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Home > Main Library > Water, including dams > Water bodies (global. regional) > Human activities in, on and around Burma's water bodies > Assessment of hydropower projects in Burma/Myanmar

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Assessment of hydropower projects in Burma/Myanmar

Individual Documents

Title: Development or Destruction - ေရကာတာသည္ ဖြံ႕ၿဖိဳးေရးေလာ၊ ပ်က္စီးျခင္းေလာ ေရကာတာတည္ေဆာက္ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ေဒသခံမ်ာ
Date of publication: June 2018
Description/subject: အဓိကက်ေသာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ား အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ 4 အစီရင္ခံစာျပဳစုပံု နည္းလမ္းမ်ား 5 အသံုးျပဳထားေသာ ေဝါဟာရႏွင့္ အတုိေကာက္ အသံုးအႏႈန္းမ်ား 6 ေျမပံုႏွင့္ အခ်က္အလက္ျပ ဇယားကြက္မ်ား 7 ေျမပံု (၁) KHRG သုေတသနျပဳသည့္ နယ္ေျမဧရိယာ 7 ေျမပံု(၂) ျမန္မာျပည္အေရွ႕ေတာင္ပုိင္းရွိ အဆုိျပဳထားသည့္ေရကာတာႏွင့္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ၿပီးစီးခဲ့ေသာ ေရကာတာမ်ား 8 ဇယားကြက္(၁)သုေတသနဧရိယာအတြင္းရွိေဆာက္လုပ္ရန္စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ေရကာတာႏွင့္ ေဆာက္လုပ္ၿပီးစီးခဲ့ ေသာေရကာတာမ်ား 9 ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ၏ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးေရး မဟာစီမံကိန္းမ်ား 9 ေရကာတာစီမံကိန္းမ်ားႏွင္႔ လူမႈဘဝ ထိခိုုက္ႏိုုင္ျခင္းမ်ား 11 ေျမယာမ်ား ဆံုး႐ႈံးခံရႏိုင္ျခင္း 11 ေရလြမ္းႏိုင္ျခင္း၊အသက္ေမြးဝမ္းေၾကာင္းထိခိုက္ႏိုင္ျခင္းႏွင့္ ေလ်ာ္ေၾကးေငြမရရွိျခင္း 12 ဇယား(၂)ေရကာတာတည္ေဆာက္ခဲ့ျခင္းေၾကာင့္ေျမယာသိမ္းဆည္းျခင္းႏွင့္ေရလြမ္းမိုးျခင္း 12 ေနရပ္ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္းခံရႏိုင္ျခင္း 13 ညွိႏႈိင္းေဆြးေႏြးမႈမ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ခြင့္အားနည္းျခင္း 13 ျပန္လည္အစားထိုးမရႏိုင္ေသာ ဆံုး႐ႈံးနစ္နာမႈမ်ား 14 တရားမွ်တမႈမရွိေသာ ေလ်ာ္ေၾကး 14 ဇယား(၃)ေရကာတာစီမံကိန္းေၾကာင့္ အဓမၼ ေနရပ္ေရႊ႕ေျပာင္း ေနထိုုင္ရျခင္း 15 လက္နက္ကိုုင္တိုုက္ပြဲႏွင့္ မိုင္းအႏၱရာယ္မ်ား 16 အက်ိဳးအျမတ္ခြဲေဝေပးျခင္း ယႏၱရားမ်ားထားရွိရန္ ပ်က္ကြက္ျခင္း 17 ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္း သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ႏွင့္ လူမႈဘဝ ကာကြယ္မႈအေျခအေန - ၿခဳံငုံသုံးသပ္ခ်က္ 18 ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိခုိက္မႈ ဆန္းစစ္ျခင္း ဥပေဒလုုပ္ထံုုးလုုပ္နည္းဆိုုင္ရာ လုုပ္ငန္းစဥ္ 18 ဇယား(၄) ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စီမံကိန္းမ်ားအတြက္ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိခုိက္မႈဆုိင္ရာ ဆန္းစစ္ေလ့လာခ်က္ (EIA) ႏွင့္ ကနဦး ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ဆန္းစစ္ခ်က္ (IEE) တုိ႔၏ ဆန္းစစ္ခ်က္ အဆင့္မ်ား 19 ျမန္မာ့ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စီမံအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈေအာက္ရွိ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိခုိက္မႈ ဆန္းစစ္ေလ့လာခ်က္ 20 အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား 23 ျမန္မာအစိုုးရအတြက္ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား 23 ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံကိန္းမ်ားတြင္ ပါဝင္ေသာ ကုုမၸဏီမ်ားအတြက္ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား 25 ပါဝင္လုပ္ေဆာင္ သူမ်ားအားလံုုးအတြက္ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား 27 ဓာတ္ပံုမွတ္တမ္းမ်ား 28 မာတိကာ / 5 / နိဒါန္း အဓိကက်ေသာ အခ်က္အလက္မ်ား အက်ဥ္းခ်ဳပ္ ျမန္မာျပည္ အေရွ႕ေတာင္ပုိင္း အထူးသျဖင့္ ေဝးလံေခါင္ဖ်ားေသာ ေက်းလက္ေဒသ၊ ပဋိပကၡ ျဖစ္ပြားခဲ့ေသာ ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံ1 နယ္စပ္ႏွင့္ နီးေသာေဒသမ်ားတြင္ လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ရရွိမႈႏႈန္းသည္ အနိမ့္ဆုံး ေဒသမ်ားထဲမွ တစ္ခု အပါအဝင္ျဖစ္သည္။ ျမန္မာ့အမ်ိဳးသား လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓာတ္အား ရရွိေရး စီမံကိန္း (NEP) သည္ ၂၀၃၀2ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံရွိ အိမ္ေထာင္စုအားလံုး လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓါတ္အား ရရွိရန္ စီမံခ်က္ထားရွိပါသည္။ အမ်ိဳးသား လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓါတ္အား ရရွိေရးစီမံကိန္းႏွင့္ အျခားအမ်ိဳးသားဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတုိးတက္ေရး၏ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္အား အေကာင္အထည္ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ရြက္ ႏိုင္ရန္ ျမန္မာ့စြမ္းအင္မဟာစီမံကိန္း (Myamar Energy Master Plan) မွ လွ်ပ္စစ္ဓါတ္အားလုိအပ္မႈအတြက္ ၂၀၃၀3 ခုႏွစ္အထိ ႏွစ္စဥ္ႏွစ္တုိင္း လွ်ပ္စစ္ရရွိမႈ ၁၀ ရာခုိင္ႏႈန္း တုိးျမႇင့္သြားမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ဤအနာဂတ္လုိအပ္ ခ်က္ကုိ ျဖည့္ဆည္းႏုိင္ရန္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံသည္ စြမ္းအင္ထုတ္လုပ္မႈကုိ တုိးခ်ဲ႕ရပါမည္။ လက္ရွိတြင္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအင္သံုးစြဲလည္ပတ္မႈႏႈန္း၏ သံုးပံု ႏွစ္ပံုသည္ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္အားျဖင့္ လည္ပတ္ေနပါသည္4။ျမန္မာ့ စြမ္းအင္ပင္မစီမံကိန္း (အမ်ိဳးသားစြမ္းအင္စီမံခန္႔ခြဲေရးေကာ္မတီ)ႏွင့္ ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္းရွိ အျခားေရြးခ်ယ္စရာလွ်ပ္ စစ္က႑ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္မႈ လ်ာထားသည့္နည္းလမ္းမ်ားသည္ ၂၀၅၀ ခုႏွစ္အထိ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ကို အဓိကလွ်ပ္ စစ္စြမ္းအင္အျဖစ္ အားကိုးအားထားျပဳလိမ့္မည္ျဖစ္ၿပီး5 ၎စီမံကိန္းမ်ားသည္ အိမ္နီးခ်င္းႏုိင္ငံမ်ားထံသုိ႔ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ တင္ပုိ႔ေရာင္းခ်ရန္အတြက္ ပါဝင္ပါသည္။ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏အနာဂတ္ လွ်ပ္စစ္စြမ္းအင္လိုအပ္မႈကုိ ျဖည့္ဆည္းေျဖရွင္းရန္ ေရကာတာအားအသံုးျပဳမည္ဆုိပါက အေရးႀကီးေသာ ေအာက္ေဖာ္ျပပါ အခ်က္မ်ားကုိ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳၿပီး လုိအပ္သလုိ ကုိင္တြယ္ လုပ္ေဆာင္သြားရမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ဤေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ အရင္းျမစ္မ်ားသည္ တိုင္းရင္းသားေဒသမ်ားတြင္ အမ်ားဆံုးတည္ရွိေနၿပီး အထူး သျဖင့္ ကရင္၊ ကယား၊ ကခ်င္ႏွင့္ ရွမ္းျပည္နယ္တို႔ျဖစ္ၿပီး ထိုေနရာမ်ားသည္ အစိုးရႏွင့္ တိုင္းရင္းသား လက္နက္ ကိုင္ ပဋိပကၡတင္းမာမႈ ျဖစ္ပြားသည့္ေနရာမ်ားျဖစ္ပါသည္။6 ျဖစ္ရပ္အမ်ားစုတြင္ တုိင္းရင္းသားေနထုိင္ရာ ေဒသ ရွိ အႀကီးစား ေရကာတာစီမံကိန္းမ်ားသည္ ပဋိပကၡမ်ား၊ လူမႈေရး၊ သဘာဝပတ္ဝန္းက်င္၊ ေဒသခံ လူထုအသုိင္း အဝုိင္းအေပၚ ဆုိးရြားေသာ အက်ိဳးသက္ေရာက္မႈမ်ားႏွင့္ လူ႔အခြင့္အေရး ခ်ိဳးေဖာက္မႈမ်ား ျဖစ္ေပၚေစပါသည္7။ လတ္တေလာခုႏွစ္မ်ားအတြင္း ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံရွိ ေဆာက္လုပ္ရန္ စီစဥ္ထားသည့္ ဒုကၡေပးႏိုင္သည့္ အႀကီးစား ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စီမံကိန္း အမ်ားစု၏ (၅၀ အထဲမွ ၄၂ ခု)သည္ တုိင္းရင္းသားအမ်ားစု ေနထုိင္ရာ ေဒသမ်ားတြင္ တည္ရွိေနပါသည္။8 ထိုေဒသမ်ားတြင္ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးတိုးတက္ေရးစီမံကိန္းမ်ားကို ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့ျခင္းႏွင့္ ထပ္မံျပဳလုပ္ရန္ အဆိုျပဳျခင္းေၾကာင့္ ျမန္မာျပည္ အေရွ႕ေတာင္ပိုင္းရွိ တိုင္းရင္းသား လူထုအသိုက္အဝန္းမ်ားကို ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ စီမံကိန္းမ်ားက လူမႈ၊ စီးပြား၊ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္အေပၚ ထိခိုက္ခဲ့ေသာ ျဖစ္ရပ္မွန္ျဖစ္စဥ္မ်ားႏွင့္ ျဖစ္ေပၚလာႏိုင္မည့္ ထိခိုက္နစ္နာမႈမ်ားကို ဤအစီရင္ခံစာမွ မီးေမာင္းထိုးေဖာ္ျပထားျခင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္။ဤအစီရင္ခံစာသည္ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္ေဖာ္ေဆာင္ေရးက႑ ေကာင္းမြန္လာေအာင္ ျပန္လည္ျပဳျပင္ရာတြင္ မူဝါဒ ေရးဆြဲသူမ်ားႏွင့္ ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံကိန္း ေဖာ္ေဆာင္သူမ်ားအတြက္ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား ေပးထားပါသည္။ ဤအ စီရင္ခံစာမွ ေပးထားေသာ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ားသည္ ျမန္မာျပည္အေရွ႕ေတာင္ပုိင္းရွိ လူနည္းစုတိုင္းရင္းသားမ်ားအား ေရအားလွ်ပ္စစ္စီမံကိန္းမ်ားသည္ မည္ကဲ့သို႔ ဆုိးက်ိဳးသက္ေရာက္မႈ ျဖစ္ေစေၾကာင္းကို သုေတသနျပဳလုပ္ထား ေသာ ရလာဒ္မ်ားအေပၚ မူတည္ၿပီး ေပးထားေသာ အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံ၏ ဥပေဒႏွင့္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈနည္းစနစ္သည္ ႏုိင္ငံတကာ၏ အေကာင္းဆံုးစံႏႈန္းႏွင့္ က်င့္ထံုးမ်ားအရ မည္ သည့္အခ်က္ႏွင့္ ဆန္႔က်င္ေနသည္ကုိ ဤအစီရင္ခံစာမွ တုိင္းတာ ေဖာ္ျပထားပါသည္။ ထုိ႔နည္းအတူ ေရအား လွ်ပ္စစ္ထုတ္လုပ္သည့္ ေရကာတာ စီမံကိန္းမ်ားေၾကာင့္ ဆုိးက်ိဳးသက္ေရာက္မႈခံရမည့္ ေက်းလက္ေဒသရွိ တုိင္းရင္းသား ျပည္သူလူထုမ်ားအတြက္ ပုိမုိေကာင္းမြန္သည့္ လူမႈဘဝႏွင့္ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ဆုိင္ရာ ေဘးကင္းလံုျခံဳ ေရး လမ္းညြန္ခ်က္မ်ား ခ်မွတ္ျပဌာန္းႏုိင္ရန္ အမ်ိဳးသားအဆင့္ မူေဘာင္မ်ားကုိ မည္သုိ႔အားေကာင္းလာေအာင္ လုပ္ေဆာင္ရမည္ကုိလည္း အႀကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ား ေပးထားပါသည္။
Language: Burmese (ြမန်မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Karen Human Rights Group, Karen Rivers Watch
Format/size: pdf (1.6MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/KHRG-2018-07-dam_report-en-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2018


Title: Development or Destruction? - The human rights impacts of hydropower development on villagers in Southeast Myanmar (English)
Date of publication: June 2018
Description/subject: Executive summary: "In Southeast Myanmar, electrification rates are among the lowest in the country, particularly in rural, conflict-affected areas near the border of Thailand.(1) Myanmar’s ambitious National Electrification Plan (NEP) aims to provide electricity access to all Myanmar households by 2030.(2) In response to the NEP and other national development goals, Myanmar’s Energy Master Plan (MEMP) projects electricity demand to rise by 10 percent annually through 2030.(3) To meet future demands, Myanmar must expand its energy infrastructure. Currently, hydropower comprises two-thirds of Myanmar’s electricity generation capacity.(4) Both the MEMP and alternative visions of electricity infrastructure development in Myanmar rely on hydropower as a key source of electricity through 2050, and include provisions for the export of hydropower to neighboring countries.(5) Myanmar needs to acknowledge and address a number of salient concerns if it is going to use hydropower to meet its future electricity needs. Most of Myanmar’s abundant hydropower resources are located in ethnic areas, particularly Kayin, Kayah, Kachin, and Shan States, all of which are sites of ongoing ethnic conflicts and armed tension.(6) In many cases, development of large dams in ethnic areas has resulted in conflict, severe social and environmental impacts for local communities and human rights violations.(7) The overwhelming majority (42 of 50) of large hydropower projects planned in Myanmar in recent years have been situated in ethnic areas.(8) With many more projects slated for development in these areas, this report highlights how hydropower projects impact ethnic communities in Southeast Myanmar. This report aims to encourage reforms in the hydropower sector by building comprehensive recommendations for policymakers and hydropower developers. The report supports recommendations using the results of new research highlighting how hydropower projects have impacted ethnic communities in Southeast Myanmar. Report commentary assesses the degree to which Myanmar’s legal and regulatory frameworks measure up against international best standards and practices for hydropower governance. The report concludes with comprehensive recommendations on how to strengthen these national frameworks in order to provide greater social and environmental safeguards for rural ethnic communities impacted by hydropower dams."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Karen HumanRights Group, Karen Rivers Watch
Format/size: pdf (1.7MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs24/KHRG-2018-07-dam_report-bu-red.pdf
Date of entry/update: 25 July 2018


Title: Improving Hydropower Outcomes Through System-Scale Planning: An Example from Myanmar
Date of publication: 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report examines hydropower development in Myanmar to explore a fundamental challenge: how can governments make informed decisions about infrastructure development that will deliver the broadest range of benefits to their people over the long run? Hydropower provides a clear example of this challenge. For many countries, hydropower is a strategic resource that could increase energy supply at low costs and make important contributions to water resources management and development objectives (potential “co-benefits” of hydropower development and management). However, current approaches to hydropower development often fail to achieve this potential for broad benefits and incur high environmental and social costs. Decisions are often made at the scale of individual projects without a comprehensive understanding of how these projects fit within the larger context of both infrastructure systems and social and environmental resources. Short-term and project-focused decisions are not likely to produce hydropower systems that can fulfill their potential to achieve broad benefits and balanced development. This is because they will be systems in name only. In reality, they are groups of individual projects that are not well coordinated, miss opportunities for more optimal designs, and often cause high social and environmental costs—contributing to conflict and uncertainty for future investment. Most governments do not have a process in place to plan true systems and to strategically select projects that are in the best public interest. We explore two broad hypotheses. First, hydropower planning at a system scale can help governments, developers and other stakeholders find better-balanced solutions with lower impacts and conflicts. Second, countries can adopt system-scale approaches in ways that avoid creating unacceptable burdens or delays. In summary, we propose that a systematic and comprehensive approach to hydropower planning and system design can help countries deliver better development outcomes for their people. We tested these hypotheses by developing an illustrative framework for hydropower planning and investment in Myanmar. HYDROPOWER IN MYANMAR Myanmar is a lower middle-income country with a large deficit in power supply. Only one-third of the population has access to electricity and lack of power constrains efforts to overcome poverty. At the same time, the country has a large undeveloped hydropower potential, estimated at 100 gigawatts (GW), some of which could be used to satisfy its own demand while some could be sold as energy exports to generate revenue for the country. Myanmar’s rivers provide a range of other benefits and resources. Rivers such as the Irrawaddy support productive fisheries, and Myanmar ranks fourth in the world in terms of inland fisheries capture. Nationally, freshwater fish harvests produce over 1.3 millions tons per year and employs approximately 1.5 million people. Irrigation, water supply, and navigation are other importhant uses of the water in the country’s rivers. About 506 freshwater fish species have been recorded within Myanmar, 56 of which are endemic..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Nature Conservancy, WWF and The University of Manchester for DFID
Format/size: pdf (3.8MB-reduced version; 36MB-original
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/System-Scale_Planning_Myanmar_Report.pdf
Date of entry/update: 04 July 2016


Title: Hydropower in Myanmar: Sector Analysis and Related Legal Reforms
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: "The momentous transformation of Myanmar’s political and economic landscape, which began in 2010, has created many investment opportunities, particularly in the hydropower sector. Myanmar is uniquely fortunate to have growing electricity demand both domestically and from its neighbours, eager to buy clean power, as well as a wealth of potential hydropower resources. Rapid economic growth is being experienced across nearly every sector, with a significant focus on energy and infrastructure. According to the International Monetary Fund, GDP per capita in Myanmar as of October 2013 was US$ 1040, an increase of 20 per cent since 2012. In addition, pledged foreign direct investment in Myanmar is also at record levels, exceeding US$ 44 billion in 2013 and showing no signs of slowing."
Author/creator: D. Doran, M. Christensen and T. Aye
Language: English
Source/publisher: International Journal of Hydropower and Dams, Volume 21, Issue 3, 2014
Format/size: pdf (580K)
Date of entry/update: 23 February 2016