by the Mon, the Ra khine and the Bamar in the first millennium CE.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Win Naing Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2015


Title: Preservation of Dawei People’s Traditional Custom
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "There are many unique traditional customs of the national races of Myanmar who are living in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. The study of the traditional customs of a national race of Myanmar is the best way to learn about the traditional customs of Myanmar. The culture of a country is its life-blood. If the culture of a country had disappeared, the people of this country will be vanished completely. Today is the globalization age, therefore, preservation of our own culture is very necessary for all. As Dawei is situated in the southern part of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, it is far from upper and central Myanmar. As a result, the traditional customs of Dawei people are different from the others. As Dawei is located at the inner part of Tanintharyi coastal region, it is a region where ancient traditional culture, folk songs, traditional dance and dialects can be preserved. The study focused on the unique traditional customs of Dawei People which are different from the traditional customs of oth er national races of Myanmar. This paper emphasizes some traditional customs of Daweis and famous religious festivals preserved untill today. It will contribute to understand the preservation of traditional customs of Dawei people and their preservations.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Maw Maw Aye
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (781K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Religious Networks of Tai Buddhists across the China-Myanmar Border
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "This paper will explore the relationship between the local Buddhist practices of Tăi people who cross the border between China and Myanmar and the religious policy of the two countries, in which these movements are situated. I shall explore the question of how the monks and holu, experts in Buddhist rituals, migrate from Myanmar to revive their local religious practices after the Cultural Revolution in China. The next question is how local people recognise the Buddhist practices which originated from Myanmar. By answering these questions, I will explore the practices of the border area between China and Myanmar, and disclose an aspect of Myanmar Buddhism which is invisible from the viewpoint of national religious institutions...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Takahiro Kojima
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (89K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2015


Title: Ritual as a Social Institution: A Case of Zaw Ti Gone village, Hmawbi Township, Yangon City, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The research will be discussed on villager’s participation in connection with their ceremonies as their social role and also institution for new generation. They have altogether four main festivals; Shin Pyu Pwe 1, Shan New Year festival 2, Thingyan3 (water festival) and rite of passage; obligation. These are showed for their interest and familiarity among them and degree of involvement to meet his or her societal obligation in their social role. The research will be focus on connection, function and social role among their communities concerned with ritual and ceremony. In Zaw Ti Gone village, most of villagers practice ritual as Buddhist traditional way. The paper conduct participatory development, and interviewing are main research method for the research. Some semi-­structure questionnaires and structure questions were prepared before doing the research. Major field work duration was January 2013 to December 2013. After the time occasionally visit for doing field work up to June 2015. It will discuss Ritual and Ceremony of Shan, value system on social organization, interaction and obligation among groups and their hidden institution. The villagers are nearly half is Shan national and others are Bamar and migrant villagers. For village ritual and social affair, most of the leading persons are Shan nationals. Main ritual and seasonal ceremonies are Shinpyu Pwe, Thingyan festival, Waso festival, Sabbath days, Thadingyut (lighting festival), Kahtain festival and New Year Festival of Shan nationals. The study also observed rite of passage among villagers such as Monk birthday ceremony, wedding and funeral. The paper would like to find out "How and Why village social organizations are well organized among themselves and help each other based on these rituals?".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Moe Moe Kyu
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: Rural Livelihood and Agricultural Reform In Chiba Village, Shwebo Township, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "Rural community is one of the strengths in country building. In a nation-­‐state administrative policy changes are followed by economic policy changes, then by changes in livelihood strategies. To members of rural society mostly existing on agriculture livelihood strategies go different based on accessibility of assets. To become a modern, developed nation mainly means brisk economic development, in which increased rural production plays an important part. A bout (70) percent of Myanmar population are rural and farmers by the livelihood. Agriculture sector is the main prop to Myanmar's economic structure. Rice is the staple food of Myanmar people and paddy cultivation is the livelihood of majority of cultivators in the country. The Union Government is working for betterment of agriculture sector as well as farmers' life. In implementing with increased momentum rural development program aimed at enhancement of rural people’s socio-­‐economic development, it is necessary to know of their present status, needs and desires.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shin Thynn Tun
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Social Exclusion, Livelihoods, and Gender Violence: Burmese Muslim Refugees in Thailand
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This work seeks to understand gender-­based violence and the connection between violence and livelihoods for refugees living in conditions of social exclusion. Through qualitative research consisting of 40 interviews, a market survey, and observation conducted among Burmese Muslim refugees in Thailand, this work analyzes the connection between livelihoods strategies, social exclusion, and gender-­based violence. Muslims are a marginalized group within Burma and experience ongoing discrimination while living in refugee communities in Thailand, which results in risk for several kinds of violence at multiple levels. The experiences of Muslim refugees living in Thailand offer insight into the conditions that shape violence for refugees more generally. Findings show that several factors contribute to the incidence of gender violence, including structural, community, and interpersonal stressors and constraints. These dynamics also shape violence, whether domestic abuse, harassment and assault within the refugee camp, or experiences with Thai authorities. By showing the complex conditions that shape gender-­based violence for refugees in this context, this work demonstrates the need for consideration of marginalized groups within refugee populations and the layered nature of the conditions that underpin dynamics of gender violence. This pa per concludes with consideration of the implications of these findings for the possibility of refugee return to Myanmar in the context of ongoing ethnic difficulty and livelihoods struggles.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Mollie Pepper
Language: English, Burmese and Karen
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (309K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 28 August 2015


Title: Socio-­economic Changes in Livelihood of Htantaw Village Amarapura Township, Mandalay Region
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Considering health in the broad term as well–being this study examines changes to villagers’ lives with the effect of privatization and modernization policies. It explores how their economy is related to the changing environment in both time and space. How these villagers cope, struggle and do their best to sustain their living in light of limited resources they had are also presented. This study is conducted in Htantaw Village in the area of Taungthaman Lake locating in the ancient Amarapura Township of Mandalay Division, Myanmar. Villagers, from different ages, occupations and economic status, were interviewed in their homes. Focus groups were used in the first section of the data collection stage. In addition, this study encouraged village leaders participation through the data collection process such as through drawing a Village map, talking through the geographic and social changes in the village and villagers’ struggle and survival strategies. Before 1990, Htantaw; Village is a typical agricultural based village where villagers worked on rice farming, wickerwork and livestock breeding such as duck and cow. Initial socio and economic changes began in 1996 when the water draining in and out was blocked to make a natural Taungthaman Lake as the huge fish–raising ponds by the military government which later issued concession of fishing in a nearby lake owned by a private company. This greatly impacted the villager’s livelihood not only the farming family but also duck and cow raising for milk too, including the rice farmers as their paddy field and agricultural land around the lake had been flooded. The other significant social change was in 2000 due to the establishment of Yadanabon University providing the education for more than twenty thousand students in total a year. The village has become crowded not only with students moving in and from other places but also people who had moved in as workers for the university. Villagers who have some savings started the room rental business and grocery shops. Some started small business es such as restaurants, mobile phone shops and café shops, beauty salon and dress making shops. The social tension between the local and new moving in has been mentioned as well as the increasing struggles in villagers’ life. As the study was conducted by university staff members with the participation of village leaders, its results will be used in further discussions to build a relationship between academic and community people in order to better support the economic and educational development of the village and suggest a model for peaceful learning society in the country.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sandar Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (3.4MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 01 September 2015


Title: Socio-cultural factors of Falam in Chin State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Chin State is situated in the Western sector of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the 13, 907 square miles Chin State is home to Chins. In Myanmar, they predominantly inhabit Chin State, which is located in the Northwest of the country, the bordering Bangladesh to the west and India to the north. The Chin State is divided into two divisions. Northern and Southern During the British Colonial period, the Chin State was under. A Socio-­‐economic study of Falam Township was carried out in 2014. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information. A northern sample of 30 households in 6 villages was selected. A house to house visit was made by 2 interviewers. There are many collections of the historical and socio-­‐cultural evidences of the villages. Out of these villages, the name of the village, Parthe, is explained briefly in this paper.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Saw New
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (176K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Socio-economic Life of People in Myin - mu Township (1852-1885)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This study is based mainly on the money lending and mortgage deeds of the people living in the Myin-mu Township during the late Kon-baung period (1852-1885). It is also concluded some other related documents in this study, like, for example law suits, cour t decision, partitions of property among family members and other cases like breach of trusts. Such deeds and records so far collected for this study number over hundred. Why these documents appeared in the society are presumably because of economic difficulties and some other emergency cases due to political instabilities and maladministration of the local chiefs. As far as we know all money lending and mortgage deeds mere made between poor people and their hereditary chiefs and sometimes between the local chiefs and courtiers including the ministers and some lesser queens. They all can speak the relations between people of the grass-root level and local landowners. Most importantly, they can explain the general situation of the people. Indeed, the money lenders mortgagees were local hereditary chiefs who were accessible to the royal family. The study is to investigate the social changes taking place in accordance with the political and administrative changes. In brief this will highlight the actual situations of the then people.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Palè Aung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (246)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: Socio-economic Pattern of Yindaw Township (1853-1910)
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "How Yintaw came into existence under the Myanmar monarchical rule and how it changed in the successive periods until Myanmar regained her colonial period are discussed. Yintaw was first inhabited by the Pyus, and it became an important locality ruled by Myanmar kings. When the colonial government divided the country into districts, Yintaw became a district and later became a sub-division of Mandalay Division. When colonial administration was introduced, priority was given to the maintenance of law and order rather than to the effectiveness of administration. This work revealed a broad perspective of the importance of the region in the development of societies throughout history. As is already known, the interrelation between the society and agrarian economy was so great that one cannot develop if the other is weak. In order to discuss these topics, the researcher has made extensive field research to collect primary source materials which have never been used before. Stone inscription, land mortgage deeds and contemporary records were used to speak of their supra and infra relation, administrative pattern, self sufficiency economy, economic hardship, social status and various religious sectors. I believe that my new finding research work will be a significant value for the South East Asian studies.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Moe Moe Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: The Economic Development in Southern Myanmar: How Local Mestizos Create a Stable and Strong Economic Development under Obstacles
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "...After Myanmar government led by U Thein Seinhas committed for a political and economic reform in 2011, Japan International Cooperation Agency (from now, ‘JICA’) started helping Myanmar. In fiscal year 2012, Myanmar receive 227,930 millions of Yens, considering 39% of the total figure in Southeast Asia, in a form of technical cooperation such as training, participants, experts, study terms, provision of equipment. Also, JICA started granting an ODAin 2013. (JICA, 2015) More than that, the fact that Myanmar liberalized the economy and promised for a democratic transition have loosen the tension between itself and other international players. The international institutions welcome and have more activities with Myanmar more easily. The reduction of sanction from other countries means less trade restriction and more trading promotion including tax exemption. All these leads to a significant economic growth and a chance for Myanmar to catch up with other ASEAN countries before the ASEAN community starts at the end of this year. However, just like other developing nations, the growth concentrates on a few main cities. Mandalay, the ancient capital city locating in the north of Myanmar, has its border connecting to the Southern part of China. Recently, the Chi nese government has invested in the Kyaukpyu Special Economic Zone or Kyaukpyu SEZ focusing on the energy and petrol industry. Thus, Chinese government built the pipeline delivering gas to Yunan province. Also, The highway was built. This highway is the ma in linkage between China and northern part of Myanmar. Chinese capital and consumer products have been flowed to Mandalay. Recently, Mandalay is one of a few cities that are popular in investors’ eye...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Saibhorn Biboribankul
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (154)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2015


Title: The Role of Civil Society in Myanmar’s Democratization
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Myanmar is in the process of transition to democracy. Therefore, Promoting the culture of democracy and National harmony is of upmost importance. Democratic Culture is a culture in which all citizens can participate and feel that they have a stake. Civil society moved quickly to Democracy. The promotion of democratizing in Myanmar has become the main dominant theme in current situation. Myanmar's democratization efforts have encountered many pitfalls contradictions and dilemmas that have forced the government to alter its approach. Social capital serves as intermediaries between the state and private citizens and sometimes exercises delegated authority in specific areas (such as education, development and resource management). Civil society actors are non-­‐profit and non-­‐government. Civil actors build social capital. The civil society organization of horizontal accountability can help respecting law and exercised properly state authority.eg. President respected public opinion and suspended the construction of the Myitsone dam (Ayeyarwaddy river). The government openly invited International Organization for promotion and protection of human rights, cooperation with UN agencies and partners already held a number of workshops and seminars since 2000, so as to promote public awareness on Human Rights problems and promotion. The most prominent one is a vibrant and developed civil society is the bedrock of democracy. In accordance with the above mentioned factors, several research questions have been raised. How does civil society support Myanmar Democratization process? How much democracy can we legitimately and realistically expect from civil society? How does Myanmar government get political pact from civil society? This paper will be used qualitative research method based on case study. The government has em barked upon a series of reforms such as expansion of civil and political space allowing civil society to function freely.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thin Thin Aye
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2015


Title: The Social Relationship of Myanmar Migrant Workerrs In Malaysia: An Ethnographic Study
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Migration for employment has been a global challenge in today’s world along with the rising figure of world migration population. For that reason, the drawbacks of labour migration need to be managed effectively based on understanding the real context of migrant workers in the country in which they work. Based on the pursuit of this interest, an ethnographic study has been been conducted to explore the social relationship among Myanmar migrant workers in Malaysia since November 2014. The formulated research questions is: what does the social relationship mean among Myanmar migrant workers in Malaysia? More specifically, what difficulties do they face and how do they seek from their social networks in case of difficulties in Malaysia; and what social organizations contribute to meet the needs and difficulties of Myanmar migrant workers in Malaysia?...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Khin Soe Kyi
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (254K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2015


Title: The Sound of Loss and Hope: Pop Music of Karen Refugees from Burma/Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Since late 2011, I have made contacted with Karen refugee communities in two geographic locations –one on the Thai-Burma border and one in Melbourne, Australia, which has provided me opportunities to observe and participate in a number of activities organized by those displaced residents. During my three-year engagement, I have come across many Karen refugees who have enthusiastically taken part in the production as well as circulation and consumption of Karen pop music, especially in the form of music CDs or DVDs and audio and video files shared through online media platforms such as YouTube. Some explain that music offers them opportunities to enjoy themselves and to ‘hang out’ with like-minded fellow Karen. Moreover, I have found that music involvement helps some Karen individuals to cope with and to make sense of situations of displacement, oppression and alienation. Notably, the sentimental charge of song lyrics and melodies as well as the visual representations in music videos become a source of a sense of Karen identity and solidarity, and thereby make it possible for the producers as well as their audiences to maintain connections with their counterparts in different countries.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Manoch Chummuangpak
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (373K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: The Uneasy Subordinate Alliance: The Relations between Myanmar and the Shan States in Late Nineteenth Century
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Historical Setting: "The Shan who belong to the Tai ethnic group of Mongoloid family migrated from China into Myanmar before the Christian Era (Scott and Hardiman, 1901a). Although the date of their migration was still controversial, they had already present in Myanmar before the rise of Bagan in central Ayeyarwaddy Basin. In comparison, the area of settlements of Shans was larger than that of Bamar who entered in the Ayeyarwaddy Basin after the collapse of Pyu city-states (Than Tun, 2002). Since they lived in Yunnan Province, Shans established clusters of communities known as Mong, Muang, Keng-state or town which was ruled by a hereditary chief known as Saopha-lord of the sky. The Myanmar word saw-bwa derived from sao-pha (Zeng Peng: 1990). The first kingdom of Shans might be the Mao which located in a strategic place on the Yunnan border, from thence they entered Myanmar by crossing Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy River. The Shans from Mong Mao area also moved south along the Ayeyarwaddy River. With the help of other groups from Shan States they later founded kingdoms and dynasties in central Myanmar, Upper Sagaing District, Mohnyin, Mong Kwang, Mong Mit and Bhamo. Tai immigrants on the other hand, established p etty states in Hsenwi, Hsi paw, Mong Nai, Mong Pai, Yawng Hwe (Nyaung Shwe), and Kyaing Tong. When Bagan was founded by Aniruddha (1044-77) in the first half of eleventh century A.D, the Shan principalities had already existed in Myanmar. It is attributed that the hegemony of the kings of Bagan could not be extended to the principalities of Shan States, particularly the trans- Than Lwin area (Than Tun, 2004)."......Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Shwe Zin Maw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (189K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 September 2015


Title: The Value of Life in Myanmar Theravada Buddhist Thought
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "...The first question mainly concerns with the characteristic of human life. The answer for this question is that which characteristic and quality are involved in human life. The second question chiefly regards with the cause or the origin of human life. Regarding this, there are some alternative questions such as 'How did life get here'?' Why are we here'?' How did life start'? etc. The third quest ion is very clear that it investigates the meaning of human life. The last question is also clear that it is searching for the value and purpose of human life. It is making assessment of the value and purpose of life in various philosophical systems. This paper mainly concerns with the last question. Many ordinary men may think that the value and purpose of life lies in the concept of fame, status, power, wealth etc. However, most philosophers never regard fame, status, power, wealth as the true value and purpose of life. Instead, they advocates happiness, harmony, knowledge etc are the true value of life.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Tun Shwe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (216K)
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: Tourist Sites and Socio‐Cultural Changes: A Case Study in Taungtham Village
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "The aim of this thesis research is to explore the socio-­‐cultural changes due to tourism and how tourism related to local development. Tourism is one of the activities of human for pleasure. As more and more foreign tourists and domestic travelers have been visiting to Thaungthaman village’s tourist sites, impacts of tourism influence on the local business. The growth in tourism-­‐based industries, including sightseeing by boat, selling souvenirs and other local products to visitors has presented local residents with new options and alternative source of income. Besides, the financial returns from tourism activity are having an effect on the society. KII (Key informant interview), participant observation, FGI (Focus Group interview) were employed to get the data. As a result, this paper indicated that tourism is one of the opportunities to meet the peoples, who have not seen each other before, and to show and see the culture or places and to find the adventure.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thida
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 22 August 2015


Title: Understanding the Health Seeking Behavior of Community People with Lay-­ngan-­yaw-­gar (Stroke) in Myanmar: A Study in Bago
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "In Myanmar, having a stroke is one of the common leading causes of death and constitutes 3.6% of total deaths in 2011 (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar or “wind disease” is a common chronic illness condition that impacts on socio-­‐economic life of people. Lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is the Myanmar term for neurological weakness caused by a stroke from the biomedical point of view. Biomedical perspectives explain the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar (stroke) as the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue (WHO, 2014). Unlike biomedical explanation, causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar are explained in several different ways in the traditional medical sector in Myanmar. Different disciplines of traditional medical systems explain differently the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar. Based on Ayurveda concepts, lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar is due to an imbalance of wind, phlegm and bile which creates ill-­‐health conditions in lay knowledge while Buddhist perspectives explains the causes of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the point of “Karma”, the act of an individual in the past or present life. Astrological perspectives describe the cause of lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar from the calculations of zodiac of stars, planets and the time of birth and age (Heath in Myanmar, 2013). Therefore, different schools of thought produces diverse views on lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar in Myanmar. Al though stroke is a common public health issue in Myanmar, the majority of studies conducted have focus on biomedical aspects of stroke and viewed mainly from the point of view of the biomedical perspective. This study will fill the knowledge gap on understanding how people in rural villages of Bago with lay-­‐ngan-­‐yaw-­‐gar seek medical attention based on their worldview and will explore different perspectives from the community in relation to the traditional health sector.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Aung Zaw Moe
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Understanding the Role of Civil Society Organization in Raising Public Voices to the Government in Bogalay of Ayeyarwady Delta Region, Myanmar.
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In Myanmar, the discussion and engagement between the government and public is almost impossible during the previous government. Nowadays, there have been engagement between the government and public through the civil society organizations. It is very interesting to understand how these engagement are happening, how the relationship between government and public are happening, how the public is advocating to the government and addressing the important issues that the public is facing. Because these public and government engagement are critical important for Myanmar transition to Democracy. The objective of this study is to understand the role of civil society organizations in raising public voices to the government in Bogalay of Ayeyarwady Delta Region, Myanmar.This study is mainly qualitative research method base on Anthropology research conducted in Bogalay of Ayeyarwaddy Region from December 2014 to September 2015. One successful and another unsuccessful advocacy and engagement on issue are selected. Data are collected using methods of social anthropology; in-depth interviews with member of grassroots association, community members, and government official, and field observations of public-government relationship in Ayeyarwaddy. The outcomes and the relationship of public and government engagement can be different according to the having common interest among them, the participation of people, relationship among the stakeholders, different advocacy strategies and efforts. In conclusion, this study provides real life experiences of rural people and the civil society organizations engagement with the government authority addressing the issues which are critical important. By presenting the one successful and another unsuccessful engagements, this study find out the factor influencing on the engagement process.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Sandar Cho Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2015


Title: Urbanism and Cultural Heritage: How to maintain history and forge into modernity in a fast growing Yangon
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This report is about urbanism and historical heritage preservation in Yangon, Myanmar. When we look at urbanism, we are as well to view from the perspectives of urban development along with urban planning. The buildings are merely the physical infrastructures for the citizens of Yangon but also the cultural landscape and the history of the place. They have been changing throughout the time along with social and culture values of the local people. To be able to understand fully about the urban development of a certain area, attentive investigation on urban planning is mandatory. Thus, decent urban planning is vital for the positive development. This research report is based on the theories of urbanism, cultural diversity and tangible and intangible cultural heritage but focus mainly on tangible historic architectural buildings conservation. The case study is in the city of Yangon, Myanmar and critical analysis is centered on the Yangon Heritage Trust, the local NGO working on preserving the heritage of the city. The analysis themes are made upon th e benefit and wellbeing of the city dwellers."....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Hay Mann Zaw
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (405K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 20 August 2015


Title: Urbanization: The Structures of Sustainable Urban Landscape of Myanmar
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "With the major economic system changes, many new developments are observed in every sector of Myanmar. Urban landscaping is an integral part of modern urban construction and also presents the development of economic conditions. One of the most important factors of urbanization is population size. Urbanization is developed rapidly, based on rural-­‐urban migration and natural growth of cities and towns. As urban area develops changes occur in the landscape such as buildings, roads, recreational sites. etc. Although the country’s population remains largely rural because of Myanmar economy is based on agriculture, urban population growth was faster than spatial growth. Yangon is Myanmar’s largest urban area. However, spatially it grew between 2000 and 2010, increasing at a rate of 0.5% a year, from 370 square kilometers to 390. This paper studies many social (traffic congestion, waste disposal, water problems) and environmental issues (pollution) in urbanization and concludes that long-­‐term solutions to these problems. Therefore this paper presents the structure of urban landscape of some significant features within Myanmar and the controlling factors to this urban landscape. If population growth and urbanization are given sufficient attention in economic policies which must seek to manage for the sustainable future urban landscape of Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Thin Thin Khaing
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 26 August 2015


Title: Warlords ’ s Learning Curve: A Case Study of the Pa-O Self Administrated Zone
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "With 135 ethnic groups divided into eight major national ethnic races,1 Myanmar2 is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. The Panglong Agreement in 1947 tried to set the path for the integration of these nationals into one state. However, with the assassination of the architect of the Panglong Conference General Aung San and the subsequent military takeover of the country, the curtain of ethnic struggles was drawn. Among ethnic groups fighting for their self-adetermination is the Pa-O3. The research focused on the period from 1988 to 2012 because this is the period when most of the ceasefire agreements were signed, which allowed some forms of law and order to return to the local community. The research methodology is mainly qualitative, using. Yet, amid the chaos after the democracy movement in 1988, the military regime managed to sign over 20 ceasefire agreements with various armed groups, among them were with the Pa-O National Organization (PNO) and the Shan State Nationalit ies People’s Liberation Organization (SSNPLO). PNO agreed to ceasefire in 1991 and SSNPLO followed in 1994. Therefore, theoretically, the Pa-O area has been pacified since the 1990s. Indeed, the Pa-O populated region known as Area 6 was granted the status of Self Administrated Zone (SAZ) in 2011. This paper attempts to look into what ceasefire means to the Pa-O people from the perspective of the development of the political economy in the SAZ. Developing on the theory put forward by Mancur Olson (Olson, 2000) that a stationary bandit should provide better development prospects to the local people than a roving bandit, this paper argues that the benevolence of the stationary bandit is not given per se, it needs competition to bring it forward. Since signing the ceasefire agreement and receiving lucrative economic concessions from the central government, the PNO have effectively become a stationary bandit with an informal mandate to rule over the Pa-O area. In a way agreeing with Charles Tilly (Tilly, 1985) that the state is no different from the Mafia, in that they both tax their people in return for providing protection, Olson argued that a roving bandit will only concern about h is short-term gains whereas a stationary bandit will actually try to provide genuine development for the people in order to perpetuate the control over the area. Effectively, the PNO have become a stationary bandit after signing the ceasefire agreement, bu t whether they have performed their duties like Olson has predicted is the subject of this investigation...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ricky Yue
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (131K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 03 September 2015


Title: When Ravana Is a Hero: Anti-Colonialism in the Cont emporary Myanmar Novel Lin-­gar Di Pa Chit Thu by Chit Oo Nyo
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "Ramayana or Yama in the Myanmar language, is one of Myanmar’s canonical literary works that has been prevalent since ancient times and appeared in the forms of poetry and dramatic performance. Recently, the story has been modified and reinterpreted into a contemporary novel entitled Lin-­ gar Di Pa Chit Thu by Chit Oo Nyo. Through a postcolonial perspective, the novel critiques the British-­ Myanmar colonial power relations by characterizing Ravana as the protagonist who represents Myanmar natives’ struggles against colonialism while appointing the role of the colonial powers to the Rama character. This anti-­ colonialist rewriting of Ramayana is achieved by turning upside down the traditional writing approach of the story, through which Ravana is the antagonist whereas Rama and his followers are the protagonists.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Wathanyoo Faktong
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (256K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 September 2015


Title: Women of the Kachin Conflict: Trafficking and Militarized Femininity on the Burma-China Border
Date of publication: 26 July 2015
Description/subject: "Trafficking and Militarized Femininity on the Burma-China Border Kachin State is an ethnic region in northern Burma that has long been in conflict with the central Burmese government.1 In 2011, a seventeen-year cease-fire was broken, resulting in the resumption of active warfare between the Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)—the political arm of the Kachin people—and the Burmese military, at the government’s behest. In spite of ongoing attempts at peace negotiations, the Kachin Women’s Association of Thailand has documented an alarming number of atrocities—including rape, arbitrary arrest and torture—against civilians (Kachin Women’s Association of Thailand, 2013). The area has been documented to be an active conflict zone resulting in one of the worst humanitarian crisis’ in the Mekong Sub-Region (Human Rights Watch, 2014). According to a report by the prior Special Rapporteur on Human Rights in Burma, over 120,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) have fled to border areas of Burma and China to escape the fighting (Quintana, 2014), and these communities suffer from a lack of basic necessities and little to no foreign aid. These desperate conditions have left civilians—women, in particular—very vulnerable. As a result, trafficking in women – often to Yunnan Province as forced brides – is on the rise. This form of trafficking, however, has not been made a priority on the policy agendas of the Burmese or Chinese governments, and there is currently no official anti-trafficking policy operating within Kachin State..."
Author/creator: Erin M. Kamler
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (161)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 08 August 2015


Title: Gender Identity and Female Education of Akha National Living in Kengtung Township, Shan State (East), Myanmar
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "This paper examines the gender identity of Akha national and female education of Akha living in Kengtung Township, Shan State (East), Myanmar with the focus on identities of masculinity and femininity of Akha. In addition, this study intends to elicit the education of the Akha women for gender mainstreaming in formulating development planning in the study areas. Data were collected from three villages; Hwe Yoke1,2 and Naung Hlam in Mong Hkun village tracts, in Kengtung Township, Myanmar by using qualitative methods. IDI(in‐depth interview), KII (key informant interview),IGI(Informal Group Interview) with Akha men and women including informal conversation were employed to get the data. The findings illustrated that politeness, respects, skill at household tasks and field tasks and wearing head‐dress are important for married Akha women. Having a good management and social dealing with other people are also critical for Akha men. This paper examined that gender identity of Akha are concerned with qualification of Akha man and woman. This identity is closely related to education of female Akha. Local Akha people thought that daughters must do household tasks and field tasks which are important to be a good girls. Their traditional attitudes are influenced on the education of girls because they expected only to be a good housewife in the family. This study showed that the majority of Akha girls and boys finished in the primary level and very few boys can attend in the middle and higher levels. In this case, it is found that socio‐economic condition plays an important role in studying for higher level education. It is evident that these situations are the main causes to limit female’s access to education. With respect to education, gender disparities in schooling were found in the study areas. Akha women need to be educated because women’s empowerment is important for community development in the study areas.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Than Pale
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (528K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 11 August 2015


Title: Holding Back the Tide: can Myanmar’s democratic political leaders prevent a de facto religious test for full citizenship rights?
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: "In 2010 Myanmar held its first elections for two decades, transitioning from direct military rule to a notionally civilian form of government. Accompanying this political transition has been increased political and media freedom. Democracy means public opinion is more important than ever to the country’s political leaders, while reforms to Myanmar’s media censorship regime have allowed previously suppressed opinions to be widely disseminated through the media. While pro-democracy political groups have taken the opportunity to organise, this paper is concerned with the opportunities these freedoms have provided to Myanmar’s more divisive political figures. Ethnic relations in Myanmar have been a long-standing source of domestic conflict. Ethnicity can be a test for citizenship and ethnic identity is often closely linked with religion. Communal conflict between elements of the country’s Buddhist majority and the Muslim minority since 2012 have exposed previously suppressed staunch anti-Muslim voices from within the Buddhist community. Notably, the 969 Movement, activist monk Ashin Wirathu and the Ma Ba Tha have argued it is in Myanmar’s national interest to protect the Buddhist religion from a perceived Muslim threat, calling for restrictions to Muslims’ political and civil freedoms. This paper suggests that the success of U Wirathu and the Ma Ba Tha’s political agenda would add another layer of complexity to how Myanmar’s citizenship laws operate in practice since existing citizens would have their rights restricted on the basis of religion. This would amount to the creation of a de facto religious tes t for full Myanmar citizenship rights. In the context of Myanmar’s limited democracy (Kingsbury 2014), this paper asks, can Myanmar’s national political leaders hold back the apparent tide of popular support for the creation of a de facto religious state? The author will argue that Myanmar’s political leaders, facing a national general election in November 2015, will not take the necessary steps to hold back this tide of support for discriminatory policies and the consequence, while perhaps unintended, will be the creation of a de-facto official state religion.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ronan Lee
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (412K)
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Land Grabbing As A Process Of State-Building In Kachin Areas, North Shan State, Myanmar
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: "...Like the other resource concessions, land grabbing for large scale agriculture and military purpose in ethnic areas is a military state-building strategy of Myanmar military led-government. Since 1990s, in Myanmar, a military-run dictatorship has adopted its own version of market economy. While maintaining ownership of all land, the state allocated large land concession to companies, which have strong network with generals or government officials, for logging, mining, and agribusiness purpose. Initially, investments in natural resource extraction favored local headmen and ceasefire leaders who mediated the deals and taxed commodities crossing their borders into Thailand and China...".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: L Gum Ja Htung
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (94K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Muslim Minorities in Transitional Societies: Different Myanmar Muslim Groups’ Different Experiences In Transition
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract: " Political and social liberalizations in Myanmar since 2011 have received wide acclaim especially from the international community. However, the experience on the part of Myanmar has not been a bed of roses. With the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and occurrence of violent sectarian conflicts in 2012 and 2013, the ‘Myanmar Muslim minority’ has caught the headlines and attention of both academic and policy circles in the international domain. It generally hholds true that Myanmar Muslims have experienced social suffering and an identity crisis as a community over the last three years. The issue of the Rohingya, who have suffered most, has understandably become the dominant topic in all the talks and writings on Myanmar Muslims in general. However, there are a few other Muslim minorities whose experiences in the transition have been different depending on their identity and dwelling place. This paper will highlight the experiences of two Muslim groups in Myanmar–ethnic Kamans and Mandalay an Muslims–who have also been affected by the rise of anti-­Muslim sentiments and violent/non-­violent conflicts and argue that their sufferings different from the Rohingya’s imply that there are Muslim minorities, not a Muslim minority, in Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Nyi Nyi Kyaw
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (421K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: North Myanmar Minority Issues & its Impact on China -­Myanmar Relations
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Abstract" "The long-­lasting contradiction and conflicts between north Myanmar minorities and central government resulted from that the bilateral relations status has not yet been settled down after Myanmar obtaining independence from British colony India: that is to say Myanmar government betrayed its original promise and deprived the ethnic groups autonomy right. Along with Myanmar preparation for reform and reconciliation with the US, its domestic political process has highly involved into regional/global big power struggles, thus the conflicts between north Myanmar ethnic militants and its military government have very complicated backgrounds of external forces. In fact, though there is every reason for Myanmar domestic contractions to break out and for a long time lead to factual conflicts, however the current conflicts directly result from the US Asia pivot strategy to contain China, not only making China a victim of Myanmar domestic conflicts, but also seriously deteriorating China-­Myanmar relations.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Qingsi Li
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (180K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2015


Title: Think Like a Mountain: Toward a Perspective for Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Research
Date of publication: 25 July 2015
Description/subject: Introduction: "This might refer to our relationship with the environment just as well as to that between a man and a woman. Our relationship with the environment requires careful attention for we must take care of it if we want it to reciprocate. Around the globe today, that relationship is being challenged. We are here in a wondrous and wonderful part of the world. This sketch of Asia’s major rivers flowing down from the Tibetan plateau illustrates just how central our location is, both geographically and in terms of the hundreds of millions of human lives and other biological phenomena impacted by the flow of these waters. The river of concern for me today is the Salween, in some locations called the Nu Jiang or the Thanlwin. Lately my focus has been on Myanmar (Burma) and its current struggles to emerge form a long period of difficult political and economic conditions. Many, dare I say all of us, desire to help this great country to achieve higher levels of prosperity and sustainable well-­being. One focal point for many has become the Salween..." .....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Author/creator: James Lin Compton
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­25 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (85K)
Date of entry/update: 06 August 2015


Title: The Rise of Anti-Muslim Hate Speech Shortly Before the Outbreaks of Mass Viol ence Against Muslims in Myanmar
Description/subject: Abstract: "Anti-Muslim sentiment is not a new phenomenon in Myanmar but it is deeply rooted in its pre-­independence history. Throughout the military junta in Myanmar, the escalation of anti-­Muslim hate speech aimed to instigate Buddhist-­Muslim riots in order to deflect the people’s anger and exasperation away from the military regime. Since 1988 when the military ruled Myanmar, anti-­Muslims hate and dangerous speech have been mainly circulating in the print media, and nowadays particularly on social media in Myanmar although most of the people in rural areas cannot access the internet. Anti-­Muslim hate speech and propaganda such as pamphlets, leaflets, DVDs, VCDs, CDs, posters and others have been distributed in some parts of Myanmar right before outbeaks of mass violence against Muslims such as the anti-­Muslim riot in Mandalay (1997), the anti-­Muslim riot in Taungoo (2001), and the anti-­Muslim riot in Meikhtila (2013). Based on interviews and documents such as pamphlets, leaflets, DVDs, VCDs, and CDs, and sermons, as well as interviews given by nationalists and nationalist Buddhist monks, this paper analyses speech acts that promote anti -­‐ Muslim sentiment, which is a precondition for instigating anti-­Muslim violence. This pap er argues that promotion of anti-­Muslim sentiment has always escalated shortly before the outbreaks of mass violence against Muslims in Myanmar. The contribution of this paper is to call attention to a dynamic that could lead to atrocities against Muslims in Myanmar.".....Paper delivered at the International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015.
Author/creator: Ye Myint Win
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies: Burma/Myanmar in Transition: Connectivity, Changes and Challenges: University Academic Service Centre (UNISERV), Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 24-­26 July 2015
Format/size: pdf (354K)
Alternate URLs: http://rcsd.soc.cmu.ac.th/web/Burma/home.php#
Date of entry/update: 27 August 2015