VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Health > Threats to Health > Antimicrobial Resistance (Global and regional)

Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Antimicrobial Resistance (Global and regional)

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Antibiotic resistance - Google search results
Date of publication: 15 August 2016
Description/subject: About 3,340,000 results for a search for "Antibiotic resistance" (August 2016)
Language: English
Source/publisher: Google
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Title: Antimicrobial resistance
Date of publication: April 2015
Description/subject: Key facts: "Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi. It is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society. Antimicrobial resistance is present in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms emerge and spread globally. In 2012, WHO reported a gradual increase in resistance to HIV drugs, albeit not reaching critical levels. Since then, further increases in resistance to first-line treatment drugs were reported, which might require using more expensive drugs in the near future. In 2013, there were about 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has been identified in 100 countries. MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non-resistant TB. In parts of the Greater Mekong subregion, resistance to the best available treatment for falciparum malaria, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), has been detected. Spread or emergence of multidrug resistance, including resistance to ACTs, in other regions could jeopardize important recent gains in control of the disease. There are high proportions of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause common infections (e.g. urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections) in all regions of the world. A high percentage of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Treatment failures due to resistance to treatments of last resort for gonorrhoea (third-generation cephalosporins) have been reported from 10 countries. Gonorrhoea may soon become untreatable as no vaccines or new drugs are in development. Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are generally at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes and death, and consume more health-care resources than patients infected with the same bacteria that are not resistant..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: World Health Organisation (WHO) - Fact sheet N°194
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Title: Antibiotic Resistance
Description/subject: A large number of videos about antibiotic resistance from a search on Youtube for "antibiotic resistance"
Language: English
Source/publisher: Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Title: Antimicrobial resistance
Description/subject: "Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is when a microbe evolves to become more or fully resistant to antimicrobials which previously could treat it.[2][3] This broader term also covers antibiotic resistance, which applies to bacteria and antibiotics.[3] Resistance arises through one of three ways: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria; genetic mutation; or by one species acquiring resistance from another.[4] Resistance can appear spontaneously due to random mutations; or more commonly following gradual buildup over time, and because of misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials.[5] Resistant microbes are increasingly difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses—which may be more costly or more toxic. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR); or sometimes superbugs.[6] Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise with millions of deaths every year.[7] A few infections are now completely untreatable due to resistance. All classes of microbes develop resistance (fungi, antifungal resistance; viruses, antiviral resistance; protozoa, antiprotozoal resistance; bacteria, antibiotic resistance)..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Title: Review on Antimicrobial Resistance - Tackling drug-resistant infections globally
Description/subject: "Concerned about the rising levels of drug resistance whereby microbes evolve to become immune to a known drugs, the UK Prime Minister asked economist Jim O’Neill to analyse this global problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and propose concrete actions to tackle it internationally. In July 2014, the UK Government commissioned the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance in collaboration with the Wellcome Trust. The Review is independent and engages widely with international stakeholders to understand and propose solutions to the problem of antimicrobial resistance, from an economic and social perspective. In May 2015, Jim O’Neill, who is widely known for coining the term BRICs for the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China, was appointed to the House of Lords and became Commercial Secretary to Her Majesty’s Treasury in the UK. He continues to chair the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance in a personal capacity. If we fail to act, we are looking at an almost unthinkable scenario where antibiotics no longer work and we are cast back into the dark ages of medicine" – David Cameron, UK Prime Minister The real implications of spreading drug resistance will be felt the world over, with developing countries and large emerging nations bearing the brunt of this problem. Routine surgeries and minor infections will become life- threatening once again and the hard won victories against infectious diseases of the last fifty years will be jeopardized. Hospital stays and expenses, for both public health care providers and for out of –pocket payers will increase significantly. Drug resistant infections are already on the rise with numbers suggesting that up to 50,000 lives are lost each year to antibiotic-resistant infections in Europe and the US alone. Globally, at least 700,000 die each year of drug resistance in illnesses such as bacterial infections, malaria, HIV/Aids or tuberculosis. The Review on AMR has been assessing solutions to avoid these terrible costs, producing thematic papers looking at all aspects of the problems raised by drug resistance – including the supply of new drugs, the use of diagnostics, surveillance, infection control, alternative treatments and the use of antibiotics in agriculture. These themes will form the basis of the final report to the UK Prime Minister, with recommendations for global solutions, by the summer of 2016..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Review on Antimicrobial Resistance
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Individual Documents

Title: TACKLING DRUG-RESISTANT INFECTIONS GLOBALLY: FINAL REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Date of publication: May 2016
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Following 19 months of consultation and eight interim papers, each focusing on a specific aspect of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), this report sets out the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance’s final recommendations to tackle AMR in a global way, as commissioned by our sponsors, the UK Government and the Wellcome Trust. The magnitude of the problem is now accepted. We estimate that by 2050, 10 million lives a year and a cumulative 100 trillion USD of economic output are at risk due to the rise of drugresistant infections if we do not find proactive solutions now to slow down the rise of drug resistance. Even today, 700,000 people die of resistant infections every year. Antibiotics are a special category of antimicrobial drugs that underpin modern medicine as we know it: if they lose their effectiveness, key medical procedures (such as gut surgery, caesarean sections, joint replacements, and treatments that depress the immune system, such as chemotherapy for cancer) could become too dangerous to perform. Most of the direct and much of the indirect impact of AMR will fall on low and middle‑income countries. It does not have to be this way. It is in policy makers and governments’ hands to take steps to change this situation..."
Author/creator: Jim O'Neill (Chair)
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance
Format/size: pdf (2.25MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs22/AMR-2016-05-25-Final_paper.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2016


Title: Drug-resistant typhoid superbug threatens global health
Date of publication: 12 May 2015
Description/subject: "After the recent malaria concerns, it is now the turn of an antibiotic-resistant superbug strain of typhoid bacterium that is spreading globally and posing a public health threat. A landmark genomic study, with contributors from over two dozen countries, and led by Vanessa Wong, an infectious-disease specialist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Hinxton, UK, sequenced the genomes of more than 1,800 S Typhi samples from 63 countries. The study shows the H58 strain of S Typhi arising from an unrecognised epidemic in Africa is displacing established typhoid fever strains, completely transforming the genetic architecture of the disease. The resistant strain comprised 47% of the samples and showed widespread resistance to a number of antibiotics, reports Nature. "Global surveillance at this scale is critical to address the ever-increasing public health threat caused by multidrug resistant typhoid," says Vanessa Wong. Overuse of older antibiotics has helped drive the H58 epidemic in Africa, believes the team which has also begun to see cases of resistance to newer antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and azithromycin..."
Author/creator: Jayalakshmi K
Language: English
Source/publisher: "International Business Times"
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2016


Title: Malaria on Myanmar-India border is 'huge threat'
Date of publication: 20 February 2015
Description/subject: "Resistance to the drug that has saved millions of lives from malaria has been detected over a wider area than previously thought, scientists warn. The ability of the malaria parasite to shrug off the effects of artemisinin has been spreading since it emerged in South East Asia. Tests, published in Lancet Infectious Diseases, now show this resistance on the verge of entering India. Experts said the development was "alarming" and an "enormous threat". Deaths from malaria have nearly halved since 2000, and the infection now kills about 584,000 people each year. But resistance to artemisinin threatens to undo all that hard work, and it has been detected in: Cambodia Laos Thailand Vietnam Myanmar, also known as Burma Blood samples from 940 people with malaria from 55 sites across Myanmar showed this resistance was widespread across the country. One site, in the Sagaing region, showed that resistant parasites were just 25km (15 miles) from the Indian border..."
Author/creator: James Gallagher
Language: English
Source/publisher: BBC News website
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2016


Title: Antibiotic Resistance - What are the solutions
Date of publication: 23 October 2014
Description/subject: "A conference on antibiotic resistance was held in Amman in Jordan on September 22nd [2014]. Antibiotic resistance is posing a real threat to public health in the region. MSF treats wounded patients from Iraq, Syria and Yemen in its hospital in Amman. Since it opened eight years ago, doctors have been treating people suffering from infections that are resistant to one or several antibiotics. Half of all patients arriving at the hospital".....This short video is followed by a playlist of other videos on the same topic.
Language: English + Burmese subtitles
Source/publisher: Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF)
Format/size: Adobe Flash (1 minute and 29 seconds)
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016


Title: Report of Regional Workshop on Antimicrobial Resistance 6–10 August 2012
Date of publication: 10 August 2012
Description/subject: "During the past seven decades, antimicrobial agents have played a critical role in reducing the burden of communicable diseases all over the world. The emergence of resistance and its rapid spread is negating the impact of these drugs, obstructing progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and hindering effective application of modern technologies in mitigating human misery. While appearance of resistance is a continuous phenomenon in microorganisms, its amplification and spread is through an array of practices employed by human beings. Improper utilization of antimicrobial agents, especially in high disease-burden settings (viz. hospitals) and for nontherapeutic use as in the veterinary sector, result in strong selection pressure that allows the resistant strain to grow and rapidly replace the susceptible isolates. An effective response to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is possible through treatment policies such as combination therapy, rational prescription, patient adherence, strong regulatory mechanism and educational activities, along with an efficient surveillance system that monitors the emergence and spread of resistance, as well as the utilization of antimicrobial agents..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: WHO (SE Asia Office)
Format/size: pdf (1.3MB-reduced version; 4.6MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://www.searo.who.int/entity/antimicrobial_resistance/documents/CDS_SEA-CD-258.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2016


Title: Antimicrobial Resistance in Southeast Asia
Date of publication: March 2012
Description/subject: Abstract: "Antimicrobial drug resistance is a problem in both developing and developed countries, in hospitals as well as in the community. Much data exists about antimicrobial resistance in Southeast Asia, but this information is fragmented, being published in different papers from different countries over several decades. We reviewed all available information about antimicrobial resistance in Southeast Asia using the PubMed database, concentrating on bacteria that commonly cause infection. From January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2007, 97 reports were published with accurate data regarding resistance patterns among the major pathogens. Thailand was the country where most of the published data were found. No reports were published for East Timor. From the available data, the following trends were observed: 1) there was a high prevalence of resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 2) pathogens causing diarrheal diseases are now often resistant to inexpensive, older antibiotics; 3) among Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria, resistance to virtually all antibiotic classes has been reported, but it is unclear whether multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major problem; 4) the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is not clear; in some countries, such as Singapore, MRSA is endemic in the health care system. This review shows that antimicrobial resistance to pathogenic bacteria has been and still is on the rise in Southeast Asia. However, there is great variation in resistance by hospital, patient type and country.... Keywords: pathogenic bacteria, antimicrobial resistance, Southeast Asia"
Author/creator: Endang Sri Lestari , Juliëtte A Severin and Henri A Verbrugh
Language: English
Source/publisher: Southeast Asian J top med public health
Format/size: pdf (3.8MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.tm.mahidol.ac.th/seameo/2012-43-2/14-5369.pdf
Date of entry/update: 16 August 2016


Title: The growing challenge of antimicrobial resistance in the South-East Asia Region - Are we losing the battle?
Date of publication: November 2010
Description/subject: "The wide and indiscriminate use of common anti-infective drugs has contributed substantially to the persistence of infections, as a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistant bacteria especially have emerged as a major health problem all over the world. Resistance poses a growing threat to the treatment and control of endemic, epidemic-prone as well as pandemic diseases. Resistance in microorganisms costs money, livelihood and lives and threatens to undermine the effectiveness of health delivery programmes even in developed countries. However, developing countries are hit hard with increasing reports of development of resistance to drugs commonly used to treat most of the communicable diseases. The emerging threat of resistance in malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a huge impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015...."
Author/creator: Rajesh Bhatia and Jai P. Narain
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Indian Journal of Medical Research (IJMR)
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 14 August 2016