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Governance in Burma/Myanmar

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: *Youtube search for Burma OR Myanmar - governance* (video)
Description/subject: About 971 results (August 2017)
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Various sources via Youtube
Format/size: Adobe Flash or html5
Date of entry/update: 21 August 2017


Title: Myanmar Governance Discussion Paper Series
Description/subject: More than 20 papers on different aspects of governance ad decentraliation in Myanmar
Language: English, Burmese (ျမန္မာဘာသာ)
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: html, pdf
Date of entry/update: 19 March 2017


Individual Documents

Title: The Provision of Public Goods and Services in Urban Areas in Myanmar
Date of publication: 15 February 2017
Description/subject: "With over a third of the Myanmar’s population living in urban areas, the governance of towns and cities is of increasing importance. With rising rates of urbanization and population growth, urban services are a critical interface between citizens and government. Outside of Yangon, Mandalay and Nay Pyi Taw, urban agencies called Development Affairs Organizations (DAOs) provide a range of services and goods to the urban populace as well as oversee local economic governance. As key actors for urban management, attention to and support of DAOs are vital to Myanmar’s democratic transition and economic development. The Asia Foundation and the Renaissance Institute are pleased to present this research on the planning and budgeting frameworks and processes of DAOs."
Author/creator: Michael Winter and Mya Nandar Thin
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.4MB-reduced version; 4.2MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/publication/provision-public-goods-services-urban-areas-myanmar/
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2017


Title: State and Region Financing, Planning and Budgeting in Myanmar
Date of publication: 08 February 2017
Description/subject: "Effective subnational public financial management is essential if state and region governments are to achieve their potential in addressing local and national policy development priorities, including the delivery of public services in their areas of jurisdiction. This report provides a foundation for a better understanding of the current subnational public financial management in Myanmar. It presents an overview of the constitutional, institutional, and financing framework that determines subnational public expenditure. The report particularly focuses on assessing both how priorities and investments are determined in sectors that are now under the authority of state and region governments, and those which remain under direction from the Union level."
Author/creator: Roger Shotton, Zin Wint Yee, and Khin Pwint Oo
Language: English
Source/publisher: Asia Foundation
Format/size: pdf (1.2MB-reduced version; 11.4MB-original)
Alternate URLs: http://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/State-and-Region-Financing-Budgeting-and-Plann...
Date of entry/update: 21 March 2017


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN SAGAING
Date of publication: 2015
Description/subject: INTRODUCTION: "Crucial functions of policy analysis and policy implementation require concrete information to inform leadership as they continue to guide the country towards strategic goals. In order to support this process, the Government of Myanmar and UNDP agreed to conduct a local governance mapping. This report is the product of this mapping that captured the extensive input of government officers and staff, committee members, Ward and Village Tract Administrators, citizens, and service providers at the township level, and CSOs in four townships in Sagaing Region. The mapping seeks to examine the perception of governance from a citizen and serviceprovider perspective. It focussed on participation in public sector planning (how certain new laws, funds, and structures were addressing citizens and township priorities in priority areas), access to key basic services and accountability in local governance. Following this introduction and a brief discussion on methodology1 in chapter 2, the report provides an overview of governance institutions in Sagaing Region in chapter 3, including the relatively recent creation of the Naga SAZ and relevant governance and administrative systems. Chapter 4 provides information on the participating townships and Chapter 5 discusses planning processes in these townships, with attention to the linkages between communities and township administrations; the specific opportunities and challenges in the health, education and water supply sectors; and opportunities and challenges for information sharing, transparency and accountability. Chapter 6 closes the report with conclusions on participatory and responsive local governance in Sagaing Region. As such, the report combines information from both the township and community level, along with background information related to governance, planning and budgeting systems critical to inform discussions about identifying priorities and addressing service delivery at township level."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2016


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN KAYAH
Date of publication: December 2014
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Kayah State has experienced some important changes over the last few years that have a direct impact on the livelihood situation of its people. Since 2011, the hostilities between the Karenni National Progressive Party and its Karenni Army on the one hand and the Government of Myanmar on the other hand have gradually subsided, resulting in a cease fire agreement that was signed in June 2013 between the two parties. This contributed to a more peaceful situation in the State and led to an intensification of both economic activities and social services provided by the Government. During the same period the Government of Myanmar has made a start with its administrative reform with the objective of improving service delivery, engaging people more actively in governance processes and becoming a “cleaner” government. This report outlines the results of the Local Governance Mapping conducted by UNDP in Kayah State. Based on the perceptions of the people and local governance actors, the mapping has tried to capture some key aspects of the current dynamics of governance at the frontline of state-citizen interaction and focuses in its analysis on participation in public sector planning, access to basic services and accountability in local governance. In consultation with the Kayah State government, it was agreed that the Local Governance Mapping would be conducted in three townships, namely, Loikaw, Hpruso and Mese between April and August 2014. Together, these three townships are representative for the diversity in economic activities and living conditions found in Kayah State. Loikaw is the capital Township of Kayah. It is more urban in character, it has by far the largest population of all townships in Kayah State, hosts most State government institutions, and is economically the best developed township in the State. Hpruso Township has a more rural character, is less populated as Loikaw, but since it is easy to reach and close to Loikaw it is relatively prosperous, and basic social services are still easily available. Mese Township finally is the most remote and smallest township in the State with a traditional rural character and a low population density. It has experienced more than any of the other townships the negative impact of the armed conflict in the past and has a result been rather isolated and experienced a backlog in services provided by government, which it is now trying to catch up on..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/UNDP_MM_LG_Mapping_Kayah_web.pdf
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2015


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN CHIN
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The State of Local Governance: Trends in Chin - UNDP Myanmar 2014 This report presents the findings from the Local Governance Mapping conducted in Chin State between December 2013 and January 2014. Sharing a long northern border with India and its western front with Bangladesh, Chin State is the poorest among Myanmar’s state/regions, and among its most diverse. Chin State has a unique demographic composition, with six main ethnic groups (Asho, Cho, Khum, Laimi, Mizo and Zomi) and dozens of sub-groups represented in this majority-Chin, predominantly Christian area of the country. With an estimated population of 465,000 people, Chin State is the second smallest (by population size) of all states/regions. Widespread poverty, low population density, challenging mountainous terrain and an underdeveloped infrastructure are all severe barriers for development. The ceasefire agreement of 2012 between the Government of Myanmar (GoM) and the Chin National Front (CNF), a non-state armed group, has removed what was previously a serious bottleneck for development. Recognising the immense challenges faced by Chin State, the union government has allocated additional investment funds to the tune of Ks 2 billion in addition to around Ks 1 billion already allocated to each of the states/regions for regional development and poverty reduction in 2013-14.1 For the Local Governance Mapping in Chin State, three townships in the north (Thantlang, Falam and Tonzang) and three townships in the south (Mindat, Matupi and Paletwa) were selected. 576 respondents from 12 villages across these six townships were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to local governance using a Citizens’ Report Card (CRC).2 Half (49%) of citizens interviewed were between 18-40 years of age. Reflecting the geographic dynamics of Chin State, the majority of respondents (67%) lived in rural areas. The vast majority (91%) of those interviewed were of Chin ethnicity, while 8% of respondents originated from Rakhine. Alongside the opinions of the people, multi-stakeholder dialogues at the community (Community Dialogues (CD)) and township (Government Self Assessments (GSA)) levels, and primary research on the functioning of local governance in three townships (Thantlang, Tonzang and Mindat), informed the findings from the Local Governance Mapping exercise, which are structured along the five core principles of good local governance. These form the basis of the mapping framework and methodology adopted in Myanmar, viz. effectiveness and efficiency; transparency and rule of law; accountability; participation; and, equity. In addition, the mapping exercise has also yielded some significant “process” results, which are also highlighted below."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2016


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN KACHIN
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report outlines the results of the Local Governance Mapping (LGM) conducted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in partnership with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) in Kachin State from November 2014 to January 2015. Drawing on the perceptions of the people and local governance actors, the mapping has captured the current dynamics of governance at the front line and enables an analysis of the participation, responsiveness and accountability for local governance and basic service provision. The report examines processes, mechanisms and the way in which they are functioning for development planning and participation, people’s access to basic services and the information, transparency and accountability dimensions of local governance processes in the four selected townships of Tanai, Putao, Momauk and Myitkyina. While the focus of the LGM is on local governance institutions, the roles of the State and Union government authorities and their relationships with the lower levels in a broader governance context are also relevant and, to some extent, reflected upon in this analysis. Kachin State occupies the northernmost area of Myanmar bordering India to the west and China to the north and east. Kachin has the third largest land area of the 14 States and Regions in Myanmar and has the country’s highest mountain ranges. The people living in Kachin State belong to various ethnic groups, primarily Kachins, Bamars and Shans. The four townships of Momauk, Myitkyina, Putao, and Tanai covered under the mapping offer a variety of examples of issues of access and sophistication of the local economy as well as the effects of the conflict in the state. Since 2011, Kachin State has seen the most serious of all the armed confrontations affecting the country, and pending a lasting settlement of the decadesold conflict, local governance systems and mechanisms will be affected by this state of affairs. The information collected as part of the mapping and presented in the subsequent sections must therefore be read and understood as part of the broader geographic, socio-economic, demographic, historical and political context in which the State finds itself. The legacies of armed conflict, ethnic mobilization and military rule inform and shape the efforts, undertaken since 2012, of reintroducing some forms of popular participation at the local level in Kachin State, in particular the townships and the village tracts and wards. The degree to which Kachin State will be successful in both reflecting its own ethnic diversity while at the same time delivering basic services in an equitable and effective manner will depend largely on the progress made in building local governance institutions and processes that are inclusive and responsive to the needs of the local population. Given the pending peace agreement, perceptions of safety are thus more of an indication of relative change rather than any absolute measure. At the time of the community-level mapping in November 2014 most people felt the security situation had not worsened. The perceptions of this vary between townships and since conflict has been more evident in Momauk, nearly half the respondents felt the situation in the township had worsened although most people (76%) feel secure in their immediate area. Finding a balanced solution to the underlying causes of this conflict remains an urgent challenge for the people of Kachin State..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (5.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2016


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN KAYIN
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "This report outlines the results of the Local Governance Mapping research conducted by UNDP in Kayin State. Based on the perceptions of the people and local governance actors, the mapping has tried to capture some key aspects of the current dynamics of governance at the frontline of state-citizen interaction and focuses in its analysis on participation in public sector planning, access to basic services and accountability in local governance. In consultation with the Kayin State government, it was agreed that the Local Governance Mapping would be conducted in three townships, namely, Hlaingbwe, Kawkareik and Hpa-An between February and June 2014. Three of the more remote and less populated townships (Myawaddy, Hpapun and Thandaung) have for a long time been partially under control of the KNU and have been more unstable than the other four townships in Kayin State during the 65 years of armed conflict. As a result of their remote character, their low population density and the years of conflict, the availability of basic services and their governance situation is most likely to be significantly different from the ones included in this study."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (2.2MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 05 February 2016


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN MANDALAY
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: "This report outlines the results of the Local Governance Mapping conducted by UNDP in Mandalay Region. Based on the perceptions of the people and local governance actors, the mapping has captured some key aspects of the current dynamics of governance at the frontline of state-citizen interaction like participation in local development planning, access to basic social services and transparency and accountability in local governance. In consultation with the Mandalay Region government, it was agreed that the Local Governance Mapping would be conducted in three townships, namely, Meiktila, Thazi and Thabeikkyin between August and November 2014."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (3.3MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 04 February 2016


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN SHAN
Date of publication: 2014
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The State of Local Governance: Trends in Shan - UNDP Myanmar 2015 This report aims to map the state of affairs and the evolution as witnessed over the past years with regards to governance reforms and service delivery, in particular for the sectors education, health and water supply, in Shan State. It provides a historical background to contextualise the present governance situation in Shan, which differs from all other Regions and States; it provides information on the various recent elections in the State; it seeks transparency of the State budget, and, against this background, it pays particular attention to the perceptions of citizens’ regarding the changes they have witnessed. It finally tries to make the link between good local governance and the quality of service delivery, whereby it looks at aspects of decision-making powers in relation to budget discretion, the availability of budget envelopes, oversight and accountability. Shan State takes a special place amongst the fourteen Regions and States in the country as, in terms of area the biggest of all, covering almost 25% of the entire nation, and in terms of population by far the biggest of all States. Arguably, Shan State has the largest ethnic diversity amongst its population of all fourteen Regions and States. Related to this diversity - its location and the physical features of the terrain making it perfect for a natural border zone - Shan State has played an important role in the history of Myanmar. As far as the most recent history is concerned, this starts with the special position that was negotiated in the Panglong agreement, where Shan State was given the right to exit the Union after a period of 10 years if it would prefer to do so (and which it did not do). As much as the recent serious flaring up of fighting (early February 2015) in the Laukkaing area illustrates that peace and stability cannot yet be taken for granted, the earlier open conflicts in Shan State, which were as much based on economic interest as ethnic differences, seemed to have already for some time reached a situation of agreed status quo, amongst others reflected by the number of Self-Administered Areas as enshrined in the Constitution of 2008, and which are described as part of the local governance set-up in this report. Shan State is distinctly different (and also more complicated), as compared to most other Regions and States, but the mapping of local governance and service delivery also found a number of similarities with the findings in other areas. Overall, in Shan State, as in all other Regions and States, people clearly acknowledge the improvements in service delivery, notably for road infrastructure, education, health and, although to a lesser extent, water supply. People mentioned access to safe drinking water as the largest challenge in service delivery and people also asked for enhanced investments in this sector. As in other Regions and States,* people in Shan ask for more information from government, whilst they bestow (also in terms of information flow) a pivotal role on the indirectly elected Ward and Village Tract Administrators (W/VTAs), whom they consider more and more as a local development change agent. To support this process and to be able honouring the expectations of W/VTAs as ‘intermediary’ between the people and the township administrations, some dedicated capacity development activities may be indicated, both addressing the W/VTAs as well as the township administrations."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.9MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2016


Title: POVERTY, DISPLACEMENT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH EAST BURMA / MYANMAR
Date of publication: November 2013
Description/subject: With Field Assessments by: Committee for Internally Displaced Karen People (CIDKP); Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM); Karen Environment and Social Action Network (KESAN); Karen Human Rights Group (KHRG); Karen Office of Relief and Development (KORD); Karen Women Organisation (KWO); Karenni Evergreen (KEG); Karenni Social Welfare and Development Centre (KSWDC); Karenni National Women’s Organization (KNWO); Mon Relief and Development Committee (MRDC) Shan State Development Foundation (SSDF).....CONTENTS:- Context... Methodology... POVERTY: Physical Access... Shelter... Water Supply and Sanitation... Livelihoods and Food Security... Education.. Health Care.... DISPLACEMENT: Displacement ... Return and Resettlement... Principles for Return and Reintegration..... LOCAL GOVERNANCE: Civilian Protection... Village Leadership... Natural Resource Management... Conflict Transformation …APPENDICES: Surveyed Village List... 2013 Survey Framework... Acronyms and Place Names.
Language: English
Source/publisher: The Border Consortium
Format/size: pdf (2.3MB)
Date of entry/update: 19 November 2013


Title: THE STATE OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE: TRENDS IN MON
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "The State of Local Governance: Trends in Mon - UNDP Myanmar 2014 This report presents the findings from the Local Governance Mapping conducted in Mon State between December 2013 and January 2014. With an estimated population of 1.9 million,1 Mon State is one of Myanmar’s most well- connected and prosperous states/regions. Economic activity is driven by agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining - the state is a major producer of rice and rubber crop. The security situation has stabilised following the ratification of a ceasefire agreement between the Union government and the Mon National Liberation Army - a non-state armed group - in 2012, and the state is now experiencing a new period of stability and engagement between government and non-state actors. Still, pockets of volatility remain, and a long-term political solution towards peace and reconciliation has yet to be achieved. For the Local Governance Mapping in Mon State, Bilin, Chaungzon, Kyaikmaraw, Paung, Thanbyuzayat and Ye townships were selected. 576 respondents from 12 villages across these six townships shared their perceptions and experiences related to local governance.2 Nearly half of them were between 41-60 years of age - researchers highlighted difficulty in sourcing younger respondents across all six representative townships, reportedly due to migration of working-age labour to nearby Thailand and Malaysia. 52% of the randomly selected respondents were ethnic Bamar, 30% Mon and 10% Kayin. Alongside the opinions of the people, multi-stakeholder dialogues at the community and township level and primary research on the functioning of local governance in three townships (Bilin, Chaungzon, and Ye) informed the findings from the Local Governance Mapping exercise, which are structured along the five core principles of good local governance. These form the basis of the mapping framework and methodology adopted in Myanmar, viz. effectiveness and efficiency; transparency and rule of law; accountability; participation; and, equity. In addition, the mapping exercise has also yielded some significant “process” results, which are also highlighted below."
Language: English
Source/publisher: UNDP Myanmar
Format/size: pdf (1.5MB)
Alternate URLs: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/dam/myanmar/docs/Publications/PovRedu/Local%20Governance%20Mapping/U...
Date of entry/update: 02 February 2016