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“One Belt, One Road” initiative

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Google search results for "one belt one road myanmar"
Description/subject: About 403,000 results (May 2017); 2,630,000 (March 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 May 2017

Title: Google search results for "One Belt, One Road"
Description/subject: 525,000 results (July 2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016

Title: Google search results for Belt and Road initiative Myanmar
Description/subject: About 1,140,000 results (March 2018)1; 250,000 (October 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: www via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2018

Title: Google search results for Belt and Road initiative Myanmar map
Description/subject: About 479,000 results (March 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: www via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 07 March 2018

Title: Google search results for Myanmar Belt and Road Initiative
Description/subject: About 702,000 results (February 2018)
Language: English
Source/publisher: www via Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 February 2018

Individual Documents

Title: Myanmar cuts cost of China-funded port project by 80%
Date of publication: 28 September 2018
Description/subject: "Beijing yields as more countries become wary of Belt and Road debt trap...Myanmar has agreed to scale down a Chinese-led port project in the western state of Rakhine, slashing the initial price tag to $1.3 billion from $7.2 billion over concerns about excessive debt. The development is located in the special economic zone of Kyaukpyu, a natural harbor facing the Indian Ocean that is suited for large ships. They already have oil pipelines running to China and a port capable of docking 300,000-ton tankers. "Myanmar has been highly successful in re-negotiating the Kyaukpyu deep-sea port," said Sean Turnell, an economic advisor to State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi. "Myanmar's model of dealing with Kyaukpyu could be replicated by other countries as well." Myanmar was able to reduce its financial burden while saving face for China, which intends to make the zone a key point in its Belt and Road Initiative..."
Author/creator: YUICHI NITTA
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Nikkei Asian Review"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 October 2018

Title: How will China's New Silk Road shape Myanmar's economy? (video)
Date of publication: 25 September 2018
Description/subject: "The New Silk Road is China's grand trillion-dollar strategy to link up 65 countries and 4.4 billion people. In this episode, we look at a massive Chinese petrochemical hub which has been built in Kyaukphyu, Myanmar, close to where the Rohingya crisis is still unfolding. How will this project shape Myanmar's economy?"
Language: English (narration plus translation of Burmese)
Source/publisher: Channel NewsAsia
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5 (47 minutes)
Date of entry/update: 03 October 2018

Title: China’s trillion-dollar plan to dominate global trade It’s about more than just economics
Date of publication: 06 April 2018
Description/subject: "China has embarked on the most ambitious infrastructure project in modern world history. It’s called the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and it spans three continents and covers almost 60 percent of the world’s population. It’s how China plans to become the world’s next superpower. The BRI essentially has two parts. The first, the economic belt, is made up of six corridors that direct trade to and from China. These corridors include roads, railways, bridges, power plants — anything that makes it easier for Europe, Asia, and Africa to trade goods with China. The second part, the maritime silk road, is a chain of seaports from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean that direct maritime trade to and from China. China is loaning trillions of dollars to countries willing to host these projects. They’re promoted as a win-win for everyone. Many of the countries involved need new infrastructure and access to new markets, while China needs new projects for its growing construction industry. But many of the countries involved in the BRI are authoritarian, corrupt, and in conflict — risky places for China to invest money in."
Author/creator: Sam Ellis
Language: English
Source/publisher: Vox
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 10 August 2018

Title: China’s Maritime Silk Road: Strategic and Economic Implications for the Indo-Pacific Region
Date of publication: 02 April 2018
Description/subject: "...Kyaukpyu: Greg Poling explains the economic and strategic rationale behind China’s investments in Kyaukpyu, a coastal town along the Bay of Bengal in Myanmar’s western-most state of Rakhine. China recently won contracts to develop a deep-sea port at Kyaukpyu and an industrial area in a special economic zone (SEZ) nearby. Kyaukpyu is also the terminus for an oil pipeline and a parallel natural gas pipeline running to Kunming, capital of southwestern China’s Yunnan Province. Those projects reflect a strategic effort by Beijing to reduce its reliance on oil and gas imports through the Strait of Malacca, and a deep-sea port at Kyaukpyu could similarly help China in its drive to develop its inland provinces. Poling references regional concerns about the potential that China would leverage a port at Kyaukpyu for military purposes but concludes that at present the overriding fear within Myanmar is China’s potential economic leverage via debt financing..."
Author/creator: Michael J. Green et al
Language: English
Source/publisher: Center for Strategic and International /Studies (CSIS)
Format/size: html, pdf (3.1MB)
Alternate URLs: https://www.csis.org/analysis/chinas-maritime-silk-road
Date of entry/update: 29 August 2018

Title: Greening China's Belt & Road Initiative in Myanmar
Date of publication: 17 December 2017
Description/subject: "Road projects proposed as part of the One Belt One Road Initiative (BRI) in Myanmar would provide transport infrastructure to areas of the Ayeyarwady River Basin and surrounding mountain areas — home to approximately 25 million people. These people rely on natural capital—including forests, rivers, land, and biodiversity—for a range of benefits, including clean drinking water and protection from natural disasters. There is a risk that the benefits of BRI road projects could be undermined by substantial social, environmental and economic costs if roads are constructed in ways that fragment ecosystems, endanger wildlife, or contribute to deforestation, landslides, flooding and pollution. Through better road planning and design, there is a great opportunity for the benefits of the BRI to become much more far-reaching."
Author/creator: Hanna Helsingen
Language: English (+Chinese, Burmese sections)
Source/publisher: World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Format/size: html (57K); pdf (61MB)
Alternate URLs: http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/BRI_Final_Digital_090118.pdf
Date of entry/update: 13 February 2018

Title: Can an economic corridor hold the solution to the Rohingya crisis?
Date of publication: 11 December 2017
Description/subject: "On 19 November 2017, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Myanmar and met with Aung San Suu Kyi, the State Counsellor of Myanmar. Wang Yi proposed to build a Y-shaped China-Myanmar Economic Corridor during the meeting. The plan will consolidate the comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership between the two countries. The economic corridor will connect the two countries The economic corridor will start in the Chinese Yunnan region. It will extend southwards across the China-Myanmar border to include Mandalay in the south of Myanmar. It will run to Yangon new city in the east, and extend to the Kyaukphyu Special Economic Zone in the west. The result will be a Y-shaped economic corridor connecting China with Myanmar. Myanmar plays a significant role in China’s “One Belt One Road” initiative. It offers China a route to the Indian ocean. A stronger economic partnership between China and Myanmar will facilitate the construction of the road. The economic corridor will help the integration of major projects along the “One Belt One Road” construction. It will also help to foster balanced development across Myanmar..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "ASEAN Today"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 December 2017

Title: Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar Back Away From Chinese Projects
Date of publication: 04 December 2017
Description/subject: "In the short space of just a few weeks, Pakistan, Nepal and Myanmar have canceled or sidelined three major hydroelectricity projects planned by Chinese companies. The rejection of the three projects, worth nearly $20 billion, comes as a serious jolt to China’s ambitious trade-linking project, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)..."
Author/creator: Saibal Dasgupta, Anjana Pasricha
Language: English
Source/publisher: Voice of America (VOA)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 05 December 2017

Title: Silk road bottom up: Regional perspectives on the 'Belt and Road Initiative'
Date of publication: November 2017
Description/subject: "Asia, and above all, China is playing a major role in implementing development and sustainability goals, as well as working towards global climate projection. China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) marks China’s efforts to carve out a more active international role. The purpose of the BRI project of the Stiftung Asienhaus is to examine the effects of this initiative on the development perspectives of participating countries. Together with partner chinadialogue, we want to elaborate the opportunities and challenges of the initiative, and the impact it is having on the environment, social stability and international relations. Thereby we hope to feed into the discourse on development policy, including China’s development strategy, which is seeing China expand its role as a global development partner and also donor. The effects of this are varied and require critical monitoring and commentary by Chinese, Asian, and European civil society."
Author/creator: Conception, coordination and editing: Nora Sausmikat. Editorial cooperation: Christopher Davy, Vivien Markert, Gisa Dang, Courtney Tenz, Lena Marie Hufnagel, Frederik Schmitz
Language: English
Source/publisher: Stiftung Asienhaus, Chinadialogue
Format/size: pdf (6.2MB)
Date of entry/update: 06 November 2017

Title: Exclusive - China in talks to sell electricity to Myanmar amid warming ties
Date of publication: 04 August 2017
Description/subject: "YANGON (Reuters) - Energy-hungry Myanmar is in initial talks to buy electricity from China, according to officials and documents reviewed by Reuters, in the latest sign of warming ties with Beijing under leader Aung San Suu Kyi..."
Author/creator: Yimou Lee, Shoon Naing
Language: English
Source/publisher: Reuters
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 09 September 2018

Title: China Showers Myanmar With Attention, as Trump Looks Elsewhere
Date of publication: 19 July 2017
Description/subject: "When Myanmar’s leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, wanted to hold a peace conference to end her country’s long-burning insurgencies, a senior Chinese diplomat went to work. The official assembled scores of rebel leaders, many with longstanding connections to China, briefed them on the peace gathering and flew them on a chartered plane to Myanmar’s capital. There, after being introduced to a beaming Ms. Aung San Suu Kyi, they were wined and dined, and sang rowdy karaoke late into the night. A cease-fire may still be a long way off, but the gesture neatly illustrates how Myanmar, a former military dictatorship that the United States worked hard to press toward democracy, is now depending on China to help solve its problems. The pieces all fell into place for China: It wanted peace in Myanmar to protect its new energy investments, it had the leverage to press the rebels and it found an opening to do a favor for Myanmar to deliver peace. China is now able to play its natural role in Myanmar in a more forceful way than ever before as the United States under the Trump administration steps back from more than six years of heavy engagement in Myanmar, including some tentative contacts with some of the rebels. The vacuum left by the United States makes China’s return all the easier..."
Author/creator: Jane Perlez
Language: English, Chinese (Alternate Url)
Source/publisher: "New York Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 01 December 2017

Title: China, Myanmar to build cooperation zone
Date of publication: 17 May 2017
Description/subject: "As a platform to implement the Belt and Road initiative, the establishment of cross-border economic cooperation zones with neighboring countries can help promote economic prosperity in border regions and boost bilateral trade, experts said, noting that the zones are likely to play a crucial role in driving local economies by around 2020. The comments came after the Ministry of Commerce of China (MOFCOM) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the establishment of a China-Myanmar Border Economic Cooperation Zone with the Ministry of Commerce of Myanmar on Tuesday in Beijing..."
Author/creator: Ma Jingjing
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Global Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 May 2017

Title: Where Does Burma Stand on China’s ‘One Belt, One Road?’
Date of publication: 12 May 2017
Description/subject: "China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ initiative is new to many of the Burmese public, though the magnitude of the massively ambitious project would need a specialized task force to understand. Burma’s Daw Aung San Suu Kyi will soon visit China to attend a two-day summit on the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), referring to the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road China is building a network of highways, railroads, and maritime routes, known as the modern Silk Road, which will link it to Central Asia, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Burma’s official position on the initiative is unclear, but the developing nation is likely to play a role in the grand scheme. How Burmese leadership will handle the impact of the far-reaching project is also unclear. Are they well equipped enough to understand BRI and enter into negotiations with the Chinese, who have major business and strategic interests in Burma?..."
Author/creator: Editorial
Language: English
Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 12 May 2017

Title: Myanmar road corridors threaten land and livelihoods
Date of publication: 12 February 2017
Description/subject: "Chinese highways could put forests at risk and break international law, say environmental groups...Up to half of Myanmar’s population live in areas that could suffer environmental damage from two giant highways unless the ecological risks are considered, according to a new report from the World Wildlife Fund. The planned roads will form part of China’s continent-crossing network of overseas infrastructure known as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). “We've estimated about 24 million people could be affected by this infrastructure project – and negatively affected if it is not carried out in a way where you are taking into account the potential impacts on areas that help provide clean water, protection against floods, landslides, and so on,” report author Hanna Helsingen told chinadialogue. Environmentalists and lawyers have voiced fears that Myanmar’s fledgling environmental protection laws, which date from 2015, are insufficiently robust, transparent or enforced to prevent adverse impacts on forest cover, water management and people’s livelihoods..."
Author/creator: Kayleigh Long
Language: English (Chinese sections)
Source/publisher: Chinadialogue
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 13 February 2018

Title: Game-Changers Ahead on The (Long) Maritime Silk Road
Date of publication: 03 February 2017
Description/subject: "From the Bab al-Mandab to the strait of Malacca, from the strait of Hormuz to the strait of Lombok, all the way to the key logistical hub of Diego Garcia 2,500 miles southeast of Hormuz, the question pops up: How will the unpredictable new normal in Washington – which is not exactly China-friendly – affect the wider Indian Ocean? At play are way more than key chokepoints in an area that straddles naval supply chains and through which also flows almost 40% of the oil that powers Asian-Pacific economies. This is about the future of the Maritime Silk Road, a key component of the Chinese One Belt, One Road (OBOR), and thus about how Big Power politics will unfold in a key realm of the Rimland..."
Author/creator: Pepe Escobar
Language: English
Source/publisher: "Counterpunch"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 19 April 2017

Title: China’s Engagement in Myanmar: From Malacca Dilemma to Transition Dilemma
Date of publication: 18 August 2016
Description/subject: "This briefing examines the changing political and economic landscape, outlining the key histories, developments and strategies in recent Myanmar-China relations. A particular concern is the continuing conflict in the ethnic borderlands in Myanmar, which are in the front-line of contention and where many of the country’s most valuable natural resources are located. History has long warned that instability and political failure will continue until there is inclusive peace and reform in these territories..... Key Points: " •• The changing socio-political landscape in Myanmar since the advent of a new system of government in March 2011 has brought significant challenges to China’s political and economic relations with the country. From a previous position of international dominance, China now has to engage in a diversified national landscape where different sectors of society have impact on socio-political life and other foreign actors, including the USA and Japan, are seeking to gain political and economic influence. •• China has made important steps in recognising these changes. In contrast to reliance on “government-to-government” relations under military rule, Chinese interests have begun to interact with Myanmar politics and society more broadly. A “landbridge” strategy connecting China to the Bay of Bengal has also been superseded by the aspiring, but still uncertain, “One Belt, One Road” initiative of President Xi Jinping to connect China westwards by land and sea with Eurasia and Africa. •• Many challenges remain. Government change, ethnic conflict and the 2015 Kokang crisis raise questions over political relations, border stability, communal tensions, and the security of Chinese nationals and property in Myanmar, while Chinese investments have been subject to criticism and protest. Mega-projects agreed with the previous military government are subject to particular objection, and resentment is widespread over unbridled trade in such natural resources as timber and jade that provides no local benefit and is harmful to local communities and the environment. •• Chinese interests prioritize stability in Myanmar. While keen to develop good relations in the country and support ethnic peace, Chinese officials are concerned about the sustainability of the present system of governance and what this will mean for China. A continuing preoccupation is the USA, which often dominates strategic thinking in China to the detriment of informed understanding of other countries and issues. These uncertainties have been heightened by the advent to government of the civilian-led National League for Democracy in March. •• Given their proximity and troubled histories, it is essential that good relations are developed between the two countries on the basis of equality and mutual respect. Initiatives to engage with public opinion, communities and interest groups in both countries should be encouraged. Based upon its own experiences, economic change, rather than political change, is China’s primary focus. Chinese officials, however, need to understand that Myanmar’s challenges are political at root. Criticisms should not be put down to a lack of knowledge or “anti-Chinese” sentiment. Good projects that will benefit the local population will be welcomed: bad projects that ignore their priorities and vision for development will not."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Transnational Institute (TNI)
Format/size: pdf (515K)
Alternate URLs: https://www.tni.org/en/publication/chinas-engagement-in-myanmar-from-malacca-dilemma-to-transition-...
Date of entry/update: 18 July 2016

Title: Closer to China: 'One belt one Road' II = International Affairs and Diplomacy (video)
Date of publication: 29 March 2015
Description/subject: Covers the land and maritime projects
Author/creator: Roibert Lawrence Kuhn (presenter, initiator)
Language: Chinese; English subtitles and voice
Source/publisher: CGTN
Format/size: 30 minutes
Alternate URLs: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHt6u1OkLxTjhYrJj3sg6VEplW3grh4LM (Playlist 0 12 items)
Date of entry/update: 03 December 2017

Title: Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
Date of publication: March 2015
Description/subject: "More than two millennia ago the diligent and courageous people of Eurasia explored and opened up several routes of trade and cultural exchanges that linked the major civilizations of Asia, Europe and Africa, collectively called the Silk Road by later generations. For thousands of years, the Silk Road Spirit - "peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit" - has been passed from generation to generation, promoted the progress of human civilization, and contributed greatly to the prosperity and development of the countries along the Silk Road. Symbolizing communication and cooperation between the East and the West, the Silk Road Spirit is a historic and cultural heritage shared by all countries around the world. In the 21st century, a new era marked by the theme of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, it is all the more important for us to carry on the Silk Road Spirit in face of the weak recovery of the global economy, and complex international and regional situations. When Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Central Asia and Southeast Asia in September and October of 2013, he raised the initiative of jointly building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road (hereinafter referred to as the Belt and Road), which have attracted close attention from all over the world. At the China-ASEAN Expo in 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang emphasized the need to build the Maritime Silk Road oriented towards ASEAN, and to create strategic propellers for hinterland development. Accelerating the building of the Belt and Road can help promote the economic prosperity of the countries along the Belt and Road and regional economic cooperation, strengthen exchanges and mutual learning between different civilizations, and promote world peace and development. It is a great undertaking that will benefit people around the world. The Belt and Road Initiative is a systematic project, which should be jointly built through consultation to meet the interests of all, and efforts should be made to integrate the development strategies of the countries along the Belt and Road. The Chinese government has drafted and published the Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road to promote the implementation of the Initiative, instill vigor and vitality into the ancient Silk Road, connect Asian, European and African countries more closely and promote mutually beneficial cooperation to a new high and in new forms..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: People's Republic of China,
Format/size: html (78K)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/PRC-Vision%20and%20Actions%20on%20Jointly%20Building%20Silk%20Ro...
Date of entry/update: 19 July 2016