VL.png The World-Wide Web Virtual Library
[WWW VL database || WWW VL search]
donations.gif asia-wwwvl.gif

Online Burma/Myanmar Library

Full-Text Search | Database Search | What's New | Alphabetical List of Subjects | Main Library | Reading Room | Burma Press Summary

Home > Main Library > Politics and Government > Elections (Burma)
Hide Links
Order links by: Reverse Date Title

Elections (Burma)

  • International organisations concerned with elections

    • Inter-Parliamentary Union resolutions etc. on elections in Burma/Myanmar

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire
      Description/subject: Pour trouver la resolution sur Myanmar d'une session specifique du Conseil, rechercher Myanmar AND 168ieme, Myanmar AND 168ieme etc. (a partir de la 157ieme)
      Language: Français, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: I Inter-Parliamentary Union, 179th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2006): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 October 2006
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 179th session (Geneva, 18 October 2006): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people's will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: INITIATIVES PARLEMENTAIRES EN FAVEUR DES PARLEMENTAIRES-ELUS ET DU RESPECT DES PRINCIPES DEMOCRATIQUES AU MYANMAR - Compilation de reponses a une enquete de l'Union interparlementaire
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
      Format/size: Word (194K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Havana, April 2001)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 168th session (Havana, April 2001).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Jakarta, October 2000)
      Date of publication: 21 October 2000
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 167th session (Jakarta, 21 October 2000).
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union (Ouagadougou, September, 2001)
      Date of publication: 14 September 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 169th session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 and 14 September 2001.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 170th session of the Governing Council, (Marrakech, March 2002)
      Date of publication: 23 March 2002
      Description/subject: Myanmar: status of imprisoned MPs-elect and resolution adopted without a vote by the Inter-Parliamentary Council at its 170th session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 and 23 March 2002)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 171st session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, September 2002)
      Date of publication: 27 September 2002
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 171st session (Geneva, 27 September 2002)
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 173rd session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2003): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 October 2003
      Description/subject: Lists of: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence, Parliamentarians who have reportedly been detained, under house arrest or have disappeared since 30 May 2003, Parliamentarians who died in custody and Parliamentarians who were assassinated. Plus text of the resolution on Myanmar adopted unanimously by the IPU Council at its 173rd session (Geneva, 3 October 2003). Notably, this resolution contains (in para 10) a telling comment on the SPDC's "road-map": "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... Expresses serious doubts about the recently presented "road map", step one of which suggests that the National Convention to be reconvened; reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people, as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 174th session of the Governing Council, (Mexico City, April 2004): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 23 April 2004
      Description/subject: "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union ... Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and thus stands in direct opposition to the principle enshrined the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that the "will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government"..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html (26K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/IPUres-Mexico2004.htm
      Date of entry/update: 04 May 2004


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 175th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, September-October 2004): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 01 October 2004
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 175th session (Geneva, 1st October 2004)... Lists of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentence; Parliamentarians who died in custody; arliamentarians who were assassinated...The resolution comments on the cases and makes a strong criticique of the National Convnetion process, which it considers in its present form, to be "designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 11 October 2004


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 176th session of the Governing Council (Manila, April 2005): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 08 April 2005
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 176th session (Manila, 8 April 2005)..."... Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires the full removal of the ban on political activities and the establishment of institutions that are representative of the people’s will; reaffirms in this respect its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, can only be seen as a body designed to prolong and legitimise military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any constitution adopted by that body would lack legitimacy; 5. Calls upon the authorities to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html (46K), Word (57K)
      Date of entry/update: 14 April 2005


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 177th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2005): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 19 October 2005
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted unanimously by the Governing Council at its 177th session (Geneva, 19th October 2005):"The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union... # Deplores the fact that its persistent efforts to seek a direct dialogue with the authorities continue to be unavailing; stresses that the aim of the Committee's procedure, which is to find, in cooperation with the authorities, a satisfactory settlement of the cases, is bound to fail if no official response is forthcoming; # Is deeply concerned that parliamentarians-elect Kyaw San and Kyaw Min, and the latter's family, were recently sentenced to long prison terms after a trial falling far short of basic internationally recognized fair trial guarantees; # Reaffirms that the restoration of the rule of law and human rights further requires a full removal of the ban on political activities and the release of all political prisoners, and the establishment of institutions representative of the people's will; # Once more urges therefore the authorities to release forthwith the 13 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, starting with those whose health is highly precarious, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and represent the people; # Calls upon the Member Parliaments of the IPU to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives pressing for the respect of democratic principles in Myanmar; particularly encourages them to draw upon the parliamentary initiatives listed in the compilation; # Strongly believes that continuous attention and action by the international community is crucial in bringing about positive change in Myanmar; strongly encourages Parliaments of countries on the United Nations Security Council to press their governments to ensure that the Council receives regular briefings on the situation of Myanmar from the United Nations Secretary General; would greatly appreciate receiving information about any action to this end..." plus List of parliamentarians still reportedly serving their sentence.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 178th session of the Governing Council (Nairobi, May 2006): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 12 May 2006
      Description/subject: Resolution adopted by consensus by the IPU Governing Council at its 178th session (Nairobi, 12 May 2006): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union:... Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive the people of Myanmar of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in open defiance of the democratic values to which they aspire; # Renews its call on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China, Thailand and India as neighbouring countries to continue and to strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar; strongly encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work; # Also calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure the continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar in the Security Council; # Condemns the harsh prison sentence handed down on parliamentarian-elect Khun Tun Oo in an unfair trial and at the extended prison terms of Dr. Than Nyein and May Win Myint on the basis of legal provisions running counter to basic international human rights standards; # Urges the authorities to release them forthwith, together with the other 10 imprisoned parliamentarians-elect, and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections and can claim to represent the people; # Expresses its support for the proposal made by the NLD in February 2006, and calls on the authorities to take it into serious consideration..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 180th session of the Governing Council (Bali, May 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 04 May 2007
      Description/subject: List of detained parliamentarians in Myanmar, plus the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 180th session (Nusa Dua, Bali, 4 May 2007): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union,... 1. Condemns the continuation of the deliberate policy of the authorities of Myanmar to deprive its people of their right to be represented by persons of their own choosing, as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; 2. Reaffirms that the National Convention, in its present form, has no other purpose than to prolong and legitimize military rule and that any document adopted by it will be illegitimate, contemptuous as it will be of the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union (180th Session of the Governing Council)
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 July 2007


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 181st session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 October 2007
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and those who were assassinated... the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 181st session, Geneva October 2007
      Language: English (French also available)
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 182nd session of the Governing Council (Cape Town, April 2008): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 April 2008
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007: and those who were assassinated...the text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 182nd session (Cape Town, 18 April 2008)..."...Denounces the final draft of the Constitution for providing a legal basis to prolong the military authorities' hold on power; reaffirms in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar aspire;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 183rd session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2008): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 15 October 2008
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release, Parliamentarians arrested during government crackdown on mass protests in the autumn of 2007 and at present in detention, and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 183rd session (Geneva, 15 October 2008)..."Reaffirms its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start and bound to produce a text that would fail to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; considers that the widespread and grave irregularities which have been reported with respect to the referendum on the draft Constitution have only confirmed initial concerns that it would take place in a climate of fear, repression, distrust and total lack of transparency, thus turning the whole exercise into a deliberate attempt to erect a democratic façade for sustained military power; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 184th session of the Governing Council (Addis Ababa, April 2009): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 10 April 2009
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...The text of the Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 184th session (Addis Ababa, 10 April 2009)..."Reaffirms its belief that the Constitution, which provides the legal and institutional framework for the 2010 elections, fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired; recalls in this respect its long-standing conviction that the National Convention, owing to how it was set up and functioned, was illegitimate from the start, and that the climate of fear, distrust and total lack of transparency in which the referendum on the draft Constitution was conducted stripped it of any credibility;..."
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 185th session of the Governing Council (Geneva, October 2009): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 21 October 2009
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 185th session (Geneva, 21 October 2009)..."Reaffirms that the Constitution fails to reflect the democratic values to which the people of Myanmar have long aspired and that elections are doomed to be a sham in a climate of fear and repression of all freedom of expression and political activity and the exclusion of 13 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 186th session of the Governing Council (Bangkok, April 2010): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 01 April 2010
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 186th session (Bangkok, 1 April 2010)..."Calls on the authorities to do everything possible to ensure that the elections are inclusive, free and fair and to make the changes to the electoral laws that this requires; draws their attention in this respect to the Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections which the Inter‑Parliamentary Union adopted on 26 March 1994; ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 187th session of the Governing Council, (Geneva, October 2010): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 06 October 2010
      Description/subject: List of parliamentarians detained in Myanmar, Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release and those who were assassinated...Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 187th session (Geneva, 6 October 2010)..."Reaffirms its belief that the exclusion of 12 parliamentarians-elect and many other political prisoners from the political process, along with the persistent restrictions on human rights and political activity, casts serious doubt on the authorities' willingness to ensure that the outcome of this historic opportunity, the first elections in 20 years, can genuinely reflect the will of the people;..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 18 October 2010


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 188th session of the Governing Council, (Panama, April 2011): Myanmar
      Date of publication: February 2011
      Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:..... Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 188th session (Panama, 20 April 2011)... The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People's Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/188/13(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 187th session (October 2010), Recalling that 12 former members-elect continue to suffer imprisonment on account of having merely exercised their freedom of expression and were sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which blatantly disregarded their right to a fair trial; that their case has to be situated in a context in which it has expressed the following long-standing concerns: ..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 189th session of the Governing Council, (Bern, October 2011): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 19 October 2011
      Description/subject: Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences:...Parliamentarians who died in custody or soon after their release:...Parliamentarians who were assassinated:.....Resolution adopted unanimously by the IPU Governing Council at its 189th session (Bern, 19 October 2011): "The Governing Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Referring to the case of the above-mentioned former members-elect of the Pyithu Hluttaw (People’s Assembly) of the Union of Myanmar, all elected in the elections of May 1990, as outlined in the report of the Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians (CL/189/11(b)-R.1), and to the resolution adopted at its 188th session (April 2011), Recalling that, on 21 March 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council adopted a resolution in which it called upon the Government to lift restrictions on freedom of assembly, association and movement and on freedom of expression, including for free and independent media, and to end the use of censorship, including the use of restrictive laws to prevent the reporting of views critical of the Government, and strongly urged the Government of Myanmar to release all prisoners of conscience, including the former parliamentarians - numbering 12 at the time - who had been sentenced on the basis of legal proceedings which disregarded their right to a fair trial, Noting that former parliamentarian Mr. Kyaw San was released on 17 May 2011 upon having served his sentence, Recalling that since the new Parliament of Myanmar, elected on 7 November 2010, started its work, members of the opposition in Parliament have called on the Government to release all political prisoners, a call which the Minister of Home Affairs dismissed on 22 March 2011 as untimely; that, however, at the end of August 2011, members of Parliament again raised the matter of an amnesty, Considering that, on 11 October 2011, the Government indeed announced an amnesty for more than 6,000 prisoners and that, under the amnesty, Mr. Saw Hlaing, Mr. Kyaw Khin and Mr. Than Lwin were released on 12 October 2011 along with some 200 other political prisoners; that the release took place at a time when the President signed into law a new Labour Organization Act permitting the establishment of trade unions, which had no effect been banned since 1962, and a senior government official talked of the need to do away with censorship..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians 116th session (Geneva, 15-18 January 2007): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 18 January 2007
      Description/subject: Decision adopted by the Committee at its 116th session (Geneva, 15 - 18 January 2007): "...Reaffirms its conviction that the National Convention, in its present form, is designed to prolong and legitimize military rule against the will of the people as expressed in the 1990 elections, and that any transition towards democracy will fail so long as it is not genuinely free, transparent and reflective of the people’s will, and preceded by the unconditional release of all political prisoners and the lifting of all restrictions on human rights and political activity; 2. Deplores the lack of any willingness on the part of the authorities to address these concerns, and urges them once again to release the 14 parliamentarians-elect still imprisoned forthwith and to engage in a genuine dialogue with those who were elected in the 1990 elections, in particular by giving serious consideration to the proposal made by the NLD; 3. Renews its call on the international community to help bring about respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, takes note of the latest developments at the Security Council and calls on the parliaments of the countries which are members of the Security Council to press their governments to ensure full and continuing consideration of the situation in Myanmar by the Security Council, also calls again on the Member Parliaments of the IPU, in particular China and India as neighbouring countries, to pursue and strengthen their national, regional and international initiatives in favour of the parliamentarians-elect and in support of respect for democratic principles in Myanmar, and encourages the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Caucus on Myanmar to continue its important work..." plus list of Parliamentarians reportedly still serving their sentences.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union - Committee on the Human Rights of Parliamentarians
      Format/size: pdf (49K)
      Date of entry/update: 08 March 2007


      Title: PARLIAMENTARY INITIATIVES IN FAVOUR OF PARLIAMENTARIANS-ELECT AND RESPECT FOR DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN MYANMAR - A compilation of replies to a survey by the Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Date of publication: August 2005
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Format/size: Word (201K)
      Date of entry/update: 30 August 2005


      Title: Union Interparlementaire (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
      Date of publication: 21 October 2000
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 167me session (Djakarta, octobre 2000)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, octobre 2003): Myanmar
      Date of publication: 03 October 2003
      Description/subject: Listes de: Parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; Parlementaires qui auraient été détenus, assignés à résidence ou auraient disparu depuis le 30 mai 2003; Parlementaires décédés en détention; et Parlementaires assassinés. En plus, le texte de la resolution du Conseil Interparliamentaire qui contient notamment (para 10) un commentaire pointue sur la "feuille de route" offerte par le SPDC: "Le Conseil directeur de l'Union interparlementaire...exprime de sérieux doutes quant à la "feuille de route" récemment présentée, qui prévoit en premier lieu une nouvelle convocation de la Convention nationale; réaffirme sa conviction que la Convention nationale ne tend qu'à prolonger et à légitimer le régime militaire contre la volonté du peuple telle qu'elle s'est exprimée lors des élections de 1990 et qu'elle est donc en contradiction flagrante avec le principe consacré par la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme, selon lequel " la volonté du peuple est le fondement de l'autorité des pouvoirs publics..."
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparliamentaire
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 19 October 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Geneve, septembre 2002)
      Date of publication: 27 September 2002
      Description/subject: Listes de: parlementaires qui seraient toujours emprisonnés; qui auraient été libérés après avoir purgé leur peine; décédés en détention; et qui ont été assassinés... Résolution adoptée à l'unanimité par le Conseil interparlementaire à sa 171ème session (Genève, le 27 septembre 2002)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparlementaire
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 September 2003


      Title: Union Interparlementaire (Havane, avril 2001)
      Date of publication: 07 April 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 168me session (La Havane, avril 2001)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparlementaire (Marrakech, mars 2002)
      Date of publication: 23 March 2002
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 170me session (Marrakech, 18, 19, 21 et 23 mars 2002)
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union Interparlementaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Union interparliamentaire (Ouagadougou, septembre 2001)
      Date of publication: 14 September 2001
      Description/subject: Myanmar: statut des parlementaires elus imprisons et rsolution adopte sans vote par le Conseil interparlementaire sa 169me session, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso), 10, 11, 13 et 14 septembre 2001
      Language: Francais, French
      Source/publisher: Union interparliamentaire
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


    • Multiparty elections - theory, practice, analysis, monitoring and assistance

      Websites/Multiple Documents

      Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union
      Description/subject: Very useful site. IPU resolutions on Burma/Myanmar and lists of detained MPs-elect plus links to all parliamentary websites and more. For the IPU Council resolutions on Burma and lists of detained MPs-elect by year, search for Myanmar AND 157th for the first session online, Myanmar AND 166th for the April 2000 session and so on. Then click on the results you want.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Suu Kyi shifts pre-election tack in Myanmar
      Date of publication: 12 June 2014
      Description/subject: "After two years of delicate accommodation, Myanmars military backed government and the main pro-democracy opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) are on a collusion course ahead of general elections scheduled for next year. An NLD-led campaign launched last month to amend the 2008 constitution is openly challenging the militarys political power and testing political stability ahead of the pivotal polls. The national drive for charter change aims broadly to accelerate the countrys still tentative transition from decades of authoritarian military rule towards democracy. In particular, the campaign is geared towards diminishing the role of military appointees to parliament who currently control 25% of its seats. The campaign however is not geared towards changing article 59(f), which bars NLD leader and pro-democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi from assuming the presidency because she was married to a foreign national."
      Author/creator: Larry Jagan
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Asia Times Online"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 13 June 2014


      Title: The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
      Description/subject: (International IDEA). Search for Burma, Aung San Suu Kyi etc.
      Language: English
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Individual Documents

      Title: Ensuring Free and Fair Elections in a Democratic Burma: Establishing an Electoral System and Election Processes
      Date of publication: April 2001
      Description/subject: "A country embarking on a transition to democracy has many issues to deal with. One of the most critical is the question of elections, the type of system chosen and the manner in which elections are conducted.1 Free and fair elections are necessary to establish a democratic, human rights-based society, and to ensure that the government and the state are legitimate.2 The right to vote is an instrument of power for both the voter and the state. When giving the people the right to vote, it is necessary to determine who is permitted to vote, and to regulate the exercise of the vote through a system which could include legislation and ways of verifying the identity of people. Such a system helps to prevent non-resident citizens from voting, and to exclude residents who do not qualify to vote. In some countries, for example, prisoners may not vote..."
      Author/creator: Jeremy Sarkin
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "Legal Issues on Burma Journal" No. 8 (Burma Lawyers' Council)
      Alternate URLs: The original (and authoritative) version of this article may be found in http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Legal%20Issues%20on%20Burma%20Journal%208.pdf
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Myanmar could learn from Germany
      Date of publication: 04 October 2013
      Description/subject: "A more proportional, mixed-member electoral system could enhance representation and stability, protecting the young democracy’s inchoate parliamentary transition. Myanmar’s electoral commission must consider reforming the electoral systems to accomplish three goals: (a) maximizing ethnic representation and proportionality; (b) guaranteeing political stability and peace; and (c) ensuring a political majority of party leaders in parliament can still have the appropriate authority to enact legislation and advance policy actions. The ideal electoral system for Myanmar’s 2015 general elections would be akin to Germany’s: a Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP) one, with one house electing members of Parliament (MPs) by means of plurality elections in regional districts and the other by proportional representation (PR) using a party list. Under the current SMD plurality vote, the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD), which swept the 1990 elections and still commands widespread popularity, stands poised to win a landslide victory at the polls in the upcoming 2015 General Elections. In the wake of 1990’s elections, the military junta annulled the ballot results and refused to hand over power, imprisoning and torturing many of their political leaders, and sentencing party leader Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Burma’s independence movement, General Aung San, to 15 of 21 years under house arrest. Given the likelihood of the incumbent USDP’s loss to the NLD in 2015, the USDP, working with other political parties and the Union Electoral Commission (UEC), should vote to amend the current electoral system and adopt a Mixed Member Proportional System. MMP, on the other hand, promises greater proportionality while still favoring a clear majority. Many of the current MPs, particularly in the two largest parties, the USDP and the NLD, may resist electoral reform, fearing they will lose their slice of the parliamentary pie, but, ironically, it is the largest party, the USDP, which has the most to fear were Myanmar to keep the current elections system. MMP could in fact be the USDP’s best hope of avoiding an all-out loss to the opposition on election day. A mixed member election system may be Myanmar’s best chance for its conflict prone democracy to survive over the long run...."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 16 July 2014


      Title: Virtuality, Perception and Reality in Myanmar’s Democratic Reform
      Date of publication: August 2012
      Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Since the summer of 2011, the country of Myanmar has been experiencing rapid democratic reform. Headlines lauding these positive changes have become commonplace in the international media. However, experts and academics who have been involved in the decade-long campaign to bring peace and democracy to Myanmar remain divided over how sincere these changes are. Some accuse the Government of carrying out “window-dressing” reforms to please the Western governments and enable the lifting of sanctions. They argue that the Government has a vested interest in maintaining the reins of power and that there is no incentive to make true democratic reforms. During a speech in Oslo in June 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi, the Myanmarese Pro-democracy leader described the recent reforms as positive but warned against blind faith in the process and pointed out the main challenges that remain unresolved – namely the ethnic issues and the ongoing imprisonment of political prisoners. This Geneva Paper will posit that the current reforms are a means for Myanmar’s Government to ensure the continuity of military power in a different guise in order to allow engagement with the international community, rather than a case of democratic reform for the sake of democratization itself. The reason that the Government is so keen to engage with foreign governments and companies after years of isolation, is the incentive of the lifting of all sanctions, as well as a diversification in both business opportunities and aid following years of sole reliance on China. From a Western perspective there is widespread enthusiasm for engagement with Myanmar. This is driven not only by businesses, who are lining up to profit from Myanmar’s resources, but also by the fact that a market democratic Myanmar would break potential proliferation links with the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and fit geo-strategically with the United States’ widely proclaimed Pacific Century. The paper will start by analysing the election and pre-election period 2008-10 in order to identify to what extent the recent evolution in Myanmar is a form of virtual politics as opposed to real democratic transition. Virtual politics can be defined as a way of directing democracy which is a step ahead of electoral fraud. Virtual politics goes beyond the stuffing of ballot boxes. It is creating the impression that the framework and mechanisms of a democratic state are in place but in fact behind the scenes it is the same elite holding the reins of power and directing what happens within the country. It will then identify what true democratic change would look like in the context of Myanmar. To do so it will use relevant key indicators to evaluate whether the country is on the path to democratic transition or whether there are more virtual politics at play. The paper will conclude that the situation unfolding within the country should not be taken at face value and that whilst there are clearly visible reforms underway these have yet to be institutionalized and legitimized. Due to the current nature of this subject and the lack of primary sources available, interviews with a wide range of experts, both inside Myanmar and abroad, provide the main body of the research. The interviews allow for an in-depth analysis of the apparent reforms to reach a conclusion upon where real democratic change is being evidenced and where the Government of Myanmar is shaping perceptions through its smart use of virtual politics."
      Author/creator: Victoria Christensen
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Geneva Centre for Security Policy
      Format/size: pdf (520K-reduced version; 1.1MB-original)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Publications/Detail/?lng=en&id=152123
      Date of entry/update: 07 June 2015


      Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


  • The 2015 General Elections in Burma/Myanmar

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: 2015 Elections (Network Myanmar collection)
    Description/subject: Useful collection of articles from the past few years
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Network Myanmar
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


    Title: 2015 Elections (on DVB site)
    Description/subject: A collection of documents and articles from 2013 on the 2015 elections
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB)
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 June 2015


    Title: Burmese general election, 2015
    Description/subject: "The Burmese general election of 2015 is scheduled to take place in last week of October or first week of November. It will see voting take place in all the constituencies of Burma (Myanmar) excluding seats appointed by the Military, in order to appoint Members of Assembly to seats in the House of Nationalities, the upper house and House of Representatives, the lower house of the Assembly of the Union..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Wikipedia
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


    Title: Election articles via Burmanet News
    Description/subject: From September 2010...Link to the original source at the foot of each article
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via Burmanet News
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 14 July 2015


    Title: Election Articles via The Irrawwady
    Description/subject: Archive from 2012
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy"
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2015


    Title: Google site-specific search for "Myanmar" on ipu.org
    Description/subject: About 1500 results
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: IPU via Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


    Title: Inter-Parliamentary Union - search
    Description/subject: Search for "Myanmar"- about 1800 results (August 2015)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Inter-Parliamentary Union
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 29 August 2015


    Title: Results of a Google search for "Myanmar 2015 Elections"
    Description/subject: 12,000,000 results (26 May 2015); 2,860,000 results, July 2015.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


    Title: Results of a Google site-specific search on "The Irrawaddy" for 2015 election
    Date of publication: 17 July 2015
    Description/subject: 11,100 results (17 July, 2015)
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" via Google
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 17 July 2015


    Individual Documents

    Title: ‘The perfect storm’
    Date of publication: 05 June 2015
    Description/subject: "2015 Myanmar/Burma Update: how national elections and the peace process in Myanmar may clash in the coming year. International observers should manage their expectations about elections and peace in Myanmar, says leading expert Professor Mary Callahan. Speaking at the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update at the ANU Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, Callahan argued that the coming year will see two key ‘macro processes’ in the country. On one hand will be the first national elections in the country in 25 years. And on the other hand the peace process – and the hope for a National Ceasefire Agreement. She suggests that the combination of elections and the peace process – in the context of so much other flux – is the making of a ‘perfect storm’. The two processes may be mutually harmful and disappointing, and yet they may also have some unexpected positive consequences. This caution about a ‘perfect storm’ comes from the fact national elections and the peace process may be in tension. On one hand, elections are by nature ‘about contestation and polarisation. Winners take all and the losers go home,’ said Callahan. So political parties will likely inflame tensions as they attempt to garner support and undermine the positions of opponents. On the other hand, a peace process by nature is about ‘building bridges, expanding inclusion, moving away from zero sum politics and trying to develop respect for alternative visions and aspirations,’ she said. In this sense, the process of the peace negotiations is very different to that of elections..."
    Author/creator: Tamas Wells
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html, pdf
    Date of entry/update: 18 July 2015


    Title: Free and fair elections in Myanmar?
    Date of publication: 19 June 2015
    Description/subject: "2015 Myanmar/Burma Update: military and international observers will be key to ensuring elections run smoothly. Myanmar’s upcoming election serves to highlight the role of the parliament in conflict resolution, the role of the election in ongoing conflict, and the relationship between law and conflict. That was the view of specialist panel on electoral politics at the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update..."
    Author/creator: Amy Doffegnies & Cecile Medail
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 22 June 2015


    Title: From Novelty to Normalcy: Polling in Myanmar’s Democratic Transition
    Date of publication: April 2015
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This report examines the state of opinion research in Myanmar,, identi5es challenges, and makes recommendations for improvements. Since the government of Myanmar announced a transition from military rule to democracy in 2010, both domestic and international stakeholders have turned to polling to discover public opinion on a range of issues. Polling is critical in transitioning countries. Polls can provide parties with data to understand the needs and desires of the electorate and serve as a check on government excesses. 6ey make information on public views widely available and can represent both the diversity of existing opinions and positions of minority populations. Finally, they show a road to political compromise and prepare parties and the public to deal with election outcomes. 6e Western public accepts and expects polling on a regular basis, but we did not 5nd that always the case in Myanmar. Although Myanmar has a decades-long history of market surveys, political polling is a relatively new phenomenon. Organizations operating in this 5eld face four major challenges. 6e 5rst is selecting a sample in a country that lacks reliable census or voter registration data, and lacks comprehensive access to telephones or the internet. 6e second is how to provide survey questionnaires in several languages to accommodate Myanmar’s numerous ethnic groups. 6e third challenge relates to interviewers, both to their training and to accounting for possible response bias based on the interaction between the interviewer’s socio-demographic background and the respondent’s. Finally, polling groups and interviewers must ensure respondents’ con5dentiality. 6ese problems are not unique to Myanmar. Pollsters around the world regularly grapple with similar dilemmas. What makes their task more challenging in Myanmar is the novelty of polling. Few people (even in civil society and political parties) understand its nature, and many are quick to dismiss the whole exercise when they do not like some of a poll’s results. 6e report examines and refutes several of their criticisms, perhaps the most common being that a sample, no matter how large, cannot capture the full diversity of opinions in a country as large and heterogeneous as Myanmar. It is possible to tackle these misperceptions and improve practices. Our recommendations for immediate actions can be implemented ahead of the parliamentary election this year. 6ey include suggestions on conducting polls, providing frameworks for their interpretation, and training potential users to understand polling data. Long-term change will require consistent attention and investment from polling groups, those who commission them, and users of polling data to strengthen the polling 5eld. Most importantly, polling organizations should continue making their data publicly available. 6ose who conduct and commission public surveys need to do so on a regular basis. Both practices will teach the public to see polls as a normal element of a democratic process and become another step in Myanmar’s transition to a full-7edged democracy."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Open Society Foundations (OSF)
    Format/size: pdf (413K)
    Date of entry/update: 07 April 2015


    Title: Listen in to the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update
    Date of publication: 17 June 2015
    Description/subject: "For those of you not fortunate enough to get to Canberra for the 2015 Myanmar/Burma Update, we’ve got the next best thing. You can listen to seven of the eight conference sessions in the playlist above. Recordings cover the keynote address by Speaker of Myanmar’s Upper House, HE U Khin Aung Myint, the political update by Mary Callaghan, the economics update, two panels on borderland conflicts and the peace process, communal and sectarian violence in Rakhine State (featuring testimony from long-time Rohingya politician U Kyaw Min), and a wrap up on the many other forms of conflict in the country."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "New Mandala"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 24 June 2015


    Title: Myanmar 2014: Civic Knowledge and Values in a Changing Society (Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ )
    Date of publication: 11 December 2014
    Description/subject: "Burmese version. A survey to document public knowledge and awareness of new government institutions and processes, and to gauge the political, social, and economic values held by people from diverse backgrounds, to inform the country's long-term development. The survey included face-to-face interviews with more than 3,000 respondents across all 14 Myanmar states and regions.."
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (14MB-reduced version; 18.7MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/FullMyanmar2014MM.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


    Title: Myanmar 2014: Civic Knowledge and Values in a Changing Society (English)
    Date of publication: December 2014
    Description/subject: "A survey to document public knowledge and awareness of new government institutions and processes, and to gauge the political, social, and economic values held by people from diverse backgrounds, to inform the country's long-term development. The survey included face-to-face interviews with more than 3,000 respondents across all 14 Myanmar states and regions."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
    Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 1.7MB-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/AF-2014-MyanmarSurvey-en-red.pdf
    http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/MM2014SurveySummaryReportENG.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 05 January 2015


    Title: Myanmar’s Electoral Landscape
    Date of publication: 28 April 2015
    Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "Myanmar is preparing to hold national elections in early November 2015, five years after the last full set of polls brought the semi-civilian reformist government to power. The elections, which are constitutionally required within this timeframe, will be a major political inflection point, likely replacing a legislature dominated by the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), established by the former regime, with one more reflective of popular sentiment. The opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) party of Aung San Suu Kyi is well-placed to take the largest bloc of seats. There have been major improvements in election administration since the deeply flawed 2010 elections and the more credible 2012 by-elections. While the election commission is still widely perceived as close to the government and the USDP, the transparent and consultative approach it has adopted and the specific decisions it has taken suggest it is committed to delivering credible polls. This includes major efforts to update and digitise the voter roll; consultation with civil society and international electoral support organisations on the regulatory framework; invitations to international electoral observers for the first time, as well as to domestic observers; changing problematic provisions on advance voting; and reducing the costs of a candidacy. The broader political environment is also more conducive to credible elections, with a significantly freer media and much improved civil liberties. There remain major challenges to a credible, inclusive and peaceful election. Much of the periphery of the country is affected by armed conflict, and though there have been important steps toward bringing the six-decade civil war to a close, the process remains fragile and incomplete. The vote could be marred by violence in some areas and will not be possible in others. In central Myanmar, rising Burman nationalism and anti-Muslim sentiment have exploded sporadically into violence, something that could happen again in the politically charged context of an election. In Rakhine state, minority Muslim communities have been disenfranchised by a decision to cancel their identification documents. Electoral security and risk management preparations have become a critical priority of the election commission. Capacity constraints will also come into play. The country has very limited experience of democratic polls, including government staff, security services and election commission staff at the local level. Understanding among the electorate is also very low, and major education efforts will be required. For the elections to be successful, there must also be broad acceptance of the results. In a context of divergent expectations and, inevitably, winners and losers, this will be a challenge. While reformist government leaders appear reconciled to the prospect of the NLD winning the most seats, it is unclear whether this sentiment is shared by a majority of the old elite. Similarly, it is unclear whether the NLD’s base fully understands likely post-election scenarios. With Aung San Suu Kyi constitutionally barred from the presidency and no obvious alternative within its ranks, it is probable that even if the party wins a landslide, it will have to select a compromise candidate for president – potentially a reformist member of the old regime. The some three months between the elections and the presidential electoral college’s decision will be a time of considerable uncertainty, possible tension, and intense behind-the-scenes negotiation. The outcome, and the extent to which it is broadly accepted, will determine whether there is a smooth transfer of power and whether the next administration will have the broad support necessary to govern or have its legitimacy constantly questioned. Probably the most important factor will be the support – or at least acquiescence ­– of the military, which retains strong influence over the process. The commander-in-chief has voiced support for the democratic electoral process and has undoubtedly foreseen the prospect of strong support for the NLD. But this does not mean he would be comfortable with all the potential implications of such an outcome. The elections are coming less than five years into what will continue to be a long and difficult transition for Myanmar. They create a moment of political competition and polarisation in a transition process that requires compromise and consensus. If credible and inclusive, they can help to build confidence that the country is on a new political path and thereby inject fresh momentum into the reforms. Equally, they could damage the delicate set of compromises that has so far kept the process broadly on track. It behoves political leaders on all sides to ensure that they keep this larger prize foremost in their minds."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: (International) Crisis Group
    Format/size: pdf (423K)
    Date of entry/update: 30 April 2015


    Title: Myanmar’s Troubled Path to Reform Political Prospects in a Landmark Election Year
    Date of publication: February 2015
    Description/subject: SUMMARY: "• Myanmar’s transition from military rule to democracy is far from complete, and its successes to date remain fragile. Given the chronic inertia and isolation of the previous half-century, there has been remarkable progress since 2011. But more work is needed to consolidate democracy, improve governance and promote stability. • Legislative elections due by the end of 2015 promise to be pivotal for the country’s political development. The elections are likely to be the freest in decades, but the opportunity for constitutional reform ahead of the polls appears to have been missed. • A political compromise between the military-dominated Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) and the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) no longer looks feasible before the elections. • Ceasefires with ethnic minorities in recent years have improved the security situation, but a national peace settlement has proven elusive. Armed groups may prefer to await the outcome of the elections rather than negotiate with the current government. • Sectarian rivalry and the legacy of prolonged government neglect are fuelling continued instability in Rakhine state. Domestic and international actors must address the crisis in the state urgently, or risk the emergence of a situation that threatens national unity as well as regional stability.".....CONCLUSION: A CRITICAL YEAR: "Myanmar faces enormous challenges, with the elections at the end of the year likely to be a turning point in its history. They could herald a new era that sees a diminishing role for the military, better relations with the outside world – including the West – and a country at peace with itself and embracing its many minorities. There are other futures too. A reform process that stumbles badly is clearly imaginable – not least over the position of Aung San Suu Kyi in national life; ceasefires that do not hold with increasingly restless minorities; and the emergence of Rakhine state as potentially a new flashpoint in a rising global Islamist agenda. These dangers are all too real. In all likelihood Myanmar will find itself caught between these two scenarios. The elections will almost certainly proceed; abandoning reform is simply not an option now, even for military hardliners. Although much of institutional life is still dominated by the military, a real politics has emerged in Myanmar in recent years. Any attempt to put the democratic genie back in the bottle is unlikely. But the potential for unrest, and even violence, remains considerable. At the same time, other Southeast Asian histories offer alternative possibilities. While the military appears to be firmly back in charge in neighbouring Thailand, Indonesia has evolved into one of the more robust democracies in Southeast Asia. In doing so, the country has overcome a toxic legacy of 33 years of military rule (from 1965 to 1998) and has successfully fended off threats of internal secession and Islamist extremism. Indonesia’s example is one that many in Myanmar still hope their country can follow."
    Author/creator: Michael C. Williams
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Chatham House
    Format/size: pdf (270K-reduced version; 296K-original)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/20150226Myanmar.pdf
    Date of entry/update: 26 May 2015


    Title: Negotiations on draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) deadlocked
    Date of publication: 01 July 2015
    Description/subject: "In Myanmar, a summit of ethnic armed group leaders rejected the NCA text agreed in March, making it almost certain that the agreement will not be signed before the country goes to elections later this year. This makes it highly unlikely that there will be further progress on talks to end the decades-long conflict for the next twelve months, and increases the risk of armed conflict over the coming year. It also means more areas could be declared too insecure for elections to take place..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Crisis Group (Crisiswatch No. 143)
    Format/size: pdf (54K)
    Alternate URLs: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/crisiswatch/crisiswatch-database.aspx?CountryIDs={7E...
    Date of entry/update: 02 July 2015


    Title: Preliminary Findings of The Carter Center Expert Mission to Myanmar December 2014 – February 2015
    Date of publication: March 2015
    Description/subject: "The general elections in Myanmar planned for late 2015 could mark a major step forward in the political reform process that began in 2011. Despite a high level of mistrust in government, the general public appears to have an overall positive view of elections and overwhelmingly intends to vote.1 Significantly, the government has made a public commitment to inviting international and national election observation organizations to monitor the election process, a notable difference from the 2010 and 2012 elections. The Carter Center, at the invitation of the Union Election Commission (UEC), is conducting an assessment of the pre-election environment in preparation for the deployment of a larger election observation mission. This is the Carter Center’s first statement since deploying staff to the states and regions in December 2014. In this preliminary assessment, The Carter Center finds that there are efforts underway to make the electoral process more transparent and less vulnerable to manipulation. However, a number of key challenges need to be addressed in order to ensure that the elections earn the confidence of voters, political parties, and civil society organizations. The main findings include:..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: The Carter Center
    Format/size: pdf (447K)
    Date of entry/update: 16 May 2015


  • The 2012 By-Elections in Burma

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
    Description/subject: Archive from 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


    Individual Documents

    Title: "Myanmar Times" By-Elections Special
    Date of publication: 01 April 2012
    Description/subject: Hluttaw reps ready for arrival of NLD; Can peace trump political divisions? USDP actions speak louder than words: U Htay Oo; By-election raises high interest of locals in Mandalay; Shan State vote hints at ethnic divide; Nay Pyi Taw by-elections: too close to call; Will invalid votes be a factor in election results?; Election predictions; MPs will follow our lead: NLD; In inner Yangon, a humanitarian worker turns to politics; In Mandalay, voter knowledge remains an issue for parties; Independent candidate U Khin Hlaing, Mayangone; Independent for Meiktila, Daw Myint Myint Aye; Shan party confident of Lashio win; Voices from Maha Aung Myay tsp; 88 Generation forms ‘Election Watch Group’; Nay Pyi Taw residents, candidates predict fair poll.
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Myanmar Times"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 02 April 2012


    Title: 1 April 2012 By-Election results
    Date of publication: 04 April 2012
    Description/subject: These results were published in "The New Light of Myanmar" of 3 and 4 April, 2012. According to Mizzima: "The final, official by-election results announced by the Burmese Union Election Commission on Tuesday gave the National League for Democracy Party (NLD) 6.4 per cent of the seats in Parliament. The NLD won a total of 43 seats in the April 1 by-election. The NLD contested for a total of 44 vacant seats. It won 37 seats in the Lower House, four seats in the Upper House and two seats in state or regional assemblies. Dr. Myat Nyarna Soe of National Democratic Force (NDF) won a seat in the Upper House in 2010, and he later joined the NLD, giving it a total of five Upper House seats, making the NLD representation in Parliament 44 seats. According to the Constitution, there should be 224 parliamentarians in the Upper house and 440 parliamentarians in Lower House. However, there are a total 224 MPs in Upper House and 432 MPs in Lower House. The total parliamentarians in Parliament will be 656. The EC announcement said Shan Nationalities Democratic Party candidate Sai San Min won the Shan State No. 3 constituency Upper House seat; and Union Solidarity and Development Party candidate Tin Mya won the Sagaing Region constituency no. 7 Upper House seat, respectively."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "The New Light of Myanmar" April 3, 4
    Format/size: pdf (382K)
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS - A CHANCE FOR FUTURE RECONCILIATION? (English)
    Date of publication: 11 April 2012
    Description/subject: "...The NLD’s success in the by-election, while not providing it with the ability to dramatically influence the parliamentary process at the moment, suggests that the country may be on course towards genuine democratic transition and reconciliation. However, it is imperative that President Thein Sein, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and all ethnic actors work together to maintain this momentum and ensure that the county continues to move forward towards genuine change, an end to ethnic conflict, and equality for all peoples of the country."
    Author/creator: Paul Keenan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Burma Centre for Ethnic Studies (Briefing Paper No. 5 )
    Format/size: pdf (517K)
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


    Title: BURMA’S BY-ELECTIONS: STILL SHORT OF INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
    Date of publication: 27 March 2012
    Description/subject: The trouble with the by-elections; Electoral framework not in line with int’l standards; Election laws limit political participation; Election Commission lacks independence and impartiality; Campaign restrictions still in place; Complaint process ineffective and inaccessible; Restrictions, irregularities, harassment, and vote-buying mar pre-election period; Restrictions on NLD activities; Widespread irregularities; Threats, harassment, and vote buying; More voters disenfranchised; Censorship still in place; Election observation falls short of international standards; By-elections who’s who
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: ALTSEAN-Burma
    Format/size: pdf (147K)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    Title: Burma: between elections and democracy
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Description/subject: The by-election victory of Aung San Suu Kyi’s party in Burma (Myanmar) raises the question of whether the country is at last on an irreversible path towards democracy. A detailed analysis of the context suggests seven reasons for caution, says Joakim Kreutz.
    Author/creator: Joakim Kreutz
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: openDemocracy
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Burma: Free and fair elections do not mean civil and political rights exist, evidenced by continued detention of political prisoners
    Date of publication: 27 March 2012
    Description/subject: Executive Summary: "For the first time in decades, Burma will be holding Parliamentary by-­‐elections that allows major opposition parties to contest the available seats. The move has been hailed by many in the international community as evidence of democratic progress and the elections are now being used as a benchmark for lifting sanctions if deemed “free and fair” by international monitors. However, whether the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner is not a genuine reflection of the level of civil and political liberties accorded to the people of Burma. There are hundreds of political prisoners still behind bars, and those who have been released face deprivation of fundamental freedoms and extensive monitoring by security forces. What matters most is not what happens on the day of the elections, but how the campaigns are conducted in the months preceding. There have been countless reports of ballot fraud, intimidation, and harassment of opposition groups that show the elections will be anything but free and fair. We call on the international community to not be fooled by the charade and maintain pressure on the U Thein Sein regime until all political prisoners are released and concrete measures are taken to ensure political and civil liberties are enjoyed by all in Burma."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma)
    Format/size: pdf (283)
    Date of entry/update: 27 March 2012


    Title: Current Political Situation and the International Boycott
    Date of publication: 04 April 2012
    Description/subject: 50 or so articles from international media, many on the by-elections...N.B. 7 or more pages.
    Author/creator: Edith Bronder (curator)
    Source/publisher: Scoop-it
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Do Elections in Myanmar Signal Real Change?
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Author/creator: Aarti Ramachandran, Ariel Stulberg, Ethan Wagner, Ethan Wilkes, and Krisztian Simon
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: International Policy Digest
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 05 April 2012


    Title: Live By-Election Coverage
    Date of publication: 02 April 2012
    Description/subject: Video and text items from various sources
    Language: English, Burmese
    Source/publisher: "Mizzima"
    Format/size: html, Adobe Flash
    Date of entry/update: 09 April 2012


    Title: The Lady and the generals meet half-way
    Date of publication: 06 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Myanmar's highly anticipated by-elections, held on April 1 for some 45 parliamentary seats, has borne its first diplomatic fruit. The United States announced a relaxation of certain economic sanctions and movement on the resumption of full diplomatic relations with Naypyidaw in reward for the country's recent democratic progress. However, the opposition National League for Democracy's landslide victory of 43 out of the 45 seats may be somewhat overstated and questions remain about the sincerity of President Thein Sein's government's commitment to sustainable reform..."
    Author/creator: Brian McCartan
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Asia Times Online
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 11 April 2012


    Title: The Lady of all landslides
    Date of publication: 05 April 2012
    Description/subject: Aung San Suu Kyi’s win is a humiliation for the army. Will it now turn nasty?
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: "Time"
    Format/size: pdf (60K)
    Date of entry/update: 06 April 2012


    Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (Burmese)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
    Language: Burmese/ ျမန္မာဘာသာ
    Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
    Format/size: pdf (5.2MB)
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


    Title: Union of Myanmar By-Election 2012 - Election Monitoring Report No#1 (English)
    Date of publication: 07 April 2012
    Description/subject: "Our Election Monitoring Network, led by the 88 Generation Students, was established to monitor the April 1 by-Election in collaboration with political parties, independent candidates, civil society groups, international and local media, as well with civic participation. Our monitors were usually stationed in their respective constituencies to collect data while our network also monitored local and online media regarding the various activities of the election. Our objective, as an independent monitoring group, is to ensure free and fair election through the transparency of the electoral process, while at the same time encouraging greater civic participation and awareness in the elections...Analysis: Generally, our group is satisfied with the whole electoral process now being finished without any major risks including violence and unrest. We all look forward to seeing more transparency and accountability of the process. However, we would like to pinpoint some crucial facts necessary to create a more open society through democratic elections..."
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Election Monitoring Network
    Format/size: pdf (284K)
    Date of entry/update: 10 April 2012


  • The 2010 General Elections in Burma
    See the 7-Step Roadmap at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=2378&lo=d&sl=0 -- especially Step 5

    Websites/Multiple Documents

    Title: "BurmaNet News" Elections archive
    Description/subject: Archive from 2010
    Language: English
    Source/publisher: Various sources via "BurmaNet News"
    Format/size: html
    Date of entry/update: 18 April 2012


  • The 1990 General Elections in Burma
    See also Constitutional and Parliamentary processes (under Law and Constitution) at http://www.burmalibrary.org/show.php?cat=1139&lo=d&sl=0

    • The 1990 elections - general articles and studies

      Individual Documents

      Title: A Day to Remember
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: The 1990 election—will my vote ever mean anything?... "My entire family woke up early that day. Our neighbors were already leaving their homes. Some eagerly shouted at us not to be late. My 63-year-old grandmother and my mother joined them and I rushed to follow. It was election day—May 27, 1990—the first time in 30 years the Burmese people had been called on to go to the polls..."
      Author/creator: Kyaw Zwa Moe
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


      Title: Was It A Parliamentary Election or Not?
      Date of publication: May 2005
      Description/subject: Whatever the answer, the people rejected military rule... "Burma has more than its fair share of miserable anniversaries. One of the more baffling of them falls on May 27, the anniversary of arguably the most spectacular ignored general election in history. The ruling generals of the State Law and Order Restoration Council first confounded their many critics by holding a relatively free and fair ballot, and then completely dumbfounded them by carrying on as if it had never occurred..."
      Author/creator: Dominic Faulder
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: "The Irrawaddy" Vol. 13, No. 5
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 27 April 2006


    • The 1990 elections, the elected representatives and their parties

      Individual Documents

      Title: 1990 MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY GENERAL ELECTIONS
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: This is a 300-page collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. In addition to the 1.1MB pdf file, it can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Format/size: pdf ( 1.1MB), html (3.9MB - also broken into 4), Word (2.0MB)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.htm

      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/1990_elections.doc (Word version for downloading)

      Part 1 (Contents, general statistics, summaries of campaign speeches - html, 115K): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm'>http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-01.htm

      Part 2 (election results by party and candidate - html 1.6MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-02.htm

      Part 3 (brief biographies of elected MPs by State and Division - html, 1.2MB): http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-03.htm

      Part 4 (other related lists, including detained MPs, and documents - html, 568K) http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/Elections-04.htm
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: Book of Record on the 1990 General Elections
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: This is a collection of documents related to the 1990 elections. It can be accessed as one 4MB html file, 4 shorter (but still large) html files or downloaded as a 2MB Word file. It contains: General Statistics of Elections - Candidates per Constituency - Election Campaign Speeches - Election Results of 93 Political Parties - Summary of Constituencies - Election Results of Winning Parties - Brief Biographies of Elected MPs; - SLORC Policy Declaration (1/90) - Gandhi Hall Declaration - Election Tribunals - Election Law Amended - The So-Called National Convention - Steering Committee Named - The Principle Duty Of The National Convention - The Eight Different Categories of National Convention Deligates - SLORC Declaration No. 11/92 of 24 April 92 - SLORC Order No. 1/93 of 1 January 93 - The National Convention Delegates of National League for Democracy - The Committee Representing People’s Parliament (CRPP) - Anti-Subversion Law (5/96) - Turning of a New Page - The NLD’s 21-Point Resolution - Back to the past today - A Brief History of Political Activism in Burma - UN special human rights rapporteurs on Burma - UN special envoy on Burma
      Language: Burmese
      Source/publisher: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Format/size: pdf (5.8MB)
      Date of entry/update: 17 September 2007


      Title: Brief Biographies of Exiled Members of Parliament of Burma
      Date of publication: 01 February 2003
      Description/subject: Organised by States and Divisions
      Author/creator: Khin Kyaw Han (compiler)
      Language: English
      Format/size: html (192K)
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003


      Title: GANDHI HALL DECLARATION
      Date of publication: 29 July 1990
      Description/subject: 8th Waxing Day of Wagaung BE 1352 29 July 1990 "1. We, the National League for Democracy Pyithu Hluttaw members, after assembling here at the Mahatama Gandhi Hall in Kyauktada township, Rangoon, on the seventh and eighth waxing days of Wagaung BE 1352 , 28 and 29 July 1990 , and after consulting and discussing the matters concerning the well being of the nation , State affairs and convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw , unanimously adopt this Gandhi Hall Declaration..."
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
      Format/size: html (25K)
      Date of entry/update: 28 June 2003


      Title: The Manifesto of the National League for Democracy
      Date of publication: 06 November 1989
      Description/subject: "1. Throughout the Union of Burma in 1988 there was an extraordinary and unprecedented uprising of all people. They rose up to demand Democracy. Thus, a democratic state was established in order to be liberated from the bitter experience of the society. 2. Now, a chance to establish a democratic system began to emerge that would totally change society. Hence, all the people of Burma, with active spirit and strong determination, would have to elect the peoples' representatives. Those representatives would form a democratic government in accordance with the aspiration of the people and draw up the state constitution that will enable a successful reconstruction of the country. 3. The National League for Democracy firmly believes that, today, in Burma, the masses of people are earnestly aspiring for the formation of a Democratic government that will guarantee basic human rights. 4. The National League for Democracy clearly understands that all the people of Burma are very keen to establish a firmly united "Union" in the near future with equal rights for all ethnic nationalities who cherish democracy. 5. In order to bring about the aims and aspirations of the people successfully, the National League for Democracy, consisting of people wishing to represent farmers, workers, merchants and entrepreneurs, students, youths, women, technicians, academicians, artists and ethnic nationalities, shall let their members participate in this multi-party General Election and pledges to accept the decision of the people. 6. The National League for Democracy, while declaring its principles and policy below, shall accept the wishes of the people and establish a democratic state as desired by the people..."
      Language: English, Burmese
      Source/publisher: National League for Democracy
      Format/size: html (78K), Word (67K), pdf (32K)
      Alternate URLs: http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDElectionManifesto1989.doc
      http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/NLDmanifestoBur.pdf (Burmese)
      Date of entry/update: 20 April 2004


      Title: To Stand And Be Counted - The Suppression of Burma’s Members of Parliament
      Date of publication: June 1998
      Description/subject: "In May 1990 the people of Burma voted in the country’s first multi-party election in 30 years. The ruling military regime was forced to announce the election following nation-wide anti-government demonstrations in 1988 in which the army brutally gunned down thousands of protestors. Despite the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) imposing severe restrictions on campaigning for the election, and placing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest, the SLORC-backed party won just two percent of the seats. The election result was a landslide to Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD), which won a staggering 81% of the seats. However following the election, the SLORC refused to hand over power and instead began a systematic campaign of repression against Members of Parliament (MPs) from the NLD and other opposition parties. Since the 1990 election, the SLORC, renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), has banned more than 80 political parties, forced from office more than a quarter of NLD MPs and jailed 78 MPs, more than 40 of whom remain in prison. 'To Stand And Be Counted: The Suppression of Burma’s Members of Parliament' examines the fate of Burma’s Members of Parliament elected to office in the May 1990 election. It includes 30 detailed tables, 16 maps and biographies of all 485 MPs. The book is an important reminder of the SLORC/SPDC’s brutal repudiation of political freedom in Burma, and of the sacrifices the elected representatives have made in the struggle for democracy and human rights."....."Contents: Foreword... Preface... Acronyms... Terms and Abbreviations... Notes About Usage... List of Tables... Map of Burma... Introduction... Recommendations... Members of Parliament: Arakan State; Chin State; Irrawaddy Division; Kachin State; Karen State; Kayah State; Magwe Division; Mandalay Division; Mon State; Pegu Division; Rangoon Division; Sagaing Division; Shan State; Tenasserim Division; General Tables; Appendix I - NLD Letter, August 1997... Appendix II - NLD Letter, December 1997... Appendix III - Gandhi Hall Declaration... Appendix IV - SLORC Declaration 1/90... Appendix V - Extracts from the Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law... Amendments to the Pyithu Hluttaw Election Law... Glossary of Selected Events and Organisations... Bibliography... Acronyms.
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF)
      Format/size: pdf (1.3MB)
      Date of entry/update: 10 June 2015


      Title: Voter turnout figures for the 1956 and 1990 elections
      Language: English
      Source/publisher: The International Institute or Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA))
      Format/size: html
      Date of entry/update: 03 June 2003