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Elections (Burma)

  • International organisations concerned with elections

    • Inter-Parliamentary Union resolutions etc. on elections in Burma/Myanmar

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire
      Description/subject: Pour trouver la resolution sur Myanmar d'une session specifique du Conseil, rechercher Myanmar AND 168ieme, Myanmar AND 168ieme etc. (a partir de la 157ieme)
      Language: Français, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: I Inter-Parliamentary Union, 179th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2006): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 October 2006
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 179th session (Geneva, 18 October 2006): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people's will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: INITIATIVES PARLEMENTAIRES EN FAVEUR DES PARLEMENTAIRES-ELUS ET DU RESPECT DES PRINCIPES DEMOCRATIQUES AU MYANMAR - Compilation de reponses a une enquete de l'Union interparlementaire
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
      Format/size: Word (194K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Havana, April 2001)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 168th session (Havana, April 2001).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Jakarta, October 2000)
      Date of publication: 21 October 2000
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 167th session (Jakarta, 21 October 2000).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Ouagadougou, September, 2001)
      Date of publication: 14 September 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 169th session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 and 14 September 2001.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 170th session of the Governing Council, (Marrakech, March 2002)
      Date of publication: 23 March 2002
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 170th session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 and 23 March 2002)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 171st session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, September 2002)
      Date of publication: 27 September 2002
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 171st session (Geneva, 27 September 2002)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 173rd session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2003): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 October 2003
      Description/subject: Lists of: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence, Parliamentarians who have reportedly been detained, under house arrest or have disappeared since 30 May 2003, Parliamentarians who died in custody and Parliamentarians who were assassinated. Plus text of the resolution on Myanmar adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 173rd session (Geneva, 3 October 2003). Notably, this resolution contains (in para 10) a telling comment on the SPDC's "road-map": "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... Expresses serious doubts about the recently presented "road map", step one of which suggests that the National Convention to be reconvened; reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people, as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 174th session of the Governing Council, (Mexico City, April 2004): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 23 April 2004
      Description/subject: "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union ... Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government"..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html (26K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/IPUres-Mexico2004.htm
      Date of entry/update: 04 May 2004


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 175th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, September-October 2004): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 01 October 2004
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 175th session (Geneva, 1st October 2004)... Lists of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence; Parliamentarians who died in custody; arliamentarians who were assassinated...The resolution comments on the cases and makes a strong criticique of the National Convnetion process, which it considers in its present form, to be "designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 October 2004


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 176th session of the Governing Council (Manila, April 2005): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 08 April 2005
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 176th session (Manila, 8 April 2005)..."... Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires the full removal of the ban on political activities and the establishment of institutions that are representative of the people’s will; reaffirms in this respect its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, can only be seen as a body designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any constitution adopted by that body would lack legitimacy; 5. Calls upon the authorities to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html (46K), Word (57K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 April 2005


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 177th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2005): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 19 October 2005
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 177th session (Geneva, 19th October 2005):"The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... # Deplores the fact that its persistent efforts to seek a direct dialogue with the authorities continue to be unavailing; stresses that the aim of the Committee's procedure, which is to find, in cooperation with the authorities, a satisfactory settlement of the cases, is bound to fail if no official response is forthcoming; # Is deeply concerned that parliamentarians-elect Kyaw San and Kyaw Min, and the latter's family, were recently sentenced to long prison terms after a trial falling far short of basic internationally recognized fair trial guarantees; # Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires a full removal of the ban on political activities and the release of all political prisoners, and the establishment of institutions representative of the people's will; # Once more urges therefore the authorities to release forthwith the 13 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, starting with those whose health is highly precarious, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people; # Calls upon the Member Parliaments of the IPU to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives pressing for the respect of democratic principles in Myanmar; particularly encourages them to draw upon the parliamentary initiatives listed in the compilation; # Strongly believes that continuous attention and action by the international community is crucial in bringing about positive change in Myanmar; strongly encourages Parliaments of countries on the United Nations Security Council to press their governments to ensure that the Council receives regular briefings on the situation of Myanmar from the United Nations Secretary General; would greatly appreciate receiving information about any action to this end..." plus List of parliamentarians still reportedly serving their sentence.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 178th session of the Governing Council (Nairobi, May 2006): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 12 May 2006
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 178th session (Nairobi, 12 May 2006): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union:... Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive the people of Myanmar of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in open defiance of the democratic values to which they aspire; # Renews its call on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China, Thailand and India as neighbouring countries to continue and to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar; strongly encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work; # Also calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure the continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar in the Security Council; # Condemns the harsh prison sentence handed down on parliamentarian-elect Khun Tun Oo in an unfair trial and at the extended prison terms of Dr. Than Nyein and May Win Myint on the basis of legal provisions running counter to basic international human rights standards; # Urges the authorities to release them forthwith, together with the other 10 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and can claim to represent the people; # Expresses its support for the proposal made by the NLD in February 2006, and calls on the authorities to take it into serious consideration..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 180th session of the Governing Council (Bali, May 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 04 May 2007
      Description/subject: List of detained parliamentarians in Myanmar, plus the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 180th session (Nusa Dua, Bali, 4 May 2007): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union,... 1. Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive its people of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 2. Reaffirms that the National Convention, in its present form, has no other purpose than to prolong and legitimize military rule and that any document adopted by it will be illegitimate, contemptuous as it will be of the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (180th Session of the Governing Council)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 181st session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 October 2007
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and those who were assassinated... the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 181st session, Geneva October 2007
      Language: English (French also available)
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 182nd session of the Governing Council (Cape Town, April 2008): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 April 2008
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007: and those who were assassinated...the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 182nd session (Cape Town, 18 April 2008)..."...Denounces the final draft of the Constitution for providing a legal basis to prolong the military authorities' hold on power; reaffirms in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 183rd session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2008): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 15 October 2008
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and at present in detention, and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 183rd session (Geneva, 15 October 2008)..."Reaffirms its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; considers that the widespread and grave irregularities which have been reported with respect to the referendum on the draft Constitution have only confirmed initial concerns that it would take place in a climate of fear, repression, distrust and total lack of transparency, thus turning the whole exercise into a deliberate attempt to erect a democratic façade for sustained military power; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 184th session of the Governing Council (Addis Ababa, April 2009): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 April 2009
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 184th session (Addis Ababa, 10 April 2009)..."Reaffirms its belief that the Constitution, which provides the legal and institutional framework for the 2010 elections, fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; recalls in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start, and that the climate of fear, distrust and total lack of transparency in which the referendum on the draft Constitution was conducted stripped it of any credibility;..."
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 185th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2009): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 21 October 2009
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 185th session (Geneva, 21 October 2009)..."Reaffirms that the Constitution fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired and that elections are doomed to be a sham in a climate of fear and repression of all freedom of expression and political activity and the exclusion of 13 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 186th session of the Governing Council (Bangkok, April 2010): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 01 April 2010
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 186th session (Bangkok, 1 April 2010)..."Calls on the authorities to do everything possible to ensure that the elections are inclusive, free and fair and to make the changes to the electoral laws that this requires; draws their attention in this respect to the Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections which the Inter‑Parliamentary Union adopted on 26 March 1994; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 187th session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2010): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 06 October 2010
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 187th session (Geneva, 6 October 2010)..."Reaffirms its belief that the exclusion of 12 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process, along with the persistent restrictions on human rights and political activity, casts serious doubt on the authorities' willingness to ensure that the outcome of this historic opportunity, the first elections in 20 years, can genuinely reflect the will of the people;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 188th session of the Governing Council, (Panama, April 2011): Myanmar
      Date of publication: February 2011
      Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:..... Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 188th session (Panama, 20 April 2011)... The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People's Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/188/13(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 187th session (October 2010), Recalling that 12 former members-elect continue to suffer imprisonment on account of having merely exercised their freedom of expression and were sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which blatantly disregarded their right to a fair trial; that their case has to be situated in a context in which it has expressed the following long-standing concerns: ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 189th session of the Governing Council, (Bern, October 2011): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 19 October 2011
      Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:.....Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 189th session (Bern, 19 October 2011): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People’s Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, all elected in the elections of May 1990, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/189/11(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 188th session (April 2011), Recalling that, on 21 March 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a resolution in which it called upon the Government to lift restrictions on freedom of assembly, association and movement and on freedom of expression, including for free and independent media, and to end the use of censorship, including the use of restrictive laws to prevent the reporting of views critical of the Government, and strongly urged the Government of Myanmar to release all prisoners of conscience, including the former parliamentarians - numbering 12 at the time - who had been sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which disregarded their right to a fair trial, Noting that former parliamentarian Mr. Kyaw San was released on 17 May 2011 upon having served his sentence, Recalling that since the new Parliament of Myanmar, elected on 7 November 2010, started its work, members of the opposition in Parliament have called on the Government to release all political prisoners, a call which the Minister of Home Affairs dismissed on 22 March 2011 as untimely; that, however, at the end of August 2011, members of Parliament again raised the matter of an amnesty, Considering that, on 11 October 2011, the Government indeed announced an amnesty for more than 6,000 prisoners and that, under the amnesty, Mr. Saw Hlaing, Mr. Kyaw Khin and Mr. Than Lwin were released on 12 October 2011 along with some 200 other political prisoners; that the release took place at a time when the President signed into law a new Labour Organization Act permitting the establishment of trade unions, which had no effect been banned since 1962, and a senior government official talked of the need to do away with censorship..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians 116th session (Geneva, 15-18 January 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 January 2007
      Description/subject: Decision adopted by the Committee at its 116th session (Geneva, 15 - 18 January 2007): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity; 2. Deplores the lack of any willingness on the part of the authorities to address these concerns, and urges them once again to release the 14 parliamentarians-elect still imprisoned forthwith and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections, in particular by giving serious consideration to the proposal made by the NLD; 3. Renews its call on the international community to help bring about respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, takes note of the latest developments at the Security Council and calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure full and continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar by the Security Council, also calls again on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China and India as neighbouring countries, to pursue and strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, and encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union - Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: PARLIAMENTARY INITIATIVES IN FAVOUR OF PARLIAMENTARIANS-ELECT AND RESPECT FOR DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN MYANMAR - A compilation of replies to a survey by the Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: Word (201K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


      Title: Union Interparlementaire (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
      Date of publication: 21 October 2000
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisonés et résolution adoptée sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 167ème session (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, octobre 2003): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 October 2003
      Description/subject: Listes de: Parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; Parlementaires qui auraient été détenus, assignés à résidence ou auraient disparu depuis le 30 mai 2003; Parlementaires décédés en détention; et Parlementaires assassinés. En plus, le texte de la resolution du Conseil Interparliamentaire qui contient notamment (para 10) un commentaire pointue sur la "feuille de route" offerte par le SPDC: "Le Conseil directeur de l'Union interparlementaire...exprime de sérieux doutes quant à la "feuille de route" récemment présentée, qui prévoit en premier lieu une nouvelle convocation de la Convention nationale; réaffirme sa conviction que la Convention nationale ne tend qu'à prolonger et à légitimer le régime militaire contre la volonté du peuple telle qu'elle s'est exprimée lors des élections de 1990 et qu'elle est donc en contradiction flagrante avec le principe consacré par la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme, selon lequel " la volonté du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité des pouvoirs publics..."
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparliamentaire
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, septembre 2002)
      Date of publication: 27 September 2002
      Description/subject: Listes de: parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; qui auraient été libérés après avoir purgé leur peine; décédés en détention; et qui ont été assassinés... Résolution adoptée à l'unanimité par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 171ème session (Genève, le 27 septembre 2002)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


      Title: Union Interparlementaire (Havane, avril 2001)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisonés et résolution adoptée sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 168ème session (La Havane, avril 2001)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Marrakech, mars 2002)
      Date of publication: 23 March 2002
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisonés et résolution adoptée sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 170ème session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 et 23 mars 2002)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparliamentaire (Ouagadougou, septembre 2001)
      Date of publication: 14 September 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisonés et résolution adoptée sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 169ème session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 et 14 septembre 2001
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Multiparty elections - theory, practice, monitoring and assistance

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Suu Kyi shifts pre-election tack in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 12 June 2014
      Description/subject: "After two years of delicate accommodation, Myanmars military backed government and the main pro-democracy opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) are on a collusion course ahead of general elections scheduled for next year. An NLD-led campaign launched last month to amend the 2008 constitution is openly challenging the militarys political power and testing political stability ahead of the pivotal polls. The national drive for charter change aims broadly to accelerate the countrys still tentative transition from decades of authoritarian military rule towards democracy. In particular, the campaign is geared towards diminishing the role of military appointees to parliament who currently control 25% of its seats. The campaign however is not geared towards changing article 59(f), which bars NLD leader and pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi from assuming the presidency because she was married to a foreign national."
      Author/creator: Larry Jagan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2014


      Title: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
      Description/subject: (International IDEA). Search for Burma, Aung San Suu Kyi etc.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Ensuring Free and Fair Elections in a Democratic Burma: Establishing an Electoral System and Election Processes
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "A country embarking on a transition to democracy has many issues to deal with. One of the most critical is the question of elections, the type of system chosen and the manner in which elections are conducted.1 Free and fair elections are necessary to establish a democratic, human rights-based society, and to ensure that the government and the state are legitimate.2 The right to vote is an instrument of power for both the voter and the state. When giving the people the right to vote, it is necessary to determine who is permitted to vote, and to regulate the exercise of the vote through a system which could include legislation and ways of verifying the identity of people. Such a system helps to prevent non-resident citizens from voting, and to exclude residents who do not qualify to vote. In some countries, for example, prisoners may not vote..."
      Author/creator: Jeremy Sarkin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar could learn from Germany
      Date of publication: 04 October 2013
      Description/subject: "A more proportional, mixed-member electoral system could enhance representation and stability, protecting the young democracy’s inchoate parliamentary transition. Myanmar’s electoral commission must consider reforming the electoral systems to accomplish three goals: (a) maximizing ethnic representation and proportionality; (b) guaranteeing political stability and peace; and (c) ensuring a political majority of party leaders in parliament can still have the appropriate authority to enact legislation and advance policy actions. The ideal electoral system for Myanmar’s 2015 general elections would be akin to Germany’s: a Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP) one, with one house electing members of Parliament (MPs) by means of plurality elections in regional districts and the other by proportional representation (PR) using a party list. Under the current SMD plurality vote, the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), which swept the 1990 elections and still commands widespread popularity, stands poised to win a landslide victory at the polls in the upcoming 2015 General Elections. In the wake of 1990’s elections, the military junta annulled the ballot results and refused to hand over power, imprisoning and torturing many of their political leaders, and sentencing party leader Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Burma’s independence movement, General Aung San, to 15 of 21 years under house arrest. Given the likelihood of the incumbent USDP’s loss to the NLD in 2015, the USDP, working with other political parties and the Union Electoral Commission (UEC), should vote to amend the current electoral system and adopt a Mixed Member Proportional System. MMP, on the other hand, promises greater proportionality while still favoring a clear majority. Many of the current MPs, particularly in the two largest parties, the USDP and the NLD, may resist electoral reform, fearing they will lose their slice of the parliamentary pie, but, ironically, it is the largest party, the USDP, which has the most to fear were Myanmar to keep the current elections system. MMP could in fact be the USDP’s best hope of avoiding an all-out loss to the opposition on election day. A mixed member election system may be Myanmar’s best chance for its conflict prone democracy to survive over the long run...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


      Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • The 2012 By-Elections in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
    Description/subject: Archive from 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: "Myanmar Times" By-Elections Special
    Date of publication: 01 April 2012
    Description/subject: Hluttaw reps ready for arrival of NLD; Can peace trump political divisions? USDP actions speak louder than words: U Htay Oo; By-election raises high interest of locals in Mandalay; Shan State vote hints at ethnic divide; Nay Pyi Taw by-elections: too close to call; Will invalid votes be a factor in election results?; Election predictions; MPs will follow our lead: NLD; In inner Yangon, a humanitarian worker turns to politics; In Mandalay, voter knowledge remains an issue for parties; Independent candidate U Khin Hlaing, Mayangone; Independent for Meiktila, Daw Myint Myint Aye; Shan party confident of Lashio win; Voices from Maha Aung Myay tsp; 88 Generation forms ‘Election Watch Group’; Nay Pyi Taw residents, candidates predict fair poll.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012


    Title: 1 April 2012 By-Election results
    Date of publication: 04 April 2012
    Description/subject: These results were published in "The New Light of Myanmar" of 3 and 4 April, 2012. According to Mizzima: "The final, official by-election results announced by the Burmese Union Election Commission on Tuesday gave the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) 6.4 per cent of the seats in Parliament. The NLD won a total of 43 seats in the April 1 by-election. The NLD contested for a total of 44 vacant seats. It won 37 seats in the Lower House, four seats in the Upper House and two seats in state or regional assemblies. Dr. Myat Nyarna Soe of National Democratic Force (NDF) won a seat in the Upper House in 2010, and he later joined the NLD, giving it a total of five Upper House seats, making the NLD representation in Parliament 44 seats. According to the Constitution, there should be 224 parliamentarians in the Upper house and 440 parliamentarians in Lower House. However, there are a total 224 MPs in Upper House and 432 MPs in Lower House. The total parliamentarians in Parliament will be 656. The EC announcement said Shan Nationalities Democratic Party candidate Sai San Min won the Shan State No. 3 constituency Upper House seat; and Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Tin Mya won the Sagaing Region constituency no. 7 Upper House seat, respectively."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" April 3, 4
    Format/size: pdf (382K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS - A CHANCE FOR FUTURE RECONCILIATION? (English)
    Date of publication: 11 April 2012
    Description/subject: "...The NLD’s success in the by-election, while not providing it with the ability to dramatically influence the parliamentary process at the moment, suggests that the country may be on course towards genuine democratic transition and reconciliation. However, it is imperative that President Thein Sein, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and all ethnic actors work together to maintain this momentum and ensure that the county continues to move forward towards genuine change, an end to ethnic conflict, and equality for all peoples of the country."
    Author/creator: Paul Keenan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 5 )
    Format/size: pdf (517K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


    Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS: STILL SHORT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
    Date of publication: 27 March 2012
    Description/subject: The trouble with the by-elections; Electoral framework not in line with int’l standards; Election laws limit political participation; Election Commission lacks independence and impartiality; Campaign restrictions still in place; Complaint process ineffective and inaccessible; Restrictions, irregularities, harassment, and vote-buying mar pre-election period; Restrictions on NLD activities; Widespread irregularities; Threats, harassment, and vote buying; More voters disenfranchised; Censorship still in place; Election observation falls short of international standards; By-elections who’s who
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (147K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    Title: Burma: between elections and democracy
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Description/subject: The by-election victory of Aung San Suu Kyi’s party in Burma (Myanmar) raises the question of whether the country is at last on an irreversible path towards democracy. A detailed analysis of the context suggests seven reasons for caution, says Joakim Kreutz.
    Author/creator: Joakim Kreutz
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: openDemocracy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Burma: Free and fair elections do not mean civil and political rights exist, evidenced by continued detention of political prisoners
    Date of publication: 27 March 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "For the first time in decades, Burma will be holding Parliamentary by-­â€elections that allows major opposition parties to contest the available seats. The move has been hailed by many in the international community as evidence of democratic progress and the elections are now being used as a benchmark for lifting sanctions if deemed “free and fair” by international monitors. However, whether the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner is not a genuine reflection of the level of civil and political liberties accorded to the people of Burma. There are hundreds of political prisoners still behind bars, and those who have been released face deprivation of fundamental freedoms and extensive monitoring by security forces. What matters most is not what happens on the day of the elections, but how the campaigns are conducted in the months preceding. There have been countless reports of ballot fraud, intimidation, and harassment of opposition groups that show the elections will be anything but free and fair. We call on the international community to not be fooled by the charade and maintain pressure on the U Thein Sein regime until all political prisoners are released and concrete measures are taken to ensure political and civil liberties are enjoyed by all in Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
    Format/size: pdf (283)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    Title: Current Political Situation and the International Boycott
    Date of publication: 04 April 2012
    Description/subject: 50 or so articles from international media, many on the by-elections...N.B. 7 or more pages.
    Author/creator: Edith Bronder (curator)
    Source/publisher: Scoop-it
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Do Elections in Myanmar Signal Real Change?
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Author/creator: Aarti Ramachandran, Ariel Stulberg, Ethan Wagner, Ethan Wilkes, and Krisztian Simon
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Policy Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Live By-Election Coverage
    Date of publication: 02 April 2012
    Description/subject: Video and text items from various sources
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Mizzima"
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2012


    Title: The Lady and the generals meet half-way
    Date of publication: 06 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar's highly anticipated by-elections, held on April 1 for some 45 parliamentary seats, has borne its first diplomatic fruit. The United States announced a relaxation of certain economic sanctions and movement on the resumption of full diplomatic relations with Naypyidaw in reward for the country's recent democratic progress. However, the opposition National League for Democracy's landslide victory of 43 out of the 45 seats may be somewhat overstated and questions remain about the sincerity of President Thein Sein's government's commitment to sustainable reform..."
    Author/creator: Brian McCartan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


    Title: The Lady of all landslides
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Description/subject: Aung San Suu Kyi’s win is a humiliation for the army. Will it now turn nasty?
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Time"
    Format/size: pdf (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 April 2012


    Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
    Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


    Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (English)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


  • The 2010 General Elections in Burma
    See the 7-Step Roadmap at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2378&lo=d&sl=0 -- especially Step 5

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
    Description/subject: Archive from 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


  • The 1990 General Elections in Burma
    See also Constitutional and Parliamentary processes (under Law and Constitution) at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1139&lo=d&sl=0

    • The 1990 elections - general articles and studies

      Individual Documents

      Title: A Day to Remember
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: The 1990 election—will my vote ever mean anything?... "My entire family woke up early that day. Our neighbors were already leaving their homes. Some eagerly shouted at us not to be late. My 63-year-old grandmother and my mother joined them and I rushed to follow. It was election day—May 27, 1990—the first time in 30 years the Burmese people had been called on to go to the polls..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: Was It A Parliamentary Election or Not?
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: Whatever the answer, the people rejected military rule... "Burma has more than its fair share of miserable anniversaries. One of the more baffling of them falls on May 27, the anniversary of arguably the most spectacular ignored general election in history. The ruling generals of the State Law and Order Restoration Council first confounded their many critics by holding a relatively free and fair ballot, and then completely dumbfounded them by carrying on as if it had never occurred..."
      Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    • The 1990 elections, the elected representatives and their parties

      Individual Documents

      Title: 1990 MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY GENERAL ELECTIONS
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: This is a 300-page collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. In addition to the 1.1MB pdf file, it can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Format/size: pdf ( 1.1MB), html (3.9MB - also broken into 4), Word (2.0MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.htm

      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.doc (Word version for downloading)

      Part 1 (Contents, general statistics, summaries of campaign speeches - html, 115K): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm

      Part 2 (election results by party and candidate - html 1.6MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-02.htm

      Part 3 (brief biographies of elected MPs by State and Division - html, 1.2MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-03.htm

      Part 4 (other related lists, including detained MPs, and documents - html, 568K) http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-04.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Book of Record on the 1990 General Elections
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: This is a collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. It can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


      Title: Brief Biographies of Exiled Members of Parliament of Burma
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: Organised by States and Divisions
      Author/creator: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Language: English
      Format/size: html (192K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: GANDHI HALL DECLARATION
      Date of publication: 29 July 1990
      Description/subject: 8th Waxing Day of Wagaung BE 1352 29 July 1990 "1. We, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, after assembling here at the Mahatama Gandhi Hall in Kyauktada township, Rangoon, on the seventh and eighth waxing days of Wagaung BE 1352 , 28 and 29 July 1990 , and after consulting and discussing the matters concerning the well being of the nation , State affairs and convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw , unanimously adopt this Gandhi Hall Declaration..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
      Format/size: html (25K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 June 2003


      Title: The Manifesto of the National League for Democracy
      Date of publication: 06 November 1989
      Description/subject: "1. Throughout the Union of Burma in 1988 there was an extraordinary and unprecedented uprising of all people. They rose up to demand Democracy. Thus, a democratic state was established in order to be liberated from the bitter experience of the society. 2. Now, a chance to establish a democratic system began to emerge that would totally change society. Hence, all the people of Burma, with active spirit and strong determination, would have to elect the peoples' representatives. Those representatives would form a democratic government in accordance with the aspiration of the people and draw up the state constitution that will enable a successful reconstruction of the country. 3. The National League for Democracy firmly believes that, today, in Burma, the masses of people are earnestly aspiring for the formation of a Democratic government that will guarantee basic human rights. 4. The National League for Democracy clearly understands that all the people of Burma are very keen to establish a firmly united "Union" in the near future with equal rights for all ethnic nationalities who cherish democracy. 5. In order to bring about the aims and aspirations of the people successfully, the National League for Democracy, consisting of people wishing to represent farmers, workers, merchants and entrepreneurs, students, youths, women, technicians, academicians, artists and ethnic nationalities, shall let their members participate in this multi-party General Election and pledges to accept the decision of the people. 6. The National League for Democracy, while declaring its principles and policy below, shall accept the wishes of the people and establish a democratic state as desired by the people..."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
      Format/size: html (78K), Word (67K), pdf (32K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDElectionManifesto1989.doc
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDmanifestoBur.pdf (Burmese)
      Date of entry/update: 20 April 2004


      Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003