VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Administration and administrative areas > National administration

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

National administration

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Administrative divisions
Description/subject: Main article: Subdivisions of Myanmar... The 14 states and divisions of Myanmar. Myanmar is divided into seven states and seven divisions.Divisions are predominantly Bamar. States, in essence, are divisions which are home to particular ethnic minorities. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages. Major cities are divided into districts called townships... Divisions * Ayeyarwady Division * Bago Division * Magway Division * Mandalay Division * Sagaing Division * Tanintharyi Division * Yangon Division... States * Chin State * Kachin State * Kayin State * Kayah State * Mon State * Rakhine State * Shan State... Geography...The links to the individual States and Divisions are subdivided in various ways, e.g.: * 1 Geography * 2 Economy * 3 Population * 4 History * 5 References * 6 See also * 7 External links * 8 Bibliography
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 24 January 2007


Individual Documents

Title: Strengthening Policy Institutes in Myanmar - မန္မာႏိုင္ငံရွိမူဝါဒေရးရာအင္စတီက်ဴမ်ား အားေကာင္းလာေစေရးအတြက္ အႀကံျပဳစာတ
Date of publication: 16 June 2016
Description/subject: ယခုစာတမ္းတြင္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံအတြင္းရိွ မူဝါဒေရးဆြဲခ်မွတ္ျခင္းလုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ကို မူဝါဒေရးရာအင္စတီက်ဴမ်ားက မည္သို႔စနစ္တက်ႏွင့္ ထိထိေရာက္ေရာက္ ပံ့ပိုးကူညီႏုိင္မည္ကို ေဆြးေႏြးထားပါသည္။ ျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးမ်ားႏွင့္ ဒီမိုကေရစီစနစ္ကို တျဖည္းျဖည္း စတင္က်င့္သံုးေနသည္ႏွင့္အမွ် ပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္ေသာ မူဝါဒခ်မွတ္သည့္ လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မ်ား ျဖစ္လာေရးအတြက္ အခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား ပိုမိုမ်ားျပားလာခဲ့သည္။ အမ်ိဳးသားဒီမိုကေရစီအဖြဲ႕ခ်ဳပ္မွ ႏိုင္ငံအႏံွ႔အျပားတြင္ အႏိုင္ရရိွခဲ့ေသာ ၂၀၁၅ ႏဝုိ ငဘ္ ာလ ေရးြ ေကာကပ္ ဲ ြ သည္ မူဝါဒလမ္းစဥ္အသစ္မ်ားကို ပံ့ပိုးေပးႏုိင္ေရးအတြက္ အခြင့္အလမ္းမ်ား ထပ္မံျဖစ္ထြန္းလာေစသည္။ တၿပိဳင္နက္တည္းမွာပင္ အစိုးရသစ္အေနႏွင့္ တစ္ႏိုင္ငံလံုးရွိျပည္သူမ်ားထံမွ ပိုမိုတိုးတက္မ်ားျပားလာမည့္ေတာင္းဆိုမႈမ်ားကို မည္သို႔တုန္႔ျပန္ေျဖရွင္းမည္ နည္းဆိုသည့္ ေမးခြန္းမ်ားစြာလည္း ေပၚေပါက္လာေစသည္။ လက္ရွိအခ်ိန္တြင္ စြမ္းေဆာင္ရည္ပိုင္း၌ အကန္႔အသတ္ရွိသည္ မွန္ေသာ္လည္း မူဝါဒေရးရာအင္စတီက်ဴမ်ားသည္ ပိုမိုျပည့္စံုေကာင္းမြန္ေသာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားေပးျခင္း၊ ဆန္းစစ္ျခင္းႏွင့္ မူဝါဒမ်ား ျပင္ဆင္ေရးဆြဲရာတြင္ ပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္ေစျခင္းအားျဖင့္ အဆိုပါစိ္န္ေခၚမႈမ်ားကို ႏိုင္ငံေရးေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား ကို္င္တြယ္ ေျဖရွင္းရာတြင္ တျဖည္းျဖည္းခ်င္း ပံ့ပိုးကူညီေပးႏုိင္မည္ ျဖစ္သည္။
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (930K)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Strengthening-Policy-Institute-in-Myanmar_Burm...
Date of entry/update: 07 August 2016


Title: Strengthening Policy Institutes in Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 May 2016
Description/subject: "This note considers how policy institutes can systematically and effectively support policy processes in Myanmar. Opportunities for improved policymaking have grown following reforms and the gradual introduction of democracy. The November 2015 elections in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) won by a landslide created further potential to support new policy directions, while raising new questions over how the Government will respond to growing demands from people across the country. Although current capacity is limited, policy institutes can gradually help political leaders respond to these challenges, by providing better data and analysis and improving how policies are formulated."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (430K)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Strengthening-Policy-Institute-in-Myanmar_ENG....
http://asiafoundation.org/latest-by-location/?wpvcountries=Myanmar
Date of entry/update: 04 June 2016


Title: Administrative map of Myanmar
Date of publication: 08 September 2015
Description/subject: "Under the 2008 Constitution, all seven 'Divisions' have been renamed 'Regions' The seven ethnic 'States' retain their names. There are also five new Self-Administrated Zones and one new Self-Administrated Division for 'National races with suitable population'"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: jpeg
Date of entry/update: 12 September 2015


Title: CONCEPTUALIZING PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM IN MYANMAR
Date of publication: June 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar has captured the world’s attention with its transition away from authoritarian military rule towards democracy. Since 2011, a series of major reforms have seen the country move from a repressive political system to one that is more focused on people-centered development; from a statedominated to a market-oriented economy; from decades of ethnic conflict towards a nationwide ceasefire and political dialogue; and from regional isolation to re-engagement in global affairs. This process of political and economic transformation has been accompanied by calls for reform of the public sector in Myanmar from many quarters. Political parties have taken to the streets over constitutional reform; students have marched to demand changes to the National Education Law; farmers have protested for land rights; and urban residents have complained about frequent power outages. Public expectations of government are rising, and demands are more visible, given the greater space for public expression in recent years. Outspoken criticism of the public sector, however, has also come from some surprising sources. President U Thein Sein and his senior ministers have delivered a series of, at times, blistering speeches calling for a change in the ‘mindset’ of government officials.."
Author/creator: David Hook, Tin Maung Than and Kim N. B. Ninh
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (761K-reduced version, 915K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs21/AF-2015-Public_Sector_Reform-en-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 11 September 2015


Title: CONCEPTUALIZING PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM IN MYANMAR - မ န မ ာ ႏ င င တ င ျ ပ ည သ ေ ရ း ရ ာ က ႑ ျ ပ ျ ပ င ေ ျ ပ ာ င း လ ေ ရ း အ ယ အ ဆ အ ာ း န ာ း လ ည သ ေ ဘ ာ
Date of publication: June 2015
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Myanmar has captured the world’s attention with its transition away from authoritarian military rule towards democracy. Since 2011, a series of major reforms have seen the country move from a repressive political system to one that is more focused on people-centered development; from a statedominated to a market-oriented economy; from decades of ethnic conflict towards a nationwide ceasefire and political dialogue; and from regional isolation to re-engagement in global affairs. This process of political and economic transformation has been accompanied by calls for reform of the public sector in Myanmar from many quarters. Political parties have taken to the streets over constitutional reform; students have marched to demand changes to the National Education Law; farmers have protested for land rights; and urban residents have complained about frequent power outages. Public expectations of government are rising, and demands are more visible, given the greater space for public expression in recent years. Outspoken criticism of the public sector, however, has also come from some surprising sources. President U Thein Sein and his senior ministers have delivered a series of, at times, blistering speeches calling for a change in the ‘mindset’ of government officials.."
Author/creator: David Hook, Tin Maung Than and Kim N. B. Ninh
Language: Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation via Center for Economic and Social Development (CESD)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
Alternate URLs: https://mdricesd.files.wordpress.com/2015/07/sn-gov-ps-reform-mm1.pdf
Date of entry/update: 31 January 2016


Title: Public Financial Management in Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: November 2014
Description/subject: "...The 2008 Myanmar Constitution introduced a degree of fiscal decentralization of budgeting and planning functions from the Union government to states and regions. State and region governments now prepare their own budgets and have some authority to collect revenues locally. The total budgets of states and regions has risen accordingly, from less than 4 percent of public spending in the 2013-2014 financial year to nearly 12 percent in 2014-15. While states and regions have full statutory authority to determine budgeting priorities, spending discretion is limited in practice by the Union-level Financial Commission, which ultimately decides how much budget support each state and region will receive from the Union fund through a process that is neither transparent nor based on objective criteria. The overall process of policy-setting, levying, and collecting of revenues is not yet well developed and leaves considerable room for improvement. States and regions may also request additional monies through supplementary budget allocations, a practice which impedes sound budget planning. The benefit of participatory mechanisms on the planning and budgeting process remains limited..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf ( 1MB-reduced version; 3.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MMPublicFinancialManagement.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


Title: Administering the State in Myanmar - An Overview of the General Administration Department (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: "Basic administration in Myanmar is provided by the General Administration Department (GAD) of the Ministry of Home Affairs. GAD administrators manage subnational administrative structures stretching from states and regions down to districts, townships and all of the country's approximately 16,700 wards and village tracts. Although the GAD is exceptionally important to governance in Myanmar, particularly at subnational levels, it is also poorly understood, and indeed, rather enigmatic. As the Myanmar government works to implement public sector reform, a better understanding of the GAD is imperative. This paper accordingly details the origins of the GAD and then details its mandates, structures and working processes. The Myanmar Development Resource Institute's Centre for Economic and Social Development (MDRI-CESD) and The Asia Foundation are pleased to present this sixth volume in the Subnational Governance in Myanmar Discussion Paper Series..."
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.23MB-reduced version; 2.37MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/GADMyanmar.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


Title: Administering the State in Myanmar - An Overview of the General Administration Department (English)
Date of publication: October 2014
Description/subject: "...The General Administration Department (GAD) of the Ministry of Home Affairs is critically important to subnational governance in Myanmar. The GAD acts as the civil service for the new state and region governments and provides the administration for the country’s districts and townships. Given its pervasive importance as the bureaucratic backbone of the country and its impact on the lives of citizens, it is also surprising that there is little information on how the GAD is organized, its roles and functions, and how it has evolved over time. A more systematic understanding of the GAD by all stakeholders in government and civil society as well as development partners is essential to effectively advance reforms, particularly as they relate to administrative decentralization, local governance, social service provision, but also the relationship between the state and citizens. To address this significant information gap, this research report provides an extensive overview to the GAD based on literature review and a series of in-depth interviews. The report first outlines the historic evolution of “general administration” in Myanmar, followed by a detailed mapping of the roles, structures and functions of the GAD at the Union level. The paper then methodically defines the roles, structures and functions of the GAD at the state and region, district, township and ward and village tract levels of government, and the extent to which they have been redefined in recent years as the country embarked on political and administrative reforms..."
Author/creator: Kyi Pyar Chit Saw and Matthew Arnold
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB-reduced version; 2.37MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/GADEnglish.pdf
Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


Title: Fiscal Decentralization in Myanmar: Towards a Roadmap for Reform (English)
Date of publication: 01 July 2014
Description/subject: "...Fiscal decentralization forms the backbone of Myanmar’s efforts to strengthen public services, encourage development across the country, and secure peace and stability. The country has made important first steps in the decentralization process, but as yet these do not form a consistent framework for distributing budgetary resources. This discussion paper by Hamish Nixon and Cindy Joelene intends to inform the wider discussion about how best to proceed with fiscal decentralization in Myanmar. Its goal is to inform policy makers, civil society, political parties, and international development partners of principles and processes to guide fiscal decentralization policy. The paper presents ideas for a fiscal decentralization roadmap that are grounded in the country’s context, and that build on existing structures and reforms while leaving space for the longer‐term evolution of the decentralization process..."
Author/creator: Hamish Nixon and Cindy Joelene
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation, MDRI-CESD
Format/size: pdf (1.1MB-reduced version; 2.63-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/FiscalDecentralizationinMyanmarTowardsARoadmaptoReform...
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2014


Title: Muddling through past legacies: Myanmar's civil bureaucracy and the need for reform
Date of publication: 2004
Description/subject: "Myanmar's governance problems originate from poor civil bureaucratic structures... Discussions of Myanmar tend to focus on its national politics, its ethnic schisms, or its state-society relations. What is often ignored is the state of the civil bureaucratic structure, which in Myanmar has steadily declined since the post-colonial governments took over the responsibility of political leadership. Bureaucracy is the arm of government that ultimately must deliver political promises and face the public in day-to-day matters. Yet concerns about the nature and role of Myanmar’s civil bureaucracy have been overshadowed by the salience of the seemingly more central political issues. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to redirect some attention to the country’s enduring bureaucracy and ways in which it could possibly be regenerated. The paper argues that as is usually the case in developing states under extended periods of either direct or indirect military rule, Myanmar’s civil bureaucracy has long been characterized by a high degree of centralization, a weak degree of administrative and managerial autonomy and an almost nonexistent consultative process. In addition, the paper also points out that unlike many developing countries, Myanmar has yet to undertake any comprehensive attempt at reforming its civil bureaucracy. This paper explores the two most common usages of the term ‘bureaucracy’ and applies it to this paper. A broad historical overview of Myanmar’s civil bureaucracy since independence in order to provide some context is also conducted. The paper also considers prospects of bureaucratic reform in present-day Myanmar. The paper finds that: * a reformed civil bureaucracy will play a large part in, while simultaneously being contingent upon, the country’s unfolding political process * comprehensive change as a facilitator of both state transformation and a modern bureaucracy will work against the perceived interest of those who have long benefited from manipulating and exploiting their positions in the public services * Myanmar’s bureaucrats must be given a new set of rules to replace the old ones, and be availed a set of ethics and values to govern their role, attitude, perception, and behaviour if this process of bureaucratic re-organisation is to be successful The paper concludes by noting that perhaps the central guiding tenet should be that the greatest possible extent that control of the civil bureaucracy should rest with the public and officials who are representative of that public. Whereas this may sound implausible today when the control mindset is still strong and national politics not quite sorted out, it is not inconceivable at some future point..."
Author/creator: A. M. Mutebi,
Language: English
Source/publisher: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, University of Singapore via Eldis
Format/size: pdf (182K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs3/wp62.pdf
Date of entry/update: 03 August 2005


Title: Administrative terms of British Period - 1
Date of publication: 1978
Description/subject: The British ruled Myanmar for nearly 100 years and during that period they issued circulars and vernacular acts which were publish in the Burma Gazette. These old documents were found in 1978 in the Ayeyawady Division. The Peoples' Council transferred many rare documents to Myanmar Historical Research Department. From these documents the author selected administrative circulars, acts and vernacular acts as references for Myanmar historians. The article includes the authorized Myanmar equivalents of official designations for public administration....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British Rule, 2. Myanmar - Politics and government, 3. Myanmar - Administrative terms.....Key Words: 1. Administrative Terms, 2. Burma Gazette
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: English and Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 2, 1978, pp123-129, Historical Research Dept., Via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (171K-reduced version; 811K-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 14 October 2014


Title: Administrative terms of British Period - 2
Date of publication: 1978
Description/subject: The British ruled Myanmar for nearly 100 years and during that period they issued circulars and vernacular acts which were publish in the Burma Gazette. These old documents were found in 1978 Ayeyawady Division. The Peoples' Council transferred many rare documents to Myanmar Historical Research Department. From these documents the author selected administrative circulars, acts and vernacular acts as references for Myanmar historians. The article includes the authorized Myanmar equivalents of official designations for public administration.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - History - British Rule... 2. Myanmar-Politics and government... 3. Myanmar-Administrative terms..... Key Words: 1. Administrative Terms... 2. Burma Gazette
Author/creator: KYAN, Daw
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Researches in Burmese History", Vol. 3, pp25-77, Historical Research Department via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (1MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0009a.pdf (3.5MB)
http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/MK0009b.pdf (2.4MB)
Date of entry/update: 22 November 2014


Title: Administration under King Thalun (1629-48)
Date of publication: December 1968
Description/subject: King Thalun (AD 1629-48) was a successful ruler of Toungoo Dynasty (AD 1486-1752). He was seriously concerned with the welfare of his people. Buddhism also prospered during his reign and he was noted for his peaceful governance and the improved living conditions throughout his realm.....Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar-politics and government - King Thalun, 1629-48... 2. Myanmar-history
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 51, Part 2, pp173-188, 1968 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (730K-reduced version; 1MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/TT0003J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014


Title: Administration under King Thalun
Date of publication: June 1966
Description/subject: King Thalun (AD 1629 - 48) was a successful ruler of Toungoo Dynasty (AD 1486- 1752). He was seriously concerned with the welfare of his people. Buddhism also prospered during his reign and he was noted for his peaceful governance and the improved living conditions throughout his realm…..Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar- politics and government - King Thalun , 1629 – 48…2. Myanmar - history
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Journal of Burma Research Society", Vol. 49, Part 1, pp51-69, 1966 via University of Washington
Format/size: pdf (933K-reduced version; 1.4MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/TT0003J.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014


Title: Administration of Burma
Date of publication: 1947
Description/subject: Describes the administration of Myanmar kings. The kings governed with the help of Amats (high court officials). Monks were also important, often serving as advisors to the Court, even assisting the kings in foreign relations...Subject Terms: 1. Myanmar - Politics and government... 2. Myanmar-History-Bagan Period (1044-1287)..... Key Words: 1. Min (King)... 2. Amat (High official of Myanmar Royal Court)... 3. Thanpyin (Amat)... 4. Administration
Author/creator: Than Tun, Dr.
Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ (Metadata: English and Burmese)
Source/publisher: "Nawarat Ko-thwe", 2nd editon, pp342-369, 1974, Sabei Oo Sarpay via Univeristy of Washington
Format/size: pdf (600K-reduced version; 2.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.lib.washington.edu/myanmar/pdfs/CU0008.pdf
Date of entry/update: 28 November 2014