“One Belt, One Road” initiative
|Title:|| ||China’s Engagement in Myanmar: From Malacca Dilemma to Transition Dilemma
|Date of publication:|| ||18 August 2016|
|Description/subject:|| ||"This briefing examines the changing political
and economic landscape, outlining the key
histories, developments and strategies in
recent Myanmar-China relations. A particular
concern is the continuing conflict in the ethnic
borderlands in Myanmar, which are in the
front-line of contention and where many of the
country’s most valuable natural resources are
located. History has long warned that instability
and political failure will continue until there is
inclusive peace and reform in these territories.....
" •• The changing socio-political landscape in Myanmar since the advent of a new system of
government in March 2011 has brought significant challenges to China’s political and
economic relations with the country. From a previous position of international dominance,
China now has to engage in a diversified national landscape where different sectors of
society have impact on socio-political life and other foreign actors, including the USA and
Japan, are seeking to gain political and economic influence.
•• China has made important steps in recognising these changes. In contrast to reliance on
“government-to-government” relations under military rule, Chinese interests have begun to
interact with Myanmar politics and society more broadly. A “landbridge” strategy connecting
China to the Bay of Bengal has also been superseded by the aspiring, but still uncertain,
“One Belt, One Road” initiative of President Xi Jinping to connect China westwards by land
and sea with Eurasia and Africa.
•• Many challenges remain. Government change, ethnic conflict and the 2015 Kokang crisis
raise questions over political relations, border stability, communal tensions, and the
security of Chinese nationals and property in Myanmar, while Chinese investments have
been subject to criticism and protest. Mega-projects agreed with the previous military
government are subject to particular objection, and resentment is widespread over
unbridled trade in such natural resources as timber and jade that provides no local benefit
and is harmful to local communities and the environment.
•• Chinese interests prioritize stability in Myanmar. While keen to develop good relations
in the country and support ethnic peace, Chinese officials are concerned about the
sustainability of the present system of governance and what this will mean for China. A
continuing preoccupation is the USA, which often dominates strategic thinking in China to
the detriment of informed understanding of other countries and issues. These uncertainties
have been heightened by the advent to government of the civilian-led National League for
Democracy in March.
•• Given their proximity and troubled histories, it is essential that good relations are developed
between the two countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect. Initiatives to
engage with public opinion, communities and interest groups in both countries should
be encouraged. Based upon its own experiences, economic change, rather than political
change, is China’s primary focus. Chinese officials, however, need to understand that
Myanmar’s challenges are political at root. Criticisms should not be put down to a lack of
knowledge or “anti-Chinese” sentiment. Good projects that will benefit the local population
will be welcomed: bad projects that ignore their priorities and vision for development will
|Source/publisher:|| ||Transnational Institute (TNI)|
|Format/size:|| ||pdf (515K)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||https://www.tni.org/en/publication/chinas-engagement-in-myanmar-from-malacca-dilemma-to-transition-...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||18 July 2016|
|Title:|| ||Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
|Date of publication:|| ||March 2015|
|Description/subject:|| ||"More than two millennia ago the diligent and courageous people of Eurasia explored and opened up several routes of trade and cultural exchanges that linked the major civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa, collectively called the Silk Road by later generations. For thousands of years, the Silk Road Spirit - "peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit" - has been passed from generation to generation, promoted the progress of human civilization, and contributed greatly to the prosperity and development of the countries along the Silk Road. Symbolizing communication and cooperation between the East and the West, the Silk Road Spirit is a historic and cultural heritage shared by all countries around the world.
In the 21st century, a new era marked by the theme of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, it is all the more important for us to carry on the Silk Road Spirit in face of the weak recovery of the global economy, and complex international and regional situations.
When Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Central Asia and Southeast Asia in September and October of 2013, he raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road), which have attracted close attention from all over the world. At the China-ASEAN Expo in 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang emphasized the need to build the Maritime Silk Road oriented towards ASEAN, and to create strategic propellers for hinterland development. Accelerating the building of the Belt and Road can help promote the economic prosperity of the countries along the Belt and Road and regional economic cooperation, strengthen exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations, and promote world peace and development. It is a great undertaking that will benefit people around the world.
The Belt and Road Initiative is a systematic project, which should be jointly built through consultation to meet the interests of all, and efforts should be made to integrate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road. The Chinese government has drafted and published the Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road to promote the implementation of the Initiative, instill vigor and vitality into the ancient Silk Road, connect Asian, European and African countries more closely and promote mutually beneficial cooperation to a new high and in new forms..."|
|Source/publisher:|| ||People's Republic of China,|
|Format/size:|| ||html (78K)|
|Alternate URLs:|| ||http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/PRC-Vision%20and%20Actions%20on%20Jointly%20Building%20Silk%20Ro...|
|Date of entry/update:|| ||19 July 2016|