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Genocide

Websites/Multiple Documents

Title: Genocide (Wikipedia)
Description/subject: "Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word génos ("race, people") and the Latin suffix -cide ("act of killing"). The United Nations Genocide Convention, which was established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group". The term genocide was coined by Raphael Lemkin in his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe; it has been applied to the Holocaust, the Armenian genocide and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas, the Greek genocide, the Indonesian killings of 1965-66, the Assyrian genocide, the Serbian genocide, the Holodomor, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, the Guatemalan genocide, and, more recently, the Bosnian genocide, the Kurdish genocide, and the Rwandan genocide. According to one estimate, from 1956 to 2016, a total of forty-three genocides have taken place which caused the death of about 50 million people, while an additional 50 million were resettled or displaced by such conflicts..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Wikipedia
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017


Title: United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect
Description/subject: "The Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect supports two Special Advisers who report directly to the United Nations Secretary-General: The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, who acts as a catalyst to raise awareness of the causes and dynamics of genocide, to alert relevant actors where there is a risk of genocide, and to advocate and mobilize for appropriate action. The Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect, who leads the conceptual, political, institutional and operational development of the Responsibility to Protect. The mandates of the two Special Advisers are distinct but complementary. In order to maximise efficiency and resources, the Secretary-General decided to institutionalize the collaboration between the Special Advisers through the establishment of a joint office. As far as possible, the two Advisers share a common methodology for early warning, assessment, convening, learning, and advocacy, as well as a common office and staff based in New York. They work together to advance national and international efforts to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity (atrocity crimes), as well as their incitement. In support of their mandates, the Office collects information, conducts assessments of situations worldwide and alerts the Secretary-General and relevant actors to the risk of atrocity crimes, as well as their incitement. The Office also undertakes training and technical assistance to promote greater understanding of the causes and dynamics of atrocity crimes and of the measures that could be taken to prevent them; to raise awareness among States and other actors about their responsibility to protect; and to enhance the capacity of the United Nations, Member States, regional and sub-regional organisations and civil society to prevent atrocity crimes and to develop more effective means of response when they occur..."
Language: English
Source/publisher: Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Individual Documents

Title: Statement by Adama Dieng, United Nations Special Adviser on th e Prevention of Genocide , on his visit to Bangladesh to assess the situation of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar
Date of publication: 13 March 2018
Description/subject: "From 7 to 13 March I visited Bangladesh to assess the situation of the Rohingya population who have crossed the border from Myanmar to Bangladesh since the most recent incidents of violence in northern Rakhine state in October 2016 and August 2017. During my visit, I had the opportunity to meet Bangladeshi authorities, civil society actors and members of the diplomatic community. I also visited refugee camps in Cox’s Bazaar, where survivors I met shared horrifying stories of what they have endured...Let us be clear: international crimes were committed in Myanmar. Rohingya Muslims have been killed, tortured, raped, burnt alive and humiliated, solely because of who they are. All the information I have received indicates that the intent of the perpetrators was to cleanse northern Rakhine state of their existence, possibly even to destroy the Rohingya as such, which, if proven, would constitute the crime of genocide. However, whether or not we consider that the crimes committed amount to crimes against humanity or genocide, this should not delay our resolve to act and to act immediately. We owe this to the Rohingya population..."
Author/creator: Adama Dieng
Language: English
Source/publisher: UN Office on Genocide Prevetion and the Responsibility to Protect
Format/size: html
Date of entry/update: 15 March 2018


Title: PLAN OF ACTION for Religious Leaders and Actors to prevent Incitement to Violence
Date of publication: December 2017
Description/subject: Executive Summary: "Incitement to violence that targets communities or individuals based on their identity can contribute to enabling or preparing atrocity crimes, (genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity), and is both a warning sign and early indicator of the risk of those crimes . Monitoring, preventing and countering incite- ment to violence, particularly in societies divided along identity lines and in situations where tensions are high, can contribute to prevention efforts . States have the primary responsibility to protect popu- lations from atrocity crimes, as well as their incitement, but other actors can and should play a role . Religious leaders and actors can play a particularly influential role, as they have the potential to influence the behaviour of those who follow them and share their beliefs . Given that religion has been misused to justify incitement to violence, it is vital that religious leaders from all faiths show leadership in this matter . The process that led to the development of the Plan of Action for Religious Leaders and Actors to Prevent Incitement to Violence that Could Lead to Atrocity Crimes, known as the “Fez Process”, stemmed from the need to better understand, articulate and encourage the potential of religious leaders to prevent incitement and the violence that it can lead to, and to integrate the work of religious leaders within broader efforts to prevent atrocity crimes . The “Fez Process” refers to a series of consultations, organised by the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect between April 2015 and December 2016, with religious leaders, faith-based and secular organizations, regional organi- zations and subject matter experts from all regions of the world . The recommendations contained in the Plan of Action were developed by the religious leaders and actors who participated in these consultations . They are relevant not only to situations where there is a risk of atrocity crimes, but also to other contexts, including the protection of human rights, the prevention of vio- lent extremism and the prevention of conflict . As efforts to prevent atrocity crimes and their incite- ment are most likely to succeed when different actors are working in collaboration, the Plan of Action also includes recommendations for other actors, including States and state institutions and civil society, includ- ing new and traditional media . The Plan of Action is founded on human rights principles, in particular the right to freedom of expression and opinion, freedom of religion and belief and the right of peaceful assembly . The Plan of Action contains three main clusters of recommendations that aim to prevent , strengthen and build . Each cluster includes recommendations that are organised according to thematic focus . It is recommended that, under the stewardship of the United Nations Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect, this Plan of Action is imple- mented at regional, national and local levels . For a com- prehensive implementation of the Plan of Action, it is recommended that all relevant stakeholders contribute, including state and religious institutions, secular and religious civil society organizations, new and traditional media, academia and education institutions, as well as regional and international organizations . Implementing this Plan of Action could contribute to the prevention of atrocity crimes worldwide, especially in areas affected by religious and sectarian tensions and violence . Its implementation will also enhance the respect, protection and promotion of human rights."
Language: English
Source/publisher: United Nations
Format/size: pdf (2.3-reduced version; 4.9MB - original)
Date of entry/update: 24 March 2018


Title: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948.
Date of publication: 09 December 1948
Language: English
Source/publisher: ICRC, United Nations
Format/size: html
Alternate URLs: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CrimeOfGenocide.aspx
Date of entry/update: 18 October 2017